DESTRUCTION and DEVASTATION delivered with precision. The aftermath clears the land of all the “undesirables” and makes way for their luxurious lifestyles.
Over the last 40 years I have watched the world I live in transmogrify before my very eyes. It has reached the point where I don’t even recognize it any more. There is not a single thing about this current world that is pure, honest, or real. The deception is rampant everywhere. The globalists have taken control of all media, education, and medical industry. They have run our economies into the ground in a cold and calculated manner Just like a spouse who is beat down by their abuser, the everyday people around the world are so busy fighting fires in their lives, they have nothing left. They cannot even see let alone understand what is happening around them. They have been conditioned to believe that all of this is NORMAL.
You may have seen the news coverage of what happened in Acapulco this past week. It is unbelievable. Watch the following videos so that you can appreciate that is event is so OUT OF THE NORMAL they could not even come up with an excuse or an explanation for the devastation suffered by the people of Mexico.
PLEASE HELP! If you are able to send funds to help the people of Acapulco, send to:
Our weather is out of control. It started right after WWII when the began to develop the technologies to manipulate the weather. They have been developing those technologies since that time and have employed them successfully. NOW it is all about collecting data to feed into AI which will control the weather going forward.
Even if you are unwilling to believe that weather manipulation and weather control is happening right now, watch the following videos anyway. Watch them and keep in mind what you see as you move through the rest of this post. IT IS VITAL FOR YOUR FUTURE!! The elite are using the lie of CLIMATE CHANGE to drive you into oblivion. If you don’t wake up and recognize the lies for what they are you will end up losing everything, including your very soul! You may not believe you have a soul, but one day very soon, you will find out. Your eternal soul will end up either with GOD or with Satan.
The reason for this post is to give you the facts that you need to come to the realization that you have been duped. They media and the “scientists” keep denying the truth. They tell you that they are not manipulating the weather. They tell you it is not possible. Even while they use the weather as a weapon to herd you into their global web/trap/prison.
In this next section, I have pulled together a sampling of articles and videos that should give you an idea of how long they have been using weather control technology and how it has developed over the years. Once you grasp the truth of what can be done you can recognize that the weather disasters that have been destroying lives, economies and the landscape for the last 40 years have not been naturally occurring. Neither have the been due to what has been referred to as “Globally COOLING”, “Global Warming” or “CLIMATE CHANGE”. They have nothing to do with CO2, animal farts, or greedy humans. ‘
This has occurred over decades as part of a very carefully planned and executed AGENDA for world dominance.
The April 3 flight from California’s Barstow/Daggett Airport reached an altitude of 37 kilometers (121,000 feet) and took measurements as part of a program established to correlate data with the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).
The data from the balloon flight will also be compared to readings from the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment which is currently flying onboard the shuttle Discovery.
“We launch these balloons several times a year as part of an ongoing ozone research program. In fact, JPL is actively involved in the study of ozone and the atmosphere in three important ways,” said Dr. Jim Margitan, principal investigator on the balloon research campaign.
“There are two JPL instruments on the UARS satellite,” he continued. “The ATMOS experiment is conducted by JPL scientists, and the JPL balloon research provides collaborative ground truth for those activities, as well as data that is useful in its own right.“
The measurements taken by the balloon payload will add more pieces to the complex puzzle of the atmosphere, specifically the mid-latitude stratosphere during winter and spring. Understanding the chemistry occurring in this region helps scientists construct more accurate computer models which are instrumental in predicting future ozone conditions.
The scientific balloon payload consisted of three JPL instruments: an ultraviolet ozone photometer which measures ozone as the balloon ascends and descends through the atmosphere; a submillimeterwave limb sounder which looks at microwave radiation emitted by molecules in the atmosphere; and a Fourier transform infrared interferometer which monitors how the atmosphere absorbs sunlight.
Launch occurred at about noontime, and following a three hour ascent, the balloon floated eastward at approximately 130 kilometers per hour (70 knots). Data was radioed to ground stations and recorded onboard. The flight ended at 10 p.m. Pacific time in eastern New Mexico when the payload was commanded to separate from the balloon.
“We needed to fly through sunset to make the infrared measurements,” Margitan explained, “and we also needed to fly in darkness to watch how quickly some of the molecules disappear.”
It will be several weeks before scientists will have the completed results of their experiments. They will then forward their data to the UARS central data facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland for use by the UARS scientists.
The balloon was launched by the National Scientific Balloon Facility, normally based in Palestine, Tex., operating under a contract from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. The balloon was launched in California because of the west-to-east wind direction and the desire to keep the operation in the southwest.
The balloons are made of 20-micron (0.8 mil, or less than one-thousandth of an inch) thick plastic, and are 790,000 cubic meters (28 million cubic feet) in volume when fully inflated with helium (120 meters (400 feet) in diameter). The balloons weigh between 1,300 and 1,800 kilograms (3,000 and 4,000 pounds). The scientific payload weighs about 1,300 kilograms (3,000) pounds and is 1.8 meters (six feet) square by 4.6 meters (15 feet) high.
