Our Address, seems a mundane subject. Something we take for granted and use everyday. We know that it is important if we want to receive mail, but we think little of it other than that. Unfortunately, we have been oblivious to the the most significant purpose for our address. Hopefully by the time you finish this article you will have a clearer picture.
DISCLAIMER: In my posts I normally collect a number of written articles and videos related to the topic. I hightlight in red or black the parts of the articles that I think are important to note and try to leave it to the reader to come to their own conclusions. The object is to bring the facts/truths to your attention and cause you to look further into them yourself. Why? Because that is the only way to make the subject real to you. When you view the available information, search it our on your own, hopefully guided by the Holy Spirit, YOUR CONCLUSION is exactly that YOURS. It means something to you. It may be similar to mine or it may be completely different. We are all on our own course and in different places with our spiritual development. I pray that GOD speaks to you in a way that touches you. IF you see notes in green, those are my comments. Anything else, you find the source links on the titles, and the author and date will be below the titles. Just because I post an article or video in my articles, it does not mean that I agree with the author or support their stand. It does mean that I felt there was worthwhile information to be gleaned.
From Middle English adressen (“to raise erect, adorn”), from Old French adrecier (“to straighten, address”) (modern French adresser), from a- (from Latin ad (“to”)) + drecier (modern French dresser (“to straighten, arrange”)) < Vulgar Latin *dīrectiō, from Latin dīrectus (“straight or right”), from the verb dīrigō, itself from regō (“to govern, to rule”). Cognate with Spanish aderezar (“to garnish; dress (food); to add spices”).
address (plural addresses)
- (obsolete) Guidance; help. [15th–17th c.]
- (chiefly in the plural, now archaic) A polite approach made to another person, especially of a romantic nature; an amorous advance. [from 16th c.] quotations ▼
- A manner of speaking or writing to another; language, style. [from 16th c.]
a man of pleasing or insinuating address
- A formal approach to a sovereign, especially an official appeal or petition; later (specifically) a response given by each of the Houses of Parliament to the sovereign’s speech at the opening of Parliament. [from 17th c.]
- An act of addressing oneself to a person or group; a discourse or speech, or a record of this. [from 17th c.] quotations ▼
- A description of the location of a property, usually with at least a street name and number, name of a town, and now also a postal code; such a description as superscribed for direction on an envelope or letter. [from 17th c.] quotations ▼
The President’s address is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.
- (by extension) The property itself. [from 19th c.]
I went to his address but there was nobody there.
(computing) A number identifying a specific storage location in computer memory; a string of characters identifying a location on the internet or other network; sometimes (specifically) an e-mail address. [from 20th c.]
The program will crash if there is no valid data stored at that address.
House numbers are an aspect of modern life that we take for granted, but they are a relatively recent invention (and still far from universal).
In an age before literacy became widespread, houses, shops and businesses were identified, like pubs, by signs – the Golden Cross, the White Hart, the Lamb and Flag – fixed to their walls or hanging from a bracket.
They often featured animals, heraldic devices, or referred to a trade.
Balzac’s novella La Maison du chat-qui-pelote (“At the Sign of the Cat and Racket”) refers to the sign of a Paris cloth merchant, while the name of the Rothschild banking dynasty comes from the red shield (Roth Schild in Old German) that hung outside their premises in Frankfurt. The old house signs that can still be seen in Prague sometimes feature exotic animals such as ostriches and elephants.
Pity the postmen
While picturesque, the custom had its disadvantages. The location of a certain address was unlikely to be known beyond the immediate neighbourhood, and the duplication of signs caused confusion – at the end of the 18th century, for example, there were six buildings in central Vienna called Zum Goldenen Adler (At the Golden Eagle), and another 23 in the suburbs.
Hanging signs also kept people awake at night when they creaked in the wind,knocked riders from their horses and occasionally fell on the heads of passers-by. As a result, England passed a law in 1762 banning large projecting signs. In 1797 all projecting signs were forbidden, although some establishments, notably pubs, barbers and pawnbrokers, maintain the tradition to this day.
What really spelt the end for the old signs was the spread of house numbers throughout Europe in the course of the 18th century.
The development was characteristic of the classifying, rationalistic spirit of the Enlightenment; and was also made necessary by the burgeoning urban populations of the Industrial Revolution and the bureaucratic apparatus of the modern state,with its postal systems, police forces, censuses, taxation and conscription. It did away with the secretive mediaeval city quarters, where the location and the occupants of a building were known only to its neighbours.
In a few cities in Europe, house numbers had been introduced much earlier. The houses that stood on the Pont Nôtre-Dame in Paris had numbers in the 15th century, while the buildings of the Fuggerei in Augsburg – a block of low-rent tenements for the poor – were numbered by 1519. The purpose of these schemes was usually to establish property ownership, however, rather than for convenience of addressing.
Prescott Street, where numbers were introduced early, as shown on John Rocque’s 1746 map of London
In the 18th century the first street numbering schemes were applied across Europe, to make it easier to police, tax or recruit their inhabitants and to aid postal deliveries. In 1708, the topographer Edward Hatton reported in his New View of London that “at Prescott Street, Goodman’s Fields, instead of signs, the houses are distinguished by numbers.”
The growth of street numbering was also driven by the territorial ambitions Prussia. In 1737, the authorities were ordered to “fix numbers on the houses… in little villages” before the troops marched in, presumably to make billeting easier. After Frederick the Great seized Silesia from Austria in 1742, the system was extended to the conquered province, and a 1752 law decreed that “In every town little tin plates with numbers have to be produced by the city council and nailed to the houses.”
Global approaches to local
In 1787, Choderlos de Laclos, the French military engineer and author of Les Liaisons dangereuses, submitted a proposal to the Journal de Paris to number the city’s houses.The idea was not taken up until after the Revolution, when a new system of house numbering was introduced in 1790 to make it easier to collect taxes; this new system assigned numbers to houses not by streets but by districts.
A similar system was adopted in Venice. Since the 12th century, the city had been divided into districts known as sestieri. When the Austrians occupied the city between 1797 and 1805, they ordered that numbers should be painted in black on a white rectangle on all the houses. The houses were numbered not by street, but by district – a system still in use today, which causes much confusion and gives rise to very high numbers.
Comparable schemes are used today in Japan and South Korea. Each city is divided into small numbered zones, and the houses in each zone are numbered either in the order in which they were constructed, or clockwise around the block.
In St Petersburg and other Russian cities, each number above a street entry referred to a tenement, or dom, comprising not just the five or six floors of apartments fronting the street, but the warren of buildings in the courtyards beyond. The system is also found in a number of central and Eastern European counties.
According to the system followed in most European countries, odd and even numbers alternate on each side of the street, usually with the odd numbers on the left. When buildings were added after a street had been numbered, this could give rise to some interesting curiosities. In Camberwell Church Street in south London, the Victorian police station (now disused) was built between nos. 22 and 24, and numbered 22½ – later, more prosaically known as 22A.
Before the mid-19th century, it was common in England for numbers to run sequentially along one side of the road and then back down the other – this “horseshoe system” can still be found in Pall Mall in London, and the Kurfürstendamm in Berlin.
In the United States, town planners were not constricted by winding mediaeval street plans, and began to build cities such as Philadelphia on a grid. This allowed them to introduce a new method of numbering, known as the block decimal system or Philadelphia system. 100 numbers were reserved for the houses of every block of houses, with odd numbers on one side of the street and even numbers on the other. At each intersection, the numbers increased to the next 100. Not all the numbers were used, so that buildings added later could be assigned numbers within the sequence.
Do you think address systems could be improved? How?
Did you note that the whole idea of numbering building had very little to do with the ease of mail delivery. They were created to show OWNERSHIP and to COLLECT TAXES.
How Ben Franklin Established the Post Office
Aug 10, 2020
During the Revolutionary War, when there wasn’t any internet or telephones to provide instantaneous communication over long distances, the connective tissue that held the American colonies together was mail that was transported by horseback riders on the rough-hewn roads between cities and towns. Making sure that the mail was delivered as quickly and dependably as possible was critical to the colonies’ survival. That’s why three months after the battles of Lexington and Concord, the Continental Congress turned to Benjamin Franklin to establish a national post service as the first Postmaster General.
“When he was appointed postmaster general for the American confederation in 1775, it clearly showed the extent to which he was trusted by American leaders to have Americans’ best interests at heart,” (I don’t know how much you know about Ben Franklin, but I would not trust that man with anything, as far as I could throw him. Considering his robust figure, that would not have been very far. He was a scoundrel, a Freemason, a frequenter of the HELLFIRE Club, a pedophile and a deviate.) explains Carla J. Mulford, a professor of English at Penn State University and author of an upcoming book, Benjamin Franklin’s Electrical Diplomacy.
Franklin already had years of experience in the business of delivering mail.
Ben Franklin Kept Mail Moving Swiftly as Philadelphia Postmaster
In 1737, by age 31, Franklin had already built a prosperous business as a printer, shopkeeper and publisher of a newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette. That year he was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia, after British authorities removed his predecessor for failing to submit financial reports. As Devin Leonard notes in his book Neither Snow Nor Rain: A History of the United States Postal Service, being a local postmaster didn’t pay much—a 10 percent commission on customers’ postage—but it came with a big fringe benefit. Franklin had franking privileges, which enabled him to mail his newspaper to readers at no cost. That helped Franklin build a big circulation and turn the Pennsylvania Gazette into one of the colonies’ most successful publications.