The JPL balloon research is sponsored by NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Program and the UARS Correlative Measurements Program.
ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) sets sail and takes flight
What if you could better prepare for a drought or flood? Researchers are hoping to find more answers during a new field campaign—ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX)—sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. As mentioned in a recent Nature article, this campaign is the biggest push to date to understand the phenomena of atmospheric rivers—long and concentrated bands of water vapor originating from the tropics that often result in extreme precipitation and flooding when they hit land—which have received serious scientific attention in the past decade. ACAPEX aims to improve the understanding and modeling of cloud and precipitation processes associated with atmospheric rivers and aerosol-cloud interactions that have important effects on precipitation. Over the next six weeks during ACAPEX, DOE’s second ARM mobile facility (AMF2) and ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) will be collecting data to improve computer models that predict extreme events in a changing climate. Collaborating with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) field campaign called CalWater2, ACAPEX includes instruments on a NOAA ship traversing the Pacific Ocean in search of atmospheric rivers and on a DOE-sponsored plane flying into clouds over land and sea.
“We are collecting these data to improve computer models of rain that represent many complex processes and their interactions with the environment,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Ruby Leung, lead scientist for ACAPEX. “Atmospheric rivers contribute most of the heavy rains along the coast and mountains in the West. We want to capture those events better in our climate models used to project changes in extreme events in the future.”
In a typical winter, a few atmospheric rivers account for 30-50% of the annual perception in California. With more accurate modeling of atmospheric rivers, scientists can improve understanding and predictions of climate changes that affect specific regions of the globe. Researchers are looking for new insights into how precipitation processes associated with atmospheric rivers can also be influenced by different sources of aerosols particles.
Storm Chasing-West Coast Style
The team will be at the mercy of the weather during the next few weeks. When an atmospheric river forms, researchers will sail the research ship to follow it and collect data. Four aircraft—the NOAA WP-3D and G-IV, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ER-2, and the DOE-sponsored Gulfstream-1 (G-1)—will also be launched and coordinated to collect data through the clouds at various elevations by flying in stacked formations.
NOAA’s research vessel Ronald H. Brown was launched in the Pacific Ocean on January 15, 2015, with the AMF2 installed on board. The G-1, operated by the ARM Aerial Facility, also took its first liftoff out of Sacramento, California, where it is making routine flights over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and coastal California and over the AMF2 on the Ron Brown as it nears San Francisco and Bodega Bay, California.
“The G-1 already completed three research flights out of McClellan, California, with one exciting flight on January 20 that was coordinated with the NASA ER-2, ” said Beat Schmid, ARM Aerial Facility Technical Director. “There are sure to be interesting data from these three flights.”For more information, see the Scripps’ press release and PNNL’s press release.
When California gets a big storm, it likely started in the tropics a week before. The narrow corridors of water vapor are called atmospheric rivers, or AR’s. Get too many, California gets floods; too few, drought. Scientists have also discovered AR’s (Atmospheric Rivers) need to hold little particles called aerosols. (So, without all the aerosols that scientists have been forcing into our atmosphere, Atmospheric Rivers would not be suddenly so prolific!)
“If they don’t have the little particles in the air for the cloud droplets to initially grow on, or to take the cloud drops and turn them into ice, all that water vapor – much of it is going to go right past us and we’re not going to receive the benefit of that,” says Marty Ralph with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego.
(Instruments on plane wing of NOAA aircraft are able to sample water vapor. Amy Quinton / Capital Public Radio)
A research project, called “CalWater 2015,” will study those little particles in atmospheric rivers and how they influence precipitation. Ralph, along with scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Pacific Northwest National Lab, and NASA will gather that data from aircraft, ships, and ground stations as atmospheric rivers strike the West Coast. The next AR is this week.
“We’re going fly tomorrow with the NOAA G4 and it’s going to sample the river well off shore, and then on Friday the atmospheric river is going to pass over where we have the ship parked,” says Allen White, a research meteorologist with NOAA. “So we’ll take advantage of that to fly all of our aircraft above the ship so we get a full three-dimensional picture of the atmospheric river as it passes over the ship, which has never been done before. That’s really cool.”
(Lasers are used to capture water vapor samples to understand atmospheric rivers. Amy Quinton / Capital Public Radio)
The project is designed to improve the ability to forecast the arrival, intensity and strength of precipitation over water and land. Understanding the atmospheric rivers can help improve flood and drought management in California and throughout the west.
SACRAMENTO — Finally, it had arrived: the long band of atmospheric water vapor from the tropics that scientists were eager to examine from every conceivable angle.
“This is the big blockbuster event,” Cmdr. Mark Sweeney said shortly before he guided a federal research plane named Miss Piggy into a puffy, pewter-colored blanket of clouds that spread across Northern California.
The P-3 Orion aircraft was part of an unprecedented research effort that sampled and measured two atmospheric river storms that gave half the state a welcome soaking a week ago. Four planes, a ship, ground equipment and even space satellites collected a mountain of data as the sky rivers rolled in from the Pacific Ocean.
Atmospheric rivers form all over the globe. But there has been growing interest in the West Coast storms as scientists recognize the vital role they play in the yo-yo water supply of the nation’s most populous state. Their presence or absence can break or make a drought. Knowing when and where they will arrive and how much rain and snow they are likely to dump is crucial information for water managers.
A strong sky river can carry a load of water vapor equivalent to more than 10 times the flow of the lower Mississippi River. When the ribbons of moisture slam into California’s coastal ranges and the Sierra Nevada, they rise and condense into rain and snow, delivering on average 40% of the state’s annual precipitation. Atmospheric rivers have ended roughly a third or more of state droughts since the middle of the last century, according to a recent study.
The pair of storms that barreled into Northern California over the course of four days weren’t big enough to bust the current prolonged drought. But they dumped as much as 15 inches of rain on the mountains of Shasta County. After a parched January, they pushed precipitation totals back to normal levels for this time of year in the northern watersheds that supply some of the state’s most important reservoirs.
Miss Piggy, a federal “Hurricane Hunter” plane loaded with sophisticated meteorological instruments bolted to the floor, took off from McClellan Airfield at 7 a.m., just as the pastel colors of the rising sun were being swallowed by the gray clouds of the advancing storm front.
On board were four research scientists and the blue-suited flight crew from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. For the next seven hours they would fly through, under and above the sky river, traveling roughly 2,000 bumpy miles back and forth over the Pacific Ocean, the Coast Range and the Sacramento Valley.
All the while, radar equipment mounted on the aircraft’s exterior measured precipitation and cloud thickness. Probes attached to the wings measured the number and size of liquid cloud droplets. Another of the plane’s radar devices measured the height of ocean waves.
At various points over the Pacific, the NOAA crew loaded two types of disposable instruments into a chute and released them with a whoosh from Miss Piggy’s belly.
Dropsondes, compact cylinders outfitted with sensors that transmit data back to the plane in real time, measured temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity and winds as they parachuted 8,000 feet to the white-capped sea.
Larger cylinders called airborne expendable bathythermographs, or AXBTs, opened up when they hit the water, unfurling probes that transmitted the temperature at the ocean surface and more than 1,000 feet below it.
All that was just one part of the scientific attack mounted that day. “This is an unprecedented interrogation of an atmospheric river event in landfall,” said Ryan Spackman, an atmospheric chemist and NOAA contractor from Boulder, Colo., who was the lead researcher on the flight.
Three other federal research planes were also in the air. One sampled the composition of atmospheric aerosols, tiny particles at the center of every cloud droplet. The other two aircraft recorded conditions at higher altitudes than Miss Piggy, which mostly flew through the river’s core.
On the Pacific, a NOAA research vessel, the Ronald H. Brown, collected weather and ocean data about 230 miles offshore. A space satellite measured surface winds over the sea, and the International Space Station focused a laser beam on the clouds to discern how dust aerosols were mixing over the ocean. Meanwhile, a ground-based network of instruments sampled conditions at various locations.
Scientists involved in the effort say no atmospheric river in history has been as thoroughly poked, dissected and analyzed as the one that hit Northern California on Feb. 6.
The view didn’t change much as Sweeney directed Miss Piggy along a rectangular fight path that started over the Pacific west of the Bay Area and then shot inland to the northeast. Rivulets of water slid across the portals as the plane cut though pale clouds, flying alternately at 8,000 and 10,000 feet above the soggy landscape.
For one long stretch over the ocean, Sweeney spiraled down to 1,000 feet, bringing the swells of the dark, choppy Pacific into view.
For the researchers monitoring instruments on board, riding the river as it made landfall was a thrill of their careers. “Flying the dream,” Spackman wrote in a message to other mission scientists.
The complex choreography of research craft was years in the making — part of an ongoing federal-state project called CalWater that is studying atmospheric rivers and the role that aerosols play in California’s snow and rainfall. The first phase ran from 2009 to 2011. The second phase was launched last year and will extend to 2018.
This year’s field campaign, which began in January and will end in March, is costing roughly $10 million, most of it provided by the federal government.
Scientists from NOAA, the Department of Energy, NASA, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, the state Department of Water Resources and other agencies are trying to better understand how atmospheric rivers evolve as they encounter the state’s up-and-down topography. They are also researching how the composition of aerosols, which can be natural or man-made, influences the amount of rain and snow that clouds release.