In a similar way that modern politicians and celebrities rely on Twitter, Franklin used the mail for self-promotion. As Leonard notes, Franklin’s ability to send his own letters without paying postage—he instead simply inscribed them with “Free.B.Franklin”—enabled him to correspond with other intellectuals in Europe. That helped to publicize Franklin’s achievements, “thereby helping to make Franklin into one of the world’s most admired Americans,” as Leonard writes. Stanford University historian Caroline Winterer, who has studied the 20,000 letters left behind by Franklin, describes him as “a man with a dynamic social network” comparable to our interconnected world today.
Britain Appoints Franklin as Postmaster of 13 Colonies
Franklin, a meticulous record-keeper, was so skillful at running postal operations in Philadelphia that in 1753, the British Crown appointed him as joint postmaster for all 13 colonies. Though he nominally shared authority with William Hunter, a Virginia-based printer, Hunter pretty much let Franklin call the shots, according to Leonard’s book. Franklin held that post for more than two decades, during which he orchestrated huge improvements in mail service, including establishing a regular schedule that allowed mail to move efficiently along post roads up and down the Eastern Seaboard.
Franklin “traveled widely to inspect postal routes, find the most reliable postal clerks (so he hand picked the inspectors, friends of the Masons, no doubt.) to serve as his associates in the different towns and cities, and create a system of communication that would work well for riders of the post,” Mulford explains.
“Franklin had foresight. He was a good systems analyst,” Mulford says. “He was agreeable to work with, when others were agreeable. And he was an excellent trouble-shooter, able to figure out work-around solutions when plans went awry.” (with all his ‘friends’ and “connections” I have no doubt he was able to resolve issues quickly.)
Mail Delivery Time Is Cut, Newspaper Get Flat Rate
Eventually, by putting mail riders out on the roads at night, Franklin managed to cut the delivery time for a letter from Philadelphia to New York and receive a reply to just 24 hours.
Franklin also arranged for small, swift packet ships to transport mail to and from the West Indies and Canada, (connection to the crown came in handy.) which complemented the transatlantic service that the British Crown provided from England, and established the first home-delivery system in the colonies, according to Franklin biographer Walter Isaacson. He even set up a dead-letter office in Philadelphia to handle undeliverable mail.
Another of Franklin’s reforms—after he’d already made his own fortune—was to issue an 1758 decree that all newspapers would be transported by postal riders for the same, uniformly low rate, according to Winifred Gallagher’s book How the Post Office Created America: A History. That greatly increased the colonists’ access to information, particularly about what was going on elsewhere in the world.
As colonial postmaster, Franklin did much of his work remotely. Starting in the late 1750s, he began spending much of his time in England, where he did his job through the mail, auditing postal statements from afar and implementing his decisions by letter. The British government didn’t mind, because by 1760, the postal operation in the colonies was profitable for the first time.
But Franklin’s involvement with the growing resistance to British taxation and rule eventually caused him to run afoul of British authorities.
Leaked Letters Lead to Franklin’s Dismissal
Things came to a head after Franklin received an anonymously-sent package of letters written by Thomas Hutchinson, the British governor of Massachusetts. Franklin gave them to a friend, who then leaked them to a Boston newspaper, and they caused an uproar.
“The letters [Franklin] sent over to Massachusetts from London showed the extent to which British leaders in the colonies sought the suppression of colonists at all costs,” Mulford says. As a result, Franklin “was rudely and summarily dismissed” from his postmaster-general position in January 1774.
After Franklin returned to America, the clockwork-like postal system he’d built started to fall apart without his management skills. The colonists began to set up their own independent post offices. A former postmaster from Providence, R.I., William Goddard, set up the Constitutional Post, an alternative service that allowed colonists to send letters to one another without the risk that the Crown’s postmasters would open and read them.
After Declaration of Independence, US Post Office Is Born
Goddard tried unsuccessfully to get the Continental Congress to adopt his makeshift service as the official mail system. But the delegates wanted something bigger and better. After two months of study, in July 1775 they offered Franklin the new job of Postmaster General, at a salary of $1,000—about $33,500 in today’s dollars—and authorized him to hire a staff. He was assigned to establish a new system of postal routes from Falmouth, Massachusetts (now Portland, Maine) to Savannah, Georgia., with as many connections in between as he saw fit.
Franklin hired his son-in-law-Richard Bache as his deputy, and the disappointed Goddard as chief surveyor, and set about replicating the system that he’d built for the British Crown. As only a man who already knew the territory could do, he quickly set up new post offices and hired local postmasters to run them. Unfortunately, few documents from Franklin’s term as Postmaster General remain to provide details of his decisions. But he was so successful at taking business away from the Crown’s mail service in the colonies that by Christmas that year, it was so starved for business it had to shut down, according to Gallagher.
Franklin also took advantage of his franking privilege to send out his usual prolific output of letters, playfully replacing his franking symbol with “B. Free Franklin” to show his defiance of the British.
Franklin served as Postmaster General for only about a year. A few months after the founding fathers declared independence in July 1776, Franklin was dispatched to France to perform another important mission as an ambassador to the court of King Louis XVI. But the postal system that Franklin helped build continued to flourish, and became a critical part of the new democracy. His achievements were honored by putting him, along with George Washington, on the first U.S. postage stamps in 1847.
How many are really aware of the authority enjoyed by the Postal Inspectors. Much like the Gaming Officers, their power seems almost limitless.
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Whether you are trying to place an online order or just give directions to a friend who comes to visit, it’s essential to know your complete address. Most of us know it by heart and can say it on the spot, but not everyone is aware of what each part of the address stands for.
And why should you? Well, because not every country forms addresses in the same way and house numbering systems vary from location to location. In a time when international e-commerce is at an all time high, you might find that the online address form that a foreign online store requires you to fill in looks unfamiliar and you’re not sure where each detail should go.
So, let’s break down the components of an address, clarify the difference between a street number and an address, and why everyone should know the basics of international postal addressing.
What’s a Street Number and What’s an Address
What is a street number?
In the United States, where many streets are numbered (i.e. 10th Street, Fourth Avenue), the street number can refer to the actual number of the street.
This numbering system was developed by Pierre Charles L’Enfant and first used in Washington, followed by all the other states. Although most people associate this way of marking streets as a typical American thing, the system can be found in other parts of the world as well, such as the UAE, Hong Kong, Canada, Latin America and even Europe (Mannheim, Budapest, Lelystad just to name a few). What all these locations have in common is that they were built based on a grid pattern
However, in most cases, the street number is the number describing where a building is located on a street. It can also be listed as “house number”, but it goes without saying that businesses will not use this term when giving their address.
In most regions of the world, the buildings on each street are assigned a number so that they can be found easily. For example, in Sherlock Holmes’ address, 221B Baker St, Marylebone, London NW1 6XE, UK, 221B is the street number.
As you can see, there’s also a B after the number. This is actually a very common practice for the buildings that were divided or expanded. It’s also possible for a street number to include two numbers (i.e. 12-14 Leytonstone Road) and each number can stand for a different entrance.
In the European system, houses are assigned odd numbers on the left side of the road and even numbers on the right. Some exceptions do apply for old streets, where numbers are assigned consecutively. For example, the iconic 10 Downing Street, which is the home of the British Prime Minister, is located next to 11 Downing Street. This consecutive way of numbering is also used for buildings situated around a town square.
If you look at numbered house signs on any given street, you’ll see that they don’t usually skip numbers, but in some countries, such as Iran, number 13 is skipped because it is considered to be unlucky.
The European house numbering system is one of the most popular ones and it is used even in countries outside Europe. House signs in Australia, Mexico and Uruguay are arranged as odd on the left and even on the right.
Street numbers have an interesting history. Now, we treat them like something that has always been there, but it wasn’t actually until the 18th century that the first street numbers appeared across Europe as a way of tracking the troops in civilian homes. Interestingly, orientation, which today is the primary purpose of street numbers, was not an initial concern. Instead, local authorities used them to have better control over the resources of every household and tax it accordingly.
What is an address?
- Province – because each country has its own administrative division, provinces can be listed under different names. For example, if you’re in the U.S., you’ll list the state (Texas, California, etc). In France, they’re called departments and in Germany they’re called Lands.
- House number
- Postal code – Including the postal code in your address isn’t always required, but many postal agents ask for it because it pinpoints the exact location. Plus, if someone sends a package and doesn’t have easy to understand handwriting, the postcode clears all doubts. Depending on the region, the postcode can also be listed under different names. In the US, it’s called a ZIP Code. In Italy, it’s CAP and in Ireland, Eircode. Postcodes are made of a string of numbers and letters and look something like this: 1075 La Avenida St, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA, where 94043 is the postcode.
If you live in a house, these are all the details you need to provide when giving your address. However, if you live in an apartment or work in an office building, you will need to go into more detail and provide the following:
- Apartment number
- Box ID
- Office number or department name
Why do you need both?