The rich array of data being collected “will give us all the pieces of the puzzle to really start to take our understanding of things to the next level,” said project co-leader Kim Prather, a Scripps scientist who is studying aerosols this winter at a Bodega Bay site.
The researchers hope to improve forecasting that can help California water managers plan for big storms that could cause flooding or suddenly swell reservoirs. They hope to also better understand how climate change will affect atmospheric rivers and the state’s water supply.
Shortly after 2 p.m., Miss Piggy landed at McClellan in a steady rain. Spackman was smiling as the flight crew and researchers gathered for a short debriefing before walking down the stairs onto the wet runway.
“We made history,” he said.
Atmospheric rivers are important mechanisms for transporting water vapor through the atmosphere outside the tropics. These long, narrow, transient corridors occur at low altitudes just ahead of the cold front in midlatitude cyclone systems. These rivers in the sky stitch together the components of the extratropical water cycle by providing large-scale horizontal water vapor transport.
Scientists’ understanding of the evolution, characteristics, geographic distribution, and hydrologic impacts of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in western North America, South America, and Europe has grown explosively in recent years. In June, experts from around the world met in La Jolla, Calif., to survey the state of atmospheric river science.
A highlight of the workshop was discussions of the relationships among ARs, warm conveyor belts (WCBs), and tropical moisture exports (TMEs). These components of large-scale water vapor transport have been the focus of recent studies in North America, Andean South America, and western Europe, but the studies vary in focus and often do not integrate information on all three components. By drawing together specialists on each component, workshop participants were able to clarify the distinct and complementary roles the three elements play in vapor transport outside the tropics.
The group reached consensus on definitions of each component. Specifically, the WCB refers to the zone of dynamically uplifted heat and vapor transport close to a midlatitude cyclone. The vapor is often transported to the WCB by an AR, and the result of the uplift is heavy rainout that generally marks the downwind end of AR conditions if the AR hasn’t experienced orographic uplift (upslope flow) and rainout over mountains earlier along its approach to the WCB.
TMEs are zones of intense vapor transport out of the tropics, vapor that is frequently conducted by ARs toward cyclones and WCBs. TMEs can provide important vapor sources for ARs, but most ARs also incorporate midlatitude sources and convergences of vapor along their paths.
Participants discussed how ARs can be the pathways that connect TMEs to WCBs or orographically induced rainouts (Figure 1). However, ARs, TMEs, and WCBs also can form separately and without direct connections to each other. This taxonomy will emerge more fully in peer-reviewed literature as participants pursue collaborations initiated at the workshop.
Plans were made for special sessions A33I and A53F at the 2015 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and for the first International Atmospheric Rivers Conference, to be held in summer 2016 at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The conference will be open to scientists from around the world with the aim of continuing collaboration on the breakthroughs that are rapidly emerging in this field.
The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
—Michael Dettinger, U.S. Geological Survey National Research Program, Carson City, Nev.; email: email@example.com; and F. Martin Ralph and David Lavers, Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.
Citation: Dettinger, M., F. M. Ralph, and D. Lavers (2015), Setting the stage for a global science of atmospheric rivers, Eos, 96, doi:10.1029/2015EO038675. Published on 3 November 2015.
WASHINGTON — To help solve the problem of California’s long-running drought, NOAA scientist Chris Fairall of Colorado took a trip last month to one of the wettest places he could find: a ferocious winter storm about 800 miles west of San Francisco.
There, for five straight days, Fairall and the rest of the research team aboard the ship Ronald H. Brown were rocked by 18-foot waves, 35-knot winds and the relentless roll that comes with an angry Pacific Ocean.
“You couldn’t stand up without having an arm holding on to something,” said Fairall, who works for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder. “On the really rough nights, people had trouble sleeping.”
The voyage was part of a massive, two-month effort by NOAA, NASA, the Department of Energy and other partners to study how the West Coast is affected by “atmospheric rivers,” an unusual weather event that can deliver half of California’s annual precipitation.
More than 30 staff members at NOAA’s facility in Boulder have played some role in the CalWater 2015 project, a $10 million effort that — if successful — would help improve weather forecasts and enable California to better prepare for harsh conditions.
The key to the campaign is understanding atmospheric rivers — one of which was tied to the storm Fairall endured for five days.
“I was surprised there were very few people who were seasick,” he said.
Common to the Pacific Ocean but found worldwide, atmospheric rivers work as their name implies. They take water vapor from one region and then — like a fire hose or squirt gun — channel it through the air to a new spot hundreds of miles away.
Unlike normal rivers, however, atmospheric rivers aren’t pinned to an exact, continuous route — though, when they do appear, it’s often in similar areas.
The most famous example is the Pineapple Express, which got its name because it carries water from Hawaii to the West Coast at a flow rate faster than the Amazon River.