Mentioning just the street and street number is obviously enough when you are giving directions to a cab driver. However, if you are placing an order online or receiving a visit from someone outside your city, the full address is essential.
It’s never an exciting prospect to have a package delayed because the postal agent does not know the complete delivery address, nor to force a foreign business partner to wander the neighborhood for hours because you did not provide the street number.
When placing online orders, it’s advisable to fill in your complete address, from the country right down to apartment number if necessary, because it’s better to be safe than sorry. Some stores have made this easier by including mandatory fields for each and every element of the address, so nothing is left to chance. However, if you are placing an order on a website with not enough address fields, include the missing details in the Additional Notes section, along with directions or delivery preferences. To be extra sure, you can contact the delivery service once the parcel ships to make sure they have all the information they need.
Swiss Post From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|(in German) Die Schweizerische Post
(in French) La Poste suisse
(in Italian) La Posta Svizzera
(in Romansh) La Posta Svizra
|Fully state-owned limited company (AG) regulated by public law|
|Roberto Cirillo, CEO wef 21/9/2018|
|Revenue||8,224 million CHF (2015)|
Number of employees
Swiss Post (French: La Poste suisse, Italian: La Posta Svizzera, German: Die Schweizerische Post, Romansh: La Posta Svizra) is the national postal service of Switzerland. A public company owned by the Swiss Confederation, it is the country’s second largest employer (after the Federation of Migros Cooperatives). The group is based in Bern.
Postal wagons at the postal sorting facility in Sion, Switzerland. Mail between regional cities is transported by rail, to be delivered by postal bus, vans and cycles at a local level.
In June 2018, Susanne Ruoff resigned as chief executive officer after its PostBus Switzerland subsidiary was accused of “manipulating its accounting and systematically concealing profits in order to collect excess subsidies.” Deputy CEO Ulrich Hurni will serve as CEO on an acting basis. Subsequently Roberto Cirillo was appointed as new CEO on 21 Nov 2018.
Whether it’s a parcel from Asia or that letter from overseas: thanks to the Universal Postal Union the world’s international postal services are like a well-oiled machine. But the organization that pulls the strings behind the scenes is largely unknown. And it, too, is part of the reason today is World Post Day, which this year celebrates its 50th anniversary.
How was European postal traffic in the 19th century? Already bustling, but pretty chaotic. Just a few private companies controlled the postal system, which was entangled in a confusing network of individual contracts. Anyone sending mail to another country in those days needed nerves of steel and patience – especially for letters and parcels going overseas.
And global postal traffic today? A global network with 5.3 million postal employees and 668,000 post offices and postal agencies. From a total of 313 billion letters a year, 3.6 billion are international, and of 14 billion parcels, 180 million are transported across borders – with a very strong upward trend (Figures are from 2017).
The Universal Postal Union – founded in Switzerland
Behind these figures is the Universal Postal Union – UPU. It was founded in Berne as the General Postal Union with 22 member countries on 9 October 1874. Visionary leaders assembled at the restaurant “Zum Äusseren Stand”. These leaders knew that an intergovernmental organization was needed to coordinate and regulate global postal traffic (see info box). They were proven right. 145 years later, the world’s second oldest international organization has 192 member states. And World Post Day, which originated on 9 October 1969, celebrates its 50th anniversary today. The day marks the year the UPU was founded as well as the importance of postal organizations worldwide.
To mark the occasion, we’re taking a look into the world of postal organizations. Because today the postal world is not only regulated and transparent, but also surprising and bizarre. So, to celebrate World Post Day, here are nine facts from the colourful world of postal services – because on the international stage, today’s postal services come in far more than just yellow.
- Over 900,000 employees
No postal organization employs more people than China Post. According to their own figures, the number stands at around 935,000. Another giant is the global operator Deutsche Post DHL, with around 547,500 employees in over 220 countries. This is followed by the United States Postal Service in the USA (around 497,000) and India Post (around 419,000).
- Old, older, oldest
Where’s the world’s oldest post office? Located in Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in the United Kingdom. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, it has been in operation since 1712. It narrowly escaped closure in 2014 and has since been renovated.
- The sky’s the limit
Many mountaineers rub their eyes in disbelief when they see this: at Mount Everest base camp in Tibet at an altitude of 5,300 metres, China Post operates a post office – from the end of April until August, depending on the weather.
- A post office under the sea
It’s no joke. The world’s only underwater post office is located in the island state of Vanuatu near Hideaway Island, about 3 metres below sea level. Here, divers can stock up with special waterproof postcards.
- Red, cylindrical and 600,000 in number
Granted, the evidence is scant. But India is said to have the highest number of letter boxes – around 600,000, mostly cylindrical and red.
- Letter boxes on the buses
On the subject of letter boxes: in Detmold, North Rhine-Westphalia, you’ll find them on every bus on routes 701 to 709. The service is catching on, and they’ve been available in the new buses running in the city since the end of September.
- More valuable than any other
9 million euros is the estimated value of the one-cent postage stamp “British Guiana 1c Magenta”. Only a few square centimetres in size, it’s made of deep red paper and features a scribbled black signature. The original motif – a ship – is barely recognizable. But the stamp, which is more than 155 years old, is reckoned to be a one-off.
- One municipality, two postcodes
Back to Switzerland: there are two enclaves within the national territory – Germany’s Büsingen am Hochrhein and Campione d’Italia on Lake Lugano. (Lugano, interesting enough that is the center of the SUPER COMPUTERS in Switzerland) Curiously, in addition to their national postcodes, both municipalities also have a Swiss postcode.
- And which postal service is the world’s best?
In 2017 and 2018, according to the UPU study “Integrated Index for Postal Development”, it was Swiss Post. And this year, once again, the company is on the top of the podium, as announced by the Universal Postal Union yesterday. Today, Wednesday, 9 October, Swiss Post CEO Roberto Cirillo will personally receive the award at the UPU headquarters in Berne. Find out here how delighted Swiss Post is about this award and what customers have to say about it.What the UPU does
The Universal Postal Union…
- regulates the international cooperation of the postal authorities, the operating framework for cross-border postal traffic and the compensation of the resulting postal charges (the so-called terminal dues);
- ensures the prompt delivery of letters and parcels across national and linguistic boundaries;
- also focuses on social issues, for example promoting writing skills for children and young people worldwide;
- is undergoing ongoing reform and will elect a new Director General at the 2020 UPU Congress;
- is the only UN organization headquartered in Berne;
- has around 250 employees from over 50 countries.
Universal Postal Union
3000 BERNE 15
Telephone: +41 31 350 31 11/ Web: www.upu.int
10 reasons why the world needs the UPU
Defender of the universal postal service, protector of the single postal territory, arbitrator, coordinator, developer, facilitator, promoter and organizer – this is what makes the Universal Postal Union continue to be a necessary and valued organization after 130 years!
1 – Maintaining a single postal territory
The 1874 Treaty of Berne that gave birth to the UPU succeeded in unifying a conflicting international maze of postal services and regulations into a single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of letter-post items, reducing the number of rates for mail between countries to a single rate for all. Within the single territory, the principle of freedom of transit for mail items is guaranteed by all parties. The membership of new countries agreeing to comply with the Regulations governing the exchange of international mail (letters, parcels and other categories) has broadened the concept of the single postal territory. Today, the UPU’s 190 member countries make up the largest physical distribution network in the world. Under the terminal dues system set up and managed by the UPU, Posts are financially compensated for handling volumes of international mail exchanged with other Posts. To appreciate the scope of this system, just imagine how many bilateral and multilateral agreements there would be without it!
2 – An international forum of cooperation
While globalization has brought countries closer together, the forces of liberalization have also brought new players into the postal arena. As a result, the UPU’s stakeholders have become a large and diverse mixture of interest groups. To accommodate them, the UPU provides a forum where all those who have an interest in the postal service can come together to discuss and find solutions to the major challenges facing the sector. Questions dealt with by the UPU bodies and working groups include postal security, postal financial services, technical cooperation, postal development, terminal dues, the universal postal service, technology and the environment. Other UPU and industry groups such as the Direct Mail Advisory Board try to energize growth sectors by following the latest developments and giving guidance through publications and workshops. The creation of a new UPU body in 2004 – the Consultative Committee – formally incorporated stakeholders from the private sector, enabling them to contribute in a concrete way to discussions on the Post‘s future.
3 – A member of the UN family
As a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1948, the UPU maintains close relations and actively cooperates with other UN organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme in the field of postal development, the United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime on combating criminal activities through the use of the mail network and the United Nations Environment Programme in promoting a “green image” of the Post, to name but a few. In order to facilitate the flow of international mail, the UPU also works closely with international organizations such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the World Customs Organization (WCO). As a member of the UN family, the UPU promotes the general aims of the United Nations, particularly its Millennium Development Goals, while representing the interests of Posts within the various UN programmes and at UN events such as the World Summit on the Information Society.