(Pineapple Express also is the name of a strain of marijuana, which Fairall said led to a few jokes at the expense of the Boulder-based team.)
Thirst for atmosphere
Scientists have studied atmospheric rivers for decades, but predicting their behavior is still difficult. Depending on the conditions, they can cause destructive storms or, when weaker, deliver “rain or snow that is crucial to water supply,” according to NOAA.
Atmospheric rivers are “an integral part of Earth’s water budget,” said Allen White, a research meteorologist at NOAA. “Their role is to remove excess heat and moisture from the tropics. But when they interact with the jet stream, they get associated with storms and then are heavy rain producers.”
In the last three years, however, a persistent ridge of high pressure has diverted atmospheric rivers from California and sent the moisture north to places such as British Columbia, he said.
The result has been parched conditions in the Golden State — so much so that California officials have debated whether to force restaurant patrons to ask for water.
“Array of assets”
Because of the importance of atmospheric rivers to California’s water supply, NOAA has made it a priority to learn more about them. In addition to the ship used by Fairall, the CalWater 2015 project has deployed aircraft from NOAA, NASA and the Department of Energy. These add to ground-based observations at field sites in California.
“We have never had this array of assets tackling the atmospheric river and precipitation problem before,” said Ryan Spackman, who works for NOAA in Boulder. It’s “unprecedented.”
As part of the campaign, Spackman said he rode NOAA’s “hurricane hunter” aircraft and flew through an atmospheric river — an experience he compared to whitewater rafting. “We were skimming the bottom of the cloud,” he said.
His role has been investigating how aerosols affect atmospheric rivers. Aerosols, which range from sea salt to sulfates, are believed to affect levels of rainfall. As part of CalWater 2015, Spackman is examining whether man-made aerosols and natural aerosols have different impacts on the atmospheric rivers.
Because of its mix of the two, the California coast is a “great laboratory” for studying aerosols, he said.
As it stands, aerosol measurements are not included in forecasting models used by the National Weather Service. But Spackman said the research being done as part of CalWater 2015 could change that — and, in turn, make forecasts more accurate.
“We are a long way from that, but this is where you start,” he said.
Going with the flow
So how would this help California?
For one, improved weather forecasts would help water managers better plan for the future, White said.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers manages dozens of reservoirs and dams in California and — to reduce the risk of flooding — often is required to “release” thousands of gallons or more of water. With better forecasts, the Corps could be more precise with its water policy, he said.
One way to do that is better understand the mechanics of atmospheric rivers.
While aboard the Ronald H. Brown, Fairall said he observed very little interaction between the atmospheric river and the ocean below — which suggests the moisture running through the river primarily came from the tropics.
“It tells us what’s formed in the tropics is what’s in there,” Fairall said.
The observation is sure to become another data point in the ongoing effort to decode the Pineapple Express and other atmospheric rivers. Indeed, White said there has been talk of a future mission to the tropical “breeding grounds” of atmospheric rivers.
“It would be great to do that,” he said.
Mark K. Matthews: 202-662-8907, mmatthews@ denverpost.com or twitter.com/mkmatthews
RENO, Nev. (July 14, 2017) – Recently published research led by atmospheric scientists at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) demonstrates a connection between the occurrence of atmospheric river (AR) events and avalanche fatalities in the West.
Published in the May issue of the Journal of Hydrometeorology, the pilot study assessed avalanche reports, weather station data, and a catalog of AR data from a previous study to determine that AR conditions were present for 105 unique avalanches between 1998 and 2014, resulting in 123 fatalities (31 percent of all western avalanche fatalities during this time frame).
Atmospheric Rivers, as described by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are “relatively long, narrow regions in the atmosphere – like rivers in the sky – that transport most of the water vapor outside of the tropics.”
When ARs make landfall on the West Coast of the US they release water vapor as rain or snow, supplying 30 to 50 percent of annual precipitation in the West and contributing to cool season (November to April) extreme weather events and flooding.
Researchers conclude that the intense precipitation associated with AR events is paralleled by an increase in avalanche fatalities. Coastal regions experience the highest percentage of avalanche fatalities during AR conditions; however, the ratio of avalanche deaths during AR conditions to the total number of AR days is actually higher further inland, in states like Colorado and Utah.
“Although ARs are less frequent in inland locations, they have relatively more important roles in intermountain and continental regions where snowpacks are characteristically weaker and less capable of supporting heavy rain or snowfall,” explained Benjamin Hatchett, a postdoctoral fellow of meteorology at DRI and lead author on the study.
“This means that avalanche forecasters, ski resort employees, backcountry skiers, and emergency managers who have an increased awareness of forecasted AR conditions can potentially reduce exposure to resultant avalanche hazards, particularly if snowpack conditions already indicate weakness,” he added.
The study also reports that shallow snowpacks weakened by persistent cold and dry weather can produce deadly and widespread avalanche cycles when combined with AR conditions. Climate projections indicate that this combination is likely to become more frequent in the mid- to late- 21st century, which could create significant avalanche risk to winter backcountry enthusiasts in the West. (How would they know that?)
“With increasing numbers of recreational backcountry users and changing mountain snowpack conditions, we might expect the future to be characterized by enhanced exposure to avalanche hazard throughout the western United States,” Hatchett said. “Our results provide motivation to further increase public awareness about avalanche threats during AR events.”
Including integrated vapor transport (IVT) forecasting tools in analyses of avalanche danger, researchers suggest, could potentially allow experts to increase the accuracy of avalanche forecasts when AR conditions are present. These tools can identify structure and movement of ARs when they make landfall, and also model how ARs move inland through gaps in mountainous terrain and cause heavy precipitation further inland.
“Our study provides motivation for additional examinations of avalanche data and meteorological conditions,” Hatchett said. “Our team recommends that following all, but especially fatal, avalanches, as much detailed information should be recorded as possible so that the field can continue to learn about the relationship between atmospheric river events and avalanches.”
The full version of the study – “Avalanche Fatalities during Atmospheric River Events in the Western United States” – is available online at the link below. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0219.1
LA JOLLA, Calif. (AFNS) — Members of the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron “Hurricane Hunters” met with scientists from the University of California San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography Nov. 29, 2017, to discuss plans for participating in atmospheric river reconnaissance missions in early 2018.
Hurricane Hunters discuss atmospheric river missions with Scripps scientists
Maj. Ashley Lundry, 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron aerial reconnaissance weather officer and chief scientific officer, shows a weather data-gathering instrument called a dropsonde to Dr. Fred “Marty” Ralph, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Center of Western Weather and Water Extremes researcher and director, Nov. 29, 2017, at Brown Field Airport, San Diego. Hurricane Hunters met with Ralph and other Scripps scientists that day to discuss plans for participating in atmospheric river reconnaissance missions in early 2018. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Ryan Labadens) PHOTO BY:
Hurricane Hunters discuss atmospheric river missions with Scripps scientists
Maj. Ryan Rickert, 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron aerial reconnaissance weather officer, relates how the 53rd WRS “Hurricane Hunters” gather weather data to students and researchers from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography Nov. 29, 2017, at Brown Field Airport, San Diego. Hurricane Hunters met with Scripps scientists that day to discuss plans for participating in atmospheric river reconnaissance missions in early 2018. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Ryan Labadens) PHOTO BY:
The trusty weather balloon has been an essential data tool for forecasters for nearly 90 years.
NOAA’s National Weather Service has launched these balloons since the 1930s to collect temperature, humidity and other data in the upper atmosphere as they sail through the troposphere and stratosphere.
Fitted with special data transmitters called radiosondes, balloons are launched twice a day at 92 sites across the U.S., including 13 in Alaska. Alaska launches generate data that are especially important to support downstream forecasts for the Lower 48 states.
The NWS is piloting an initiative in Alaska to automate the process of releasing weather balloons. Autolaunch systems are being deployed across Alaska through July 2020, with some already in service.
Why switch to automation? Here are six reasons why it makes good business sense:
1. Saves money
Who doesn’t love saving a buck? How about $1 million a year? That’s how much federal tax money the NWS anticipates will be saved by using autolaunchers in Alaska in the long run. This translates to $20 million in taxpayer savings over the lifespan of the Alaska autolaunch network.
It’s also cost-neutral. The initial purchase and installation of the Alaska autolaunch stations comes at no cost to taxpayers, as they are funded exclusively by the sale of government spectrum.
2. Saves time
Autolaunchers will allow NWS’ Alaska program to move into a modern staffing model better aligned with the needs of community decision-makers and core partners across government. Staff who currently spend up to four hours per day at each site launching weather balloons will be able to refocus their work on more pressing tasks such as supporting decision-makers in the field, providing weather support for emerging needs in the Arctic or for forecasting and communicating about ocean and ice, aviation weather, volcanic ash and tsunamis.
3. Improves data quality and availability
Autolaunchers are kind of like the postal carrier: No matter what the weather, they deliver. Manual launches in Alaska can sometimes be disrupted due to staff shortages. Autolaunchers ensure that balloons are launched as planned – twice a day at every site, every day of the year.
Automation also makes it easier to launch extra balloons to collect more data ahead of major weather events.
4. Works in a wide range of climates and environments
Autolaunch technology has been proven effective worldwide over the last 20 years, from the sweltering Australian outback to sub-Arctic Finnish Lapland. Initial tests in Kodiak, Alaska, show that autolaunchers are as effective as launches by hand and have a 98-percent success rate, which beats the agency’s target by two percent.