4 – Promoting universal postal service
As the first objective of the World Postal Strategy, the provision of universal postal service forms the bedrock of the UPU’s mission. It supports the idea that “all postal users enjoy the right to a universal postal service involving the permanent provision of quality basic postal services at all points in their territory, at affordable prices. Although universal service is contained in the UPU Acts, the UPU cannot prescribe to member countries and therefore seeks to ensure that they understand what is at stake and offer a service appropriate to their own local realities. Despite the fact that universal postal service has been defined in 67% of UPU member countries, there still exist disparities between countries and regions when it comes to postal service coverage. In developing countries, between 14 and 25% of the population is still without access to postal services. This contrasts sharply with the high level of universal postal service provision in industrialized countries. The UPU continues to make governments, particularly those in developing countries, more aware of their role in ensuring the provision of an extensive, good quality, affordable universal service.
5 – Promoting postal development and technical cooperation
In keeping with the spirit of the United Nations, the UPU and its members promote cooperation so that Posts may benefit from the know-how and expertise of others. Multi-year integrated projects enable developing countries, particularly those least developed, to acquire much needed operational equipment and training to improve postal operations, which can have an impact on quality of service worldwide. These projects also provide assistance in the event of disaster or calamity and involve efforts to reduce the digital divide between industrialized and developing countries. (well, we have seen how well they handle emergencies, the money and products rarely if ever reach the people who need them. They are usually intercepted by corrupt government and mercenary groups/terrorists.)
6 – Improving quality of the postal service
Increased competition and higher customer expectations continue to place pressure on Posts to make improvements to the quality of their services. The UPU undertakes worldwide quality tests, monitoring hundreds of international links through the use of test letters and parcels. It also publishes end-to-end delivery standards against which Posts can measure their progress and sends consultants to countries to ensure that internationally accepted procedures are followed. (Here all this time we thought it was the US Post that we should be talking to. No wonder nothing gets done.) Recent tests showed that, during the first semester of 2005, 60% of the 96,400 test letters posted in more than 95 countries were delivered within five working days (J+5 standard adopted at the 2004 Bucharest Congress). Improvements are recorded continuously and the UPU hopes to achieve a world standard of 65% by 2008. The UPU’s EMS Cooperative has managed to improve the quality of the EMS service considerably (wait a minute, what? They run the EMS service also?) through a rigorous evaluation programme, with 85% of EMS items delivered on time during the second quarter of 2005. This compares to 52% at the beginning of 2000. Since the Quality of Service Fund (QSF) was created in 2001, 30 of the 72 million USD collected have financed 250 projects in developing countries.
7 – Supporting postal reform
Postal reform is a strategy to convert Posts from protected government organizations into competitive, customer-oriented businesses. (so they are behind the move to take the Post out of Government services and commercialize it.) With the advent of technology, globalization, the liberalization of markets and increased competition, postal operators have had to adapt to a new business environment and higher customer expectations. While many Posts have undergone profound changes in the last 20 years, many still lack the structural and commercial flexibility to become more competitive. Since its creation, the UPU Postal Development Action Group has made headway, clearing the way for constructive dialogue with the World Bank and other regional development banks on the financing of postal reform in developing countries. (So all those little countries who are perfcetly happy with their own postal service are going to be forced to switch by being manipulated by the WORLD BANK.) The UPU also publishes guides that present the challenges of postal reform and proposes several approaches. (Sounds to me like the elite forcing their will on the rest of us.)
8 – Setting technical postal standards
Standards are important prerequisites for effective postal operations and for interconnecting the global postal network. (just like the one world church, and the one world monetary system, and the one world police… we all must have the same systems..to be controlled by the elite.) The primary aim of UPU technical standards is to define a uniform mode of communication between the different mail processing and tracking systems in order to ensure efficiency and quality of service. To date, more than a hundred standards have been created and the UPU is working closely with bodies such as the European Committee for Standardization, the International Organization for Standardization, and the International Post Corporation. Nearly 25 million bags and trays are tracked annually on the basis of messages and UPU standard codes while Posts track an estimated 40 million postal items in all categories. As postal sector liberalization continues, rigorous technical standards become increasingly important. The more postal operators there are, the more essential it becomes to standardize mail processing, tracking and transmission. It is therefore important that standards are applied worldwide by all postal sector stakeholders; otherwise there would be chaos in delivering even a small packet.
9 – Promoting and developing new postal products and services
Small packets, international reply coupons, EMS and money orders are some of the products and services that have been promoted by the UPU. The organization continuously encourages its members to develop and use new products and services to meet customers’ requirements around the world. Through its Telematics Cooperative and Postal Technology Centre, the UPU develops systems to assist Posts in implementing new technologies to better manage their mail operations, expedite mail transfers and improve security. Mindful of the technological and financial constraints faced by many of its member countries, the UPU is quick to develop or adapt software applications to meet the specific needs of Posts. This has made it possible for developing countries to acquire systems for tracking mail and transferring funds (International Postal System and International Financial System). The electronic postmark, developed by a handful of industrialized Posts, has also found a home in the UPU, which is trying to extend its use to developing Posts that would otherwise not have the means to adopt it. The UPU has also created products such as the POST*code postal addressing system and the Universal List of Localities to ensure better mail targeting by Posts and customers.
10 – Sharing postal knowledge & information
The UPU monitors developments in the postal sector, analyzes market trends and studies market conditions, recommends guidelines to be followed and facilitates the exchange of intellectual and statistical data, enabling Posts throughout the world to adapt to imminent changes. With the creation of the Direct Mail Advisory Board, many countries are now making use of the resources, seminars and workshops available to develop this sector and generate additional revenue. In cooperation with the World Association for the Development of Philately, the UPU has highlighted the problem of illegal postage stamps in an effort to find a solution to a situation that seriously harms the Post‘s image and results in the significant loss of revenue. The UPU also produces entire series of publications on mail guidelines and postal statistics.
But what if you don’t have an address? And what exactly is a zip code? Deirdre Mask answers these questions and more in The Address Book: What Street Addresses Reveal About Identity, Race, Wealth, and Power.
“In some years, more than 40 percent of all local laws passed by the New York City Council have been street name changes” — pg. 1, Deirdre Mask in The Address Book
Mask’s book has five sections—Development, Origins, Politics, Race, Class and Status. Each section has a few location-based stories all related to addresses. We go to Kolkata to learn how addresses might transform slums, Philadelphia to learn about the Quaker influence on street names, and Tehran to learn about tactical street naming as a revolutionary action.
The book is full of interesting tidbits and facts about addresses. I live in New York City and have often come across street addresses that don’t seem to make sense, so I was delighted and disgusted when I read out about the vanity address program, which allows developers to change the street address to something more attractive, at a price (currently $11,000 in Manhattan). I also discovered new research on things I’ve pondered quite a bit.
“Place and memory are deeply connected…Thousands of years before place neurons were discovered, the ancient Romans seemed to know by instinct that visually distinctive spaces and memory were deeply intertwined.” — pg. 69-70, Mask in The Address Book
I particularly enjoyed the chapter “Rome: How Did the Ancient Romans Navigate?” that discussed memory, location, and distinctive cities. I have always loved walking around cities. I prefer walking to biking, driving, or even taking the subway. I try to find my way around a new place without looking at Google Maps’ GPS directions. I’ve always thought it helps me know the place better and remember things about the place more vividly — turns out I’m right.
According to research shared in the book (by Kevin Lynch, William Beecher Scoville, Brenda Milner, John O’Keefe, MayBritt Mose, Edvard I. Moser, and Mayank Mehta), there is a connection between location and memory that actually happens in your brain — your hippocampus to be exact — which enables us to create mental maps and have a heightened connection to a place when we physically experience it. This is probably why we have a hard time finding a place if we’ve only ever been there by following GPS directions, but we can easily tell someone how to get to our childhood home (assuming we grew up without GPS and had to actually memorize how to walk or drive to our home). It also explains why you can probably picture where you were for significant moments in time. I could probably show you on a map where I was when my fiancé proposed to me, even though we were in the middle of a snow storm and had been on a walk in a part of Brooklyn which I’m not very familiar.
“In America, the British first began to number Manhattan (street houses) to keep track of revolutionaries.” — pg. 96, Mask
I also loved the chapter “Vienna: What Can House Numbers Teach Us About Power,” which talked about the history of street numbers and how addresses came to be.Surprise, they were basically created for monarchs to track their royal subjects in order to tax them and use their men in the military. What could be more anti-revolutionary and dehumanizing than numbering where we live? No longer were homes our private spaces, but locations to be recorded by the state. It’s fascinating that I’ve never actually thought about the history of the address itself and now that I know more of the why behind street addresses, I wonder what else has been so arbitrarily made up?
“Initially in Vienna, each new building got the lowest available number, no matter where it was. So when a new house was built, number 1521 could sit (un)comfortably next to, say, number 12…In the Czech Republic each house has two numbers, one for directional purposes and one for government registration. In Florence, houses have different numbers for residential and business purposes.” — pg. 97, Mask
But just when I was ready to go around my block and repaint all the street numbers as a revolutionary act, I started another chapter, “Homelessness: How Do You Live Without an Address?” in which Mask details why having an address is essential to modern day life. How do you get a job, social services, or even a library card without an address? Mask shares some initiatives, like banning addresses on job applications or allowing those without addresses to use an address of a home that is uninhabited. Mask discusses the pros and cons of address forwarding and digital addresses in her conclusion “The Future: Are Street Addresses Doomed?”