5. Provides longer career tracks and less isolation for NWS employees
The NWS’s 11 remote Weather Service Offices in Alaska are staffed by three people solely to launch weather balloons. The geographic isolation is tough on families and results in high staff turnover and ongoing vacancies. Autolaunchers offer these employees an opportunity to gain new areas of expertise and move into jobs with better career growth potential. (So, they are not really relieving qualified staff to use their time more efficiently. They are replacing unqualified staff who are left to find a job.)
6. Operates on autopilot
Autolaunchers send up 24 balloons before they need to be restocked, taking vital upper-air observations for 12 days on autopilot. Restocking the autolauncher with balloons, gas and radiosondes only requires about an hour to accomplish.
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are filaments of extensive water vapor transport in the lower troposphere that play a crucial role in the distribution of freshwater but can also cause natural and economic damage by facilitating heavy precipitation. Here, we investigate the large-scale spatiotemporal synchronization patterns of heavy precipitation events (HPEs) over the western coast and the continental regions of North America (NA), during the period from 1979 to 2018. spacer
If you think that all the technology we see today has never been seen in previous eras you should really do some research. There is evidence of electricity, computers, flying vehicles and even alien beings way back in ANCIENT TIMES.
They keep erasing history so that they can keep repeating the same deceptions!
The DRUIDS were known to be able to manipulate the weather. Check out these excepts from Druidism; The Ancient Faith of Britain
According to legendary lore,the Druids could, by their magical powers, create clouds and mists and bring down showers of fire and blood.St. Patrick, on his way to Tara one Easter Sunday morning, chanted a hymn beseeching God to protect him against the spells of women, smiths, and Druids. In a contest which the Druids had at Tara with the celebrated Irish apostle, they are said to have caused snow to descend by means of their magical incantations.
Confused ideas are often held upon this subject of magic which does not mean deception, or cunning, or a skillful dexterity in hand-manipulation alone,though it is sometimes employed in one or other or all of these ways. Magic proper, however, means the understanding of nature, and it derived its name from the fact that this occult knowledge was
supposed to be the exclusive possession of the Magi, or wise men.The founder of Magic is claimed by the mythologists to have been Chus, the reputed founder of the Cuthites, who is also accredited by tradition to be the first to venture upon the high seas. The Greeks, however, claim that magical arts were invented in Persia, in which country the Magi applied themselves to the study of philosophy and the assiduous search after the most curious works and mysteries of Nature. These men were chosen generally to superintend divine worship and all religious rites and ceremonies ; they attended constantly upon kings to advise them in all affairs of moment and were chosen for the highest honours and places demanding the greatest trust and confidence. It was at a later stage in Persian history that their credit and esteem became diminished in consequence of their abandonment of the contemplation of nature and the betaking of themselves to the invocation of demons.
The belief that magical powers were in the possession of certain individuals was retained, as will be seen, until well on in the Christian era. Sopater, the philosopher, and friend of Constantine, was accused of binding the winds in an adverse quarter by the influence of magic, so that warships could not reach Constantinople, and, in response to ecclesiastical clamour, the Emperor was compelled to issue the order for his decapitation.
Belief in witchcraft can be traced to Druidism, and some of the practices attributed to witches after all traces of Druidical worship and customs were supposed to have died out are nevertheless exact, or almost exact, reproductions of the practices attributed to the Druids by earlier authorities. More than one writer has stated that the Scottish witch is the direct descendant of the Druidess, and, according to Pomponius Mela, the Druidesses of the Isle of Sena could grant fair winds or raise tempests, and, in 1792, the author of the Statistical Account of the Hebrides stated that in the island of Gigha it was believed that by performing certain ceremonies at a fountain there, persons thus initiated into its mysteries could cause the wind to blow from any quarter desired.
With all their claims that they MAIN GOAL is to be better at predicting the weather, they just have not impressed me with their progress. For all the billions of dollars and time they have spent researching and all the data they have collected along with the AI algorithms and scenarios created by them you would expect much more.
If you are as old as I, you likely remember the Farmer’s Almanac. For many years Farmers and anyone who needed to know what to expect from the weather used this tool. It was AMAZINGLY Accurate, and served the public well. I would say as good if not much better than the current forecasts. And they forecast two weeks or more in advance. For some predictions years in advance.
In 1846: The Farmers Almanac was: America’s leading periodical by outselling and outlasting the competition.
by 1863: The Almanac had a circulation of : 225,000!
in 1938: The edition had a circulation of only 88,000, because the new editor dropped the weather forecasts! In their place, he substituted temperature and precipitation averages.
in 1939: The Old Farmer’s Almanac had a new owner and editor and immediately reestablished its format and editorial style
in the early 1990s: The Almanac passed the four million circulation mark
In 2000: The Old Farmer’s Almanac moved firmly into the digital age: Almanac.com has 84 million unique visitors, reaching 1 in every 6 Americans, and 1 in 5 Canadians, online.