“An address, today, is an identity; it’s a way for society to check that you are not just a person but the person you say you are. How many times have I been asked to show proof of address to register a child in school, to vote, to open a new account? It’s not for the bank manager to come and meet me at the door. In the modern world, in short, you are your address.” — pg. 244, Mask
This book helped me realize that an address is more than a status symbol or even a social determinant of health — it’s our modern-day key to society. The homeless are not only without a physical home, they are also without a major, arbitrarily assigned intangible tool that helps people access basic needs like health care, income, and food. In a post-COVID-19 world, addresses are even more important and helpful when it comes to tracking and containing the virus. This book also helped me solidify my belief that housing is not only a health care issue, but it’s a human right.
I suggest this book to anyone interested in history, politics, health care, racism, or the intersectionality of all these issues. Mask not only reveals the why and how, but the what-if, helping us imagine a different kind of world where everyone has the luxury of not just an address, but a home.
By Deirdre Mask/326 pages, St. Martin’s Press, 2020
People use this word several ways. You can ask someone for the address of their server, or for their home page on the Web, or where to send e-mail. So an “address” can mean the unique location of either (1) an Internet server, (2) a specific file (for example, a Web page), or (3) an e-mail user. It is also used to specify the location of data within computer storage.
Example of an IP address expressed in dot notation: 188.8.131.52
Example of the domain name version: whatis.com
For more information, see IP address.
2) A file (or home page) address is expressed as the defining directory path to the file on a particular server. (A Web page address is also called a Uniform Resource Locator, or URL.)
3) An e-mail address is the location of an e-mail user (expressed by the user’s e-mail name followed by an “at” sign followed by the user’s server domain name.)
4) In a computer, a storage address is the beginning location of a sequence of data that is stored on some electronic storage medium.
Saturday, October 1, marked a historic day for the internet. The U.S. government finally handed over control of the world wide web’s “phonebook” to the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) after almost 20 years of transition. The ICANN, a nonprofit organization composed of stakeholders from government organizations, members of private companies, and internet users from all over the world, now has direct control over the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), the body that manages the web’s domain name system (DNS).
Prior to the handover, ICANN already managed IANA, but the U.S. Department of Commerce, through the U.S. National Telecommunications & Information Administration (NTIA), had ultimate authority over any decisions that ICANN made. This meant that the U.S. government could overrule any resolution made by the latter.
In a press release, ICANN Board Chair Stephen D. Crocker said, “This transition was envisioned 18 years ago, yet it was the tireless work of the global Internet community, which drafted the final proposal, that made this a reality. This community validated the multistakeholder model of Internet governance. It has shown that a governance model defined by the inclusion of all voices, including business, academics, technical experts, civil society, governments and many others is the best way to assure that the internet of tomorrow remains as free, open and accessible as the internet of today.”
It belongs to everyone
The move has heavy political implications since the internet’s registry system is no longer under U.S. government control. Because the web has become a critical structure for governments worldwide, many countries, each with vested interests, feel that other nations could attempt to influence how it develops. That is why the termination of the U.S. government’s direct involvement with the IANA puts everyone at ease.
Nothing will change for the average internet user, as things will still be run as they were, except that users can influence how cyberspace develops from now on (as opposed to their often out-of-touch government representatives). (THIS IS A LIE, This move puts the internet in the hands of the ruling elite. There will be no freedome in content. It has already begun. They are silencing all dissenters to global domination.)
hello friends of steemit, I want to share this information with you to see what they think … it’s something that has me spinning my head and well, as I want to know how far humanity can go with all this.
The super computer “THE BEAST”
This supercomputer is located in the headquarters of the European Commission, in the Berlaymont building, in Brussels Belgium, and covers 3 floors of such a building.
Many of us already know the history of what is going to be the “Apocalypse” and we know that it will be through a chip that will be implanted in people called, “The Mark of the Beast (666). But have you ever wondered, if through those chips you know our location, age, favorite food, blood type, everything to summarize it, where will all this information go to be stored? So simple, to a SUPER COMPUTER. And it already exists and is currently working. It is located in Brussels, Belgium.
It is called “The Beast”, with three stories high, and as you may have noticed, the name is quite consistent with the 666. This computer is responsible for registering each person in the world with an 18-digit number where the initial figure of each number is 666, for example a number would be 666 502 852 011 342 117, the first 3 digits, would be the assignment of the computer 666, the other 3 digits the country and so on, this supercomputer will have stored the information of each person, full name, job, occupation, etc.
In Revelation of St. John (13,16-18) it is mentioned about a mysterious “Beast”, which orders all people to wear their marks on the front and on the hand.
In addition, he made everyone, small and large, rich and poor, free and slaves, put a mark on their right hand or forehead. And nobody could buy or sell, if it did not have the brand or name of the monster, or the number of its name.
It seems that now they have found an excellent way to use the chip without having to insert it in any part of the body. Maybe that way we will be able to separate the connection that this artifact has with the prophecies. There are so many “advantages that it will offer” that many will end up using them without a doubt!
They are known as NFC bracelets and incorporate a multifunctional chip that in this case, serves to make all kinds of payments in the Smukfest, a well-known music festival held in the Danish city of Skanderborg.
A third of the 50,000 visitors have already opted for this system faster and less risky than the classic portfolio loaded with credit cards and cash.
And it does not have to be recharged, because it is directly connected to our bank account. Betina Lykke Andersen is an accounting assistant at Smukfest and says:
“After a few drinks, and in full party, we get many things out of our pockets and it’s easy to lose money. So, you have the money in your bracelet and you know where it is.
Demonstration of how the microchip works
implanted in humans in a shopping center
The entrance The super computer of Brussels: THE BEAST, Ready to mark with the Chip 666 appears first in Mysteries and Conspiracies.
What do you think about this?
The massively parallel Cray XT5 supercomputer is now capable of delivering a sustained data transfer rate of 20 GB/s for its open-source Lustre file system
The Swiss National Supercomputing Centre in Manno, Switzerland, has announced that it has upgraded its current Cray XT3 supercomputer to an even faster Cray XT5 system, and that it selected LSI to handle the massive storage requirement
Founded in 1991, CSCS, the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre develops technical and scientific services in high-performance computing for the Swiss research community.
The center collaborates with domestic and foreign researchers on selected projects and carries out its own research in scientific computing. Located at Manno near Lugano, in the southern, Italian-speaking part of Switzerland, CSCS is an autonomous unit of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
The new Cray-LSI system will enable large-scale simulation-based science in fields ranging from climatology and geology to genetics, astronomy and experimental medicine.
MATTERHORN Press release
The University of Zurich scales to new computing heights
The Matterhorn Cluster is the fastest AMD Opteron Linux Supercomputer in Europe. Its 522 Opteron processors satisfy the computing needs of several departments.
Volketswil, Switzerland – December 2003 – Scientific computing at the University of Zurich received a tremendous boost in December 2003. The “Matterhorn”, Europe’s fastest AMD Opteron Linux Supercomputer, has now been handed over to the users. Designed and built by DALCO ( www.dalco.ch ), a leading specialist in Linux Supercomputers, the powerful new cluster combines the computing force of 522 AMD Opteron processors. With its peak performance of 1.87 Teraflops (1,870 billion floating point operations per second) the Matterhorn climbs well into the top 500 list of the fastest computers of the world (the global “charts” of supercomputing can be found at www.top500.org).
Much needed performance The Matterhorn project is a joint venture of the IT-Services of the University of Zurich, the Institutes of Biochemistry, Organic Chemistry, Physics, and Geography as well as the Functional Genomics Center Zurich. The San Diego Supercomputing Center, (SDSC) is an additional partner in the Matterhorn venture.
SDSCs cluster team has developed the cluster management software “Rocks” which will be used by the University of Zurich in order to control the more than 256 nodes of the new supercomputer cluster.
Dr. Alexander Godknecht, responsible for computing services at the University of Zurich, said: “We where running out of compute power, our ambiguous research goals required a fast and powerful solution. Instead of setting up various independent systems we found consent to install a single large Linux Cluster.”
Today scientists often have a nearly limitless need for computing power in order to advance their fields. Chemists and Biochemists are going to occupy the new supercomputer cluster with sophisticated programs that run for several weeks in order to simulate and study the properties of complex molecules.
Matterhorn is simplifying their research enormously due to the fact that simulations with different parameters can run simultaneously on a cluster. Physicists are going to be able to model the dynamics of entire galaxies and test advanced theoretical concepts, while the molecular biologists of the Functional Genomics Centre gain the ability to analyze new genetic sequences through comparison with gigantic reference databases.
“The applications from the various research groups have different demands for compute resources which have to be considered when such a large Linux Cluster is designed” explains Christian Dallmann, CEO of DALCO. “To find the best solution the scientists each provided a representative set of programs which we mandated the vendors to run.” Dr. Godknecht adds. “We where surprised that DALCO was able to come up with the best design by offering an AMD Opteron solution. The benchmark proved DALCO’s concept
and we are convinced that the AMD64 architecture currently offers the best value in respect of leading edge performance at a very attractive price level.” Dr. Godknecht concludes.