Before the era of modern weather forecasting, it was the best resource for farmers in keeping abreast of seasonal weather shifts, planting times, and other general agriculture reference points.
Two years ago, NPR examined the accuracy of the “Old Farmers Almanac” and, citing a study by Penn State meteorologist Paul Knight, found that it just wasn’t up to snuff. “It’s just not possible to do that consistently,” he told NPR. Source
Before the Internet—and I mean long, long, long before the Internet—an almanac was a radical, high-tech object.
It must have seemed, to the people of the 1792, when The Farmer’s Almanac was founded, something like what a smartphone is to people today: a handheld, portable device that contained information about all manner of things—health advice, weather predictions, jokes, recipes, charts detailing the times of sunrises and sunsets, and other “new, useful, and entertaining” tidbits, as the cover promised.
The Farmers’ Almanac is a well-known publication that has been around for centuries. It is widely respected for its accurate weather predictions and forecasts. But how does the Farmers’ Almanac predict the weather?
One essential factor that we consider in our extended weather forecasts is the influence of our celestial companion, the Moon. As students of meteorology know, the Sun’s rays warm Earth’s atmosphere, leading to the exchange of heat and vapor between the surface and the air. This produces the weather phenomena we experience and call “weather.” The Moon acts as a “meteorological swizzle stick,” occasionally stirring up atmospheric disturbances with its cyclical and predictable movements.
In addition to studying natural cycles, meteorologists also use the technique of comparing past weather patterns to current conditions to forecast future weather. This approach, known as analog forecasting, provides valuable insights into potential weather events.
The Farmers’ Almanac Weather Formula
The Farmers’ Almanac weather predictions are based on a formula originally developed in 1818 by our foundering editor, David Young. This formula incorporates many of the various techniques mentioned here, as well as sunspot activity, tidal action of the Moon, the position of the planets, and more. To safeguard this valuable formula, the editors of the Farmers’ Almanac keep its weather prognosticator – Caleb Weatherbee- identity and the exact formula as brand secrets.
While some may question how a publication that started over 200 years ago can make such accurate extended weather forecasts, the Farmers’ Almanac editors like to remind everyone that this formula has been time-tested, challenged, and approved for centuries. The Farmers’ Almanac is the oldest source of consecutively published weather forecasts, even longer than the National Weather Service.
Unlike your local news, government, or commercial weather service, the Almanac’s forecasts are calculated two years in advance. Once the new edition is printed, the editors never go back to change or update its forecasts the way other local sources do.
Though weather forecasting, and long-range forecasting, in particular, remains an inexact science, many longtime Almanac followers maintain that our forecasts are 80% to 85% accurate.
1986-1987, 1991-1992, 1993, 1994, 1997-1998 and 2015-2016. The rapid succession of El Niños beginning in the early 1990’s was unusual. La Niña, where the water is cooler than normal, is indicated by blue colors.
What is La Niña?
For ENSO, that period is typically between 3 and 7 years. Its opposite counterpart is El Niño, which has warmer-than-normal (0.5°C or greater) sea surface
“probably a better option” when describing the phenomenon behind a bomb cyclone, mentions of bombs and explosive impacts have been common for decades among meteorologists.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration defines the “bomb” phenomenon as being a mid-latitude cyclone that rapidly intensifies as cold air collides with warm air, typically over warmer ocean waters. This process causes a steep drop in atmospheric pressure of at least 24 millibars over 24 hours. Source
The related terms “bomb cyclone” and “weather bomb” emerged in the mid-1980s, but only recently made their way into popular journalism. Two MIT scientists, Frederick Sanders and John R.Gyakum, gave these intense and rapidly growing cyclone storms the name “bomb.”
What is bombogenesis?
In simple terms, bombogenesis is a storm (low pressure area) that undergoes rapid strengthening. The vast majority of such storms occur over the ocean. The storm can be tropical or non-tropical in nature.
Other common phrases for bombogenesis include weather bomb, or simply bomb cyclone.
The term bombogenesis comes from the merging of two words: bomb and cyclogenesis.All storms are cyclones, and genesis means the creation or beginning. In this case, bomb refers to explosive development. Altogether the term means explosive storm strengthening.
A cyclone (non-tropical storm or hurricane) is essentially a giant rising column of air that spins counterclockwise over the Northern Hemisphere.
The Superstorm of 1993 (Storm of the Century) from March 12-13 is a prime example of a storm that underwent bombogenesis. The storm strengthened from 29.41 inches (996 mb) to 28.45 inches (963 mb), or nearly 1.00 inch (33 mb), in 24 hours. Much of this strengthening occurred over land.
These are all terms that the general public had not even heard of in my generation. And it is funny that all these changes have occurred since WWII… the same time as all the changes in our DNA and in our FOOD. At the same time as all the new Technology that has taken over our lives. The same time as the Hadron Collider.