Low cost due to the Linux Cluster concept
The Matterhorn complex is built on a Linux Cluster architecture: many, densely packed Dual-CPU nodes are interconnected through a very fast network. The Matterhorn’s final design was conceived by the Swiss company DALCO AG. Its peak performance of 1872 Gigaflops comes at reasonable cost. The price-tag of 1.2 million Swiss Francs sets a new milestone on the price/performance scale. Moreover, after the projected 3 year life the Dual-CPU nodes are still powerful enough, to be used as midrange servers in different departments and institutes.
Supercomputer made in Switzerland
The main components of the new cluster at the University of Zurich are Arima/Rioworks dual Opteron processor server boards, AMD Opteron 244 (1,8 GHz) processors, Gigabit Ethernet for input/output traffic, a Management Network, and the latest high-speed Myrinet interconnect (Full-duplex 2+2 Gigabit/second data rate). All the components of a compute node are integrated into a special thermal certified 1U chassis offering highest density.
The Cluster uses 522GByte of high-speed DDR333 registered memory and has a total data storage capacity of nearly 15’000GByte spread across 289 hard disk drives. Three Fileserver each with a net capacity of 1TByte with raid-sets for higher availability and performance complement the Cluster.
Based on the AMD64 architecture, the Opteron processor’s unique design makes it possible to run both 32- and 64-bit applications simultaneously at full speed. The Opteron features an integrated memory controller which dramatically improves memory processing. An address space 4000 times larger than in preceding models is architected into the new processor offering a significant performance benefit for applications that hold large or many datasets in memory. Due to the advanced HyperTransport technology
Opteron processors can exchange the data of up to 30 full CD-ROMs per second (19.2 Gigabytes per second).
The University of Zurich – the largest university and the broadest range of courses in Switzerland
The University of Zurich was founded in 1833, though its origins stretch back as far as 1525 and the days of protestant reformer Ulrich Zwingli. Today the University enjoys international renown as a place of education and research. Two thousand lecturers in 140 special institutes provide the broadest range of subjects and courses available from any Swiss seat of higher education. With 21,000 students and 1,900 graduates every year, Zurich is also Switzerland’s largest university. The University provides academic services, works with the private sector and considers itself part of a national and global network for the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge.
Zurich’s international reputation is based on groundbreaking research, particularly in molecular biology, brain research and anthropology, and on the work of the University Hospital and Veterinary Hospital.
Swiss based DALCO AG is owned and run by the Dallmann brothers. Vendor and financially independent they custom design high-end computing solutions based on leading edge technology with a strong focus on quality, individual customer requirements and ever changing business demands. DALCO customers have the unique choice of Intel or AMD based solutions. The award winning DALCO PLCC support (product life cycle care) complements DALCO’s offerings. DALCO is the leading European System Integrator to offer Opteron based solutions on such a wide scope, and the leading supplier of Linux based solutions in Switzerland.Media Contact:
DALCO AG Switzerland
Tel +41 1 908 38 38
Dr. Alexander J. Godknecht
Tel +41 1 635 45 31
To date, DALCO has built most of the supercomputer cluster systems in Switzerland using Intel and AMD processors. Already in 1999 DALCO designed and delivered Europe’s fastest Linux supercomputer combining 512 Intel CPUs to the ETH in Zurich. DALCO has installed most of the Linux Servers used in a production environment in Switzerland. DALCO runs a State-of-the-art Solutions Center and Cluster Manufacturing Facility in Volketswil, Switzerland. (www.dalco.ch – www.supercomputer.ch )
Linux clustering is a method of linking multiple computers together to form a unified, extremely powerful computing system. Today’s most powerful systems world wide are based on cluster architecture.
AMD Opteron Processor for Servers
The AMD Opteron processor, enabling simultaneous 32- and 64-bit computing, represents the landmark introduction of the AMD64 architecture. The AMD Opteron processor is designed to run existing 32-bit applications with outstanding performance, and offers customers a simplified migration path to 64-bit computing. This evolutionary processor provides a dramatic leap forward in compatibility, performance, investment protection, and reduced total cost of ownership (TCO).
AMD Opteron Processor Benefits
The AMD Opteron processor provides a highly scalable architecture that delivers next-generation performance as well as a flexible upgrade path from 32- to 64-bit computing. With a single architecture designed to meet current and future business needs, the AMD Opteron processor can help to minimize the integration complexities presented by business environments today and in the future.
Matterhorn “on the Rocks”
The new supercomputer cluster received its name “Matterhorn” due to the middle-ware Rocks (http://rocks.npaci.edu/Rocks/ ) which is based on RedHat Linux and was developed at the San Diego Supercomputing Center. Rocks enable the comfortable and efficient installation, maintenance and supervision of high performance clusters.
18 Nov 2013 Lugano – The upgraded Cray XC30 supercomputer “Piz Daint” has exceeded petaflops sustained performance in scientific production runs. At the same time “Piz Daint” demonstrates significant improvements in the energy efficiency. This important milestone will enable researchers to study more detailed models with higher accuracy.
“Piz Daint”, in operation at CSCS since April 2013, has gone through a major upgrade. During the last few weeks the supercomputer based on Intel Xeon E5 processors has more than doubled in system size from 12 to 28 cabinets and has been upgraded to a hybrid architecture featuring NVIDIA Tesla K20X graphical processing units (GPUs). With a total of 5’272 hybrid compute nodes as well as a powerful high-bandwidth, low-latency network, it will now be possible for real simulations to sustain petaflops (1015 floating point operations per seconds) performance.
Early tests confirm the performance of “Piz Daint”. DCA++, a quantum Monte Carlo code to simulate models of high-temperature superconductors, sustains 4.2 petaflops under regular production conditions.
Compared to its predecessor, the Cray XE6 “Monte Rosa”, “Piz Daint” provides up to 20 times more compute performance while using only up to two and half times as much electrical power. Regional climate simulations based a new implementation on the hybrid system of the COSMO model for example use seven times less energy to solution on “Piz Daint” compared to current simulations on “Monte Rosa”. This improvement is possible thanks to the hybrid architecture, a combination of CPUs and energy-efficient GPUs.
This upgrade will enable researchers and scientists to study more detailed, higher-resolution models in less time. The new computing capacity of “Piz Daint” will be made available through the regular CSCS user programme. Furthermore, CSCS has recently issued the first call for CHRONOS proposals as a vehicle to allocate large computational resources on “Piz Daint” to world-class research projects. CHRONOS calls will be annually opened to researchers in all fields of science, from both national and international research institutions and universities alike.
With the upgrade of “Piz Daint”, CSCS has implemented the final step of the Swiss High Performance Computing and Networking (HPCN) initiative coordinated by ETH Board. The HPCN-strategy started in 2009 with the goal of providing the Swiss research community with a petaflop-scale supercomputer.
Thomas Schulthess, Director of CSCS, is very proud of this important achievement: “For the first time at CSCS, a new supercomputing system has been co-designed along with key scientific application codes. Building the hybrid “Piz Daint” supercomputer in such a short time was only possible thanks to an excellent collaboration with Cray, NVIDIA, and application scientists at Swiss universities.”
“Piz Daint” will be fully integrated into the CSCS user programme in April 2014, with the start of the new allocation period.
Invisible tattooed barcodes on our foreheads and a gigantic three-storey supercomputer…
“The Beast is here and it knows all about you. Satan must be here – and working in IT.” At least that’s what one reader told us in our quest to unearth the biggest IT myths.
In fact quite a number of readers out there actually related to us the story of the ‘Brussels Beast’ and ‘Beast 666’ – a supercomputer allegedly based in Brussels that collects personal data on all European Union citizens.
Admittedly we thought this one sounded a bit far fetched although with current concerns about the privacy implications of radio frequency ID tags that manufacturers and retailers want to put in to goods to track them, we thought there might be an element of truth somewhere. However this is one IT myth that silicon.com can firmly hit on the head, though the truth is probably a far more interesting tale than the myth itself.
‘The Beast’ is actually the invention of Christian fiction writer Joe Musser, who included it in his book Behold a Pale Horse in 1970. (Wow, just because he found a reference to such a computer in a book that predated the actual release of its existence, means nothing. The illuminati often put truth into media like books, movies and films before the reality is released. It is called predictive programming. I don’t know how old Andy is, but I am thinking he was probably not around when all this hit. I know I remember it was a matter of great coverage, great speculation and great disturbance. Of course it is to this day denied by the elite. That is what they do, deny, deny, deny. There is much more evidence to confirm the existence of that computer than there is to refute it. But, people find what they are looking for. I guess it make Andy sleep better if he can convince himself it isn’t so.) In the book a gigantic three-storey computer is located in the administrative headquarters of the then Common Market.
Said machine was supposed to track all world trade through monitoring the buying and selling of every citizen on the planet. The self-programming ‘Beast’ would use unique digital numbers given to every human being and invisibly tattooed by laser on the forehead. These could be seen by infrared scanners at “special verification counters” – or cash tills, to you and us. (The Beast doesn’t need any of that to know who you are, where you live, where you work, what you buy… all it needs is your address. The Mark of the Beast is coming but for much more sinister purposes.)
So just how did this obscure 1970s sci-fi vision of the future turn into a long-standing urban myth constantly peddled as the truth? Well silicon.com tracked down Joe Musser and asked him that very question.
He told us that the book was turned into a film, called The Rapture, which is apparently still available through GF Communications. We’ll let Musser pick up the tale.
“There is a scene in the movie that we shot in one of the [then] Bell Labs facilities, with row upon row of the old computers, with tapes spinning, etc. That footage ‘depicted’ the computer that I nicknamed the Beast in both the novel and the movie,” he said.
To promote the movie’s original release in the mid-1970s the producers created a fictional promotional newspaper as a souvenir handout to accompany the film.
Musser said: “Somehow, a Pennsylvania newspaper must have received a clipping taken from that promotional tabloid with the ‘end of the world’ stories. A reporter apparently wrote an article based on it, which took information from my original idea in the book, also presented in the film, took it as fact, and published it.”
Christian Life was another publication that picked up on the ‘news’ and reported ‘The Beast’ as fact and the story has since spread around the world.
Musser told us: “The story has taken on a life of its own, and continues to this day. There are those who have come to me to ask if I have heard about the new computer called the Beast that is being used by the European Common Market (or some derivation of the EU) – a computer that tracks all of the information about everyone in the world.”
Never one to let a good tale get in the way of the truth, Musser is now writing fiction novels with Oliver North, him of the US Iran-Contra affair, leading to all kinds of political conspiracy theories from his readers.
(Well, once again, Andy, if it helps you sleep, believe whatever you like. THE TRUTH is the supercomputers have been in existence for some time now and have advanced far beyond what any fiction writer could cook up in his imagination. The elite do no allow us in on their advancements. The technology we see is always somewhere between 25 and 100 years behind what the elite are using. Hell… I saw a Phil Donahue show, where technology was presented that was beyond our current virtual reality, and that was back in the late 70’s or early 80’s. They said right on his show that technology was not available to the public. Only enjoyed by the elite, with lots of money.)
While ‘The Beast’ itself is an entertaining piece of fiction, its tech origins might be all too real. Simon Davies, director of Privacy International, is convinced a Beast-like supercomputer did exist in the decade that saw the birth of privacy consciousness as well as disco.
“The existence of an all-seeing über-database would have been a dream for Brussels bureaucrats and government agencies. There would have been a computer like the Beast, but it would have been no more powerful than today’s business machines. It wouldn’t have functioned on a technological level: data-matching was a litany of errors then.”
“Due to the nature of technology in the seventies, it would have been kept in a locked room, in an underground location, with a temperature controlled environment. All that would have added to its feared reputation,” he said.
In the interests of balanced reporting silicon.com called the bureaucrats in Brussels to ask them about the existence of their three-story supercomputer. We were, not surprisingly, roundly laughed at down the phone by a spokeswoman who claimed never to have heard of ‘The Beast’ – though we’re not entirely sure we couldn’t hear the whirring of computer discs and spinning tapes in the background. (Well, you can see photos, right here on this webpage that show those very super computers. Even documentation that they do indeed fill three stories. Now, with quantum computing, they do more than store all your information. A whole lot more.)
THE BEAST – The New World Order – 666 Supercomputers – Brussels, Texas, EU, China! NEW DNA Supercomputer! Is China ready to measure individuals value or lack of value by computer Merit app and in America?
Rose Colombo (C) December 2017, ed. 1/2018
ONLY PORTIONS OF THIS ARTICLE ARE POSTED HERE…VISIT THE WEBSITE TO READ IN FULL
Mark Twain stated, “Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn’t.”
Rose Colombo says, “The truth is being overrun by the liars in public office and on Wall Street who may be unethical if people aren’t careful. The people from America and citizens from around the world must wake up to the real truth. It’s important to understand the meaning of “freedom for all” before Western Civilization is erased from future history books and forgotten forever. The New World Order is dangerous to America, Europe, Israel and the world. The NWO prohibits individual freedom, rights, and liberties. Women and children are particularly vulnerable in their countries who enact open border policies in the USA and Europe.”
Colombo adds, “Evil has reared its ugly head and the masses around the world are being silently imprisoned and enslaved by the (New World Order (NWO) known as the “Beast” and referred to as 666 as warned and predicted in the Bible.It appears that the people in America and around the world are just waking up.”
Let me take you back to the past so we can know how we got to the present and how we are being led to the slaughter. The evil ones seeking to end America’s Freedom because of what appears to be many domestic traitors from within and the foreign traitors migrated into the USA since WW II. They should be arrested and removed from office or from the nation and investigated for sedition. You see, WWIII isn’t necessarily going to be a nuclear war, but it could be viewed as a quiet genocide using domestic enemies from within to implement programs that reduce the population and allow foreigners from foreign enemy nations to illegally or legally enter into the USA and infiltrate. One might refer to migrating thousands of healthy young males as a “Trojan Horse.”
Colombo says, “More than ten years ago, I inadvertently came across a business magazine that caught my attention addressed to the CEO where I was employed. The cover of the magazine highlighted that President George Bush was jetting off to Brussels to visit the facility where the “Beast,” which is a worldwide supercomputer was located, built, and stored.
The worldwide computer is reported to track every individual in the world. This raised my eyebrows and I wondered why would evil people want to track every individual in the world from birth to death and control each person. Of course, the answer is that there are psychopaths in the world who are control freaks seeking to be the one world leader. Truly, they are psychopaths who view themselves as “god” or an “icon” and all powerful.
Isn’t controlling every human being on the earth what Hitler dreamed of doing as he built his army and marched across Europe placing terror in the hearts of disarmed European men and women whose doors were knocked down? He felt so empowered ordering his army of sociopaths, weak men and women without conscience, to carry out a massive genocide. They did as the drugged out insane little man ordered. Why would human beings follow a mass killer like Hitler and slaughter millions of innocent people?
Colombo said her 2009 Blog informed Congress and the nation that Obamacare included early-end-of life counseling and euthanasia.Obamacare enslaved Americans to the illegals and Muslims by Obama inserting “Dhimmitude” into Obamacare forcing Americans to pick up the tab for their living expenses for life and health care and education. Obamacare includes euthanasia for the chronically ill Americans, elderly, and chronically ill patientsand today with the coronavirus scare, they are sending chronically ill and even cancer patients home in some countries to make room for the new patients with the flu. Is China’s agenda happening in the USA, too? The Clinton’s and Biden’s and Obama’s as well as the Dalemocrat party and supporters turned on their fellow American conservatives and declared on social media and television that we’re dredges, deplorable, small minded, foolish, stupid, ignorant, bottom feeders who are of little worth to the Democrats who support the UN Agenda 21, Muslim Brotherhood-CAIR-Hamas organization and the New World Order.
Let’s go down the Rabbit Hole and Ponder How We Are So Close To Reducing the Surplus Population and Enslaving Every Human Being on The Planet by agendas laid out by the United Nations, Agenda 21, The Muslim Brotherhood with Organizations in Central and South America, Communist Party and Socialist Party, and the Worldwide Supercomputer, The Beast, 666!
The article I am revealing to the masses is a serious agenda because it affects every individual in America. In fact, it’s part of the agenda leading to the worldwide Supercomputer that will affect everyone in the world. I inadvertently came across the Presidential Order online entitled, “Human Capital” and it caught my attention.
The Presidential Order implemented by Bill Clinton ordered a study on “Human Capital”with intent on how to capitalize on human beings from birth to death so that the federal government could decide the worth and lack of worth of individual human beings to the government. This agenda is definitely a communist agenda that provides far too much power to the POTUS and his appointees. It leaves the door open as to who should live or die and leads to Communism.The people who would be of little worth would be disposables such as the elderly, poor, sick, homeless, chronically ill, veterans, and unborn babies and those they refer to as “right wing extremists” who refuse to comply with the Left’s agendas.
Former impeached President Bill Clinton is an evil man in my opinion, but women love attractive bad boys it appears because they elected him into the oval office not, once, but twice. Bill Clinton fired a United States General for telling the truth. The General called him a skirt chasin’, pot smokin’ and flag burnin’ man.
Americans are in this position today facing what appears to be a preplanned fear mongering flu for control of the country and American citizens like in Europe back in WWII. The Democrats are determined to disarm Americans and we know what happens to the innocent people in countries where they are disarmed.
Hitler’s Human Commodities and Human Capital: The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c]Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma and “incurably sick”, as well as ethnic Poles, Soviet citizens, Soviet prisoners of war, political opponents, gay men and Jehovah’s Witnesses, resulting in up to 17 million deaths overall. (wikipedia)
Human Capital is the study that turns human beings into human commodities at birth until death and even after death, the lawyers and government come after the dead person. They want any property, assets, taxes, and medical costs if they can confiscate it. Human Capital is based on the individual’s worth or lack of worth to the government and if the individual pops up as a person targeted for lack of worth then they can be targets to fill jail beds or disposable. Today, with the high tech tracking devices, the Chinese are forcing an app on all chinese citizen’s phones so the police can target them at any minute.
It’s a fact that America’s doctors can pull the plug as an early end-of-life agenda and in some cases, it’s alleged for organ harvesting. It’s no secret that the doctors pull the plug on chronically ill, elderly, veterans, patients in a comas, and the mentally and physically challenged just as Hitler did when he took the Jews away on [FEMA] trains.One facility was reported recently, who must be communist-like medical staff from possibly foreign enemy nations. They were reported in the news when they were caught pulling the plug on people they didn’t like.
In fact, I read a recent online article that the NWO is targeting sick kids in Sweden as part of the plan to reduce the population of white natural born Swedes.This is why the foreign enemies and domestic enemies from within Western Civilization are promoting that people who are white should feel guilty and even kill themselves. They’ve been promoting evil suggestions that it’s a good thing to reduce the population of natural-born Americans of European descent. Natural-born babies of sovereign Europeans nation. Natural-born babies of Canadian descent. It’s stunning how many citizens of civilized nations are buying into this evil agenda so that the domestic enemies who accessed positions of power by our votes can promote the agendas of foreign enemy nations seeking to conquer Western Civilization making it easy for them to invade, infiltrate, overpopulate, and dominate the world.
The current agendas are similar to that of Hitler and the Clinton’s agenda that leads back to Bill Clinton’s study on “Human Capital.”It’s a human rights violation to use human beings as human commodities for human capital, taxes and profit or work slaves.This is apparently part of the one world government and one world leader ruling the world through the worldwide online supercomputer with intent to rule with an iron fist.
Planned Parenthood is an important arm of the New World Order and Communist manifesto which Hitler implemented with the help of a woman who appeared to be a bigot and a psychopath, Margaret Sanger, founder of Planned Parenthood. The white German European Nazi doctors, Nazi staff, and the federal government is using the fetuses which are unborn babies about to take their first breath outside of the womb as “human commodities” to be used for human capital as a get-rich scheme for the sick wealthy elite who are involved with these agendas
Humans are nothing more than another “resource” to be used to its maximum benefit. For example, the unborn babies are a for-profit business that increases taxes, profits and provides human organs, and human tissue, which is of value to the medical profession, researchers, and criminals. In line with abortion and the New World Order’s agendas, it’s a true fact that fetuses are being used as food. In fact, a Chinese doctor wrote and published an article reporting that in China, the fetuses are sold as human commodities and cooked in soup. The female doctor stated that the first-born boy is considered the most valuable delicacy and a human commodity for consumption and profit. They believe eating fetuses helps keep people youthful.
Raped girls who give birth could be raped and held captive so the criminals can sell the organs to the criminals who operate on the Black Market. Human Organ trafficking, sex trafficking, gun and drug trafficking are multi-billion dollar businesses. We are living in very dangerous and evil times.
Communist China has a new computer app determines every individual’s worth or lack of worth. The government will determine what the citizens can or can’t be, what they can or can’t buy, where they can or can’t go to school or work or live. Some individuals will be rewarded and some punished and denied access to their goals and dreams turning the Chinese citizens into robotoids, The young people in China think it’s cool, but they won’t think it’s so cool in the future when they are no more than enslaved robotoids who aren’t allowed to think for themselves.
Why does the medical profession use artificial support if the elderly persons or chronically ill persons can’t breathe on their own and will have no quality of life? This appears to be one more way for the matrix, which includes Big Pharma and the Medical Profession, to use the elderly, chronically ill, veterans, and mentally and physically challenged as human commodities for human capital by bilking the taxpayers for Medicare and insurance providers.
It appears that there are unscrupulous doctors and administrators and foreigners from foreign enemy nations who have been ripping off Medicare in the millions. It’s no secret that doctors and administrators have ripped off the taxpayers by overcharging Medicare. Recently, the news reported that foreigners from the Middle East working with a doctor from the Middle East were involved in trafficking opioids and ripping off Medicare in the millions. In fact, some doctors are reported in the news who encourage their patients to get specific prescriptions and vaccines because they are rewarded by Big Pharma with big bonuses. There shouldn’t be any Lobbyists running and ruining congress.
For example, if a person is found dead and written up by the coroner as death by “natural causes” that means the person stopped breathing on his or her own! They don’t slap a tube for artificial support down their throat to bilk the taxpayers for more money, right? I wonder how many congressional members are vested in Big Pharma on Wall Street. A doctor was reported in the news for wrongfully removing a kidney, just this week, but my question remains if he was actually harvesting an organ for big bucks.
The photo below displays where the “Beast” also known as 666, the Supercomputer is located in Brussels Look at the design of the building with the circular rooftop in the center! The luciferin design many buildings that resemble a pyramid, an upside down cross, or an owl or a triangle, but you have to actually do your homework to see the connections to their insane New World Order agenda. They believe they are gods and they are doing the work of the Master in exchange for their souls as they are promised wealth, protection, and important positions in this life. They have enslaved themselves to money and the “Material World.” The world is living in a matrix and strangled by the invisible net placed around the planet.
Furthermore, the members of the old New World Order created markings with symbols wherever their key projects and facilities are developed around the world. President George HW Bush was the first U.S. President to pledge his allegiance to the New World Order in modern times on video when he announced that he and his members would be ushering in of the New World Order. He looked straight into the camera and confidently stated, “and we will succeed.”
Former President George HW Bush made it clear in his speech on national television that his allegiance wasn’t so much to the U.S. Constitution, but it was definitely with the New World Order. In order to support the New World Order, it’s impossible to uphold the U.S. Constitution or be loyal to the sworn oath of the POTUS that swears to uphold, defend, protect, and preserve the U.S. Constitution, because the New World Order requires allegiance to international foreign bodies. The New World Order consists of a secret elitist society and their agendas are in total opposition to the Bible and the Ten Commandments and the Constitution.
The theme of his speech on national television was simple. He informed the American citizens that the New World Order would reduce the population of the “jungle,” apparently, targeting Africa, the overpopulated jungles of Africa, where disease and poverty exist as well as Third World Nations, but most Americans didn’t have a clue what he was talking about. But these elite are obligated to tell the people their intent, but Americans didn’t get the clues. The name itself states their intent, “The New World Order” which says it’s a worldwide organization with intent to wipe out the old world and usher in the New World under their New Orders. In order to complete the New World Order, the majority of mankind who they consider undesirable must be killed off.
The NWO and U.N. and Muslim Brotherhood will do anything that would eliminate sovereignty, the U.S. Constitution, Second Amendment, alienate parents from kids through Family Law Courts and through CPS (although, there are many kids who need to be protected from abuse, there are kids who aren’t abused and placed in foster care or adopted out as well). They trample on constitutional rights that ignore “due process of law” and approve of knocking down doors and terrifying legal Americans without warrants based on accusation only and two words, “probable cause.”
The New World Order members support weather manipulation, chemicals dumped into the drinking water, oceans, rivers and lakes while they buy up the water reservoirs and the water facilities. Remember, whoever controls the food and water controls the world, not just the oil.
Their New World Order goal is the manufacturing the lithium microchip to be inserted under the skin of the right hand or forehead for enslavement, tracking, and spying of Americans and people around the world. In America, such an agenda is without constitutional authority. The lithium battery operated microchip turns people into robotoids. They can probably control your mind. They can probably enslave each individual with the microchip They can probably target people and cause an early end of life death, who would know? Enslavement of the World! That’s what this is all about. Comply or Die! The Bible warns that eventually the chipped person will break out in sores! And, possibly hear voices that will drive them to do things and drive them crazy. You are an experiment just like Hitler experimented on humans that is what the New World Order wants to do to you.
Make no mistake! The lithium microchip is an unprecedented worldwide enslavement pre-planned experiment. Every free individual is a target and a guinea pig to be used and abused by Wall Street and the secret societies. The manufacturing company for the microchip is located at 555 Fifth Avenue, Suite 666. The number 666 in the Bible represents the “end times” are near and represents Lucifer also known as the devil or reptilian. It appears that Lucifer is alive and well somewhere upon the earth, but he can be chained up if people turn back to God and pray to the God of the Universe who created you and everything in the world. God Bless America. God Bless the World.
America’s Central Computer System is linked to “The Beast!” According to above-top-secret intel, “The central computer for America is in Texas, and the international computer that ties all the national central computers together is situated in Brussels, Belgium. The Brussels computer is housed in a 13 story building, the first three floors of which are occupied totally by this system’s hardware. Because of its size, the Brussels computer is referred to affectionately as ‘The Beast.’ It appears the secret worldwide computer known as the “Beast” or 666 located in Brussels is more secretive than the rest of the secret computers. Apparently, the major countries have a supercomputer linked up to the “Beast” with locations in Texas and Brussels and China. (Do they not wonder what would happen if all the power for whatever reason was shut down? What would the NWO and government leaders do if all power was shut down? These supercomputers would be shut down. And, they blame Russia for hacking the Democrats computers and Hillary Clinton’s servers when China is hooked up to “The Beast” and owns Huawei?
“This immense supercomputer has enough capacity to store every detail about the lives of every human being on Earth. The supercomputer stores all the information contained in the Library of Congress, and every book ever printed. This is very dangerous if mankind is to remain free from tyrannical evil deeds by tyrannical evil people involved in these narcissist and sociopathic preplanned agendas. The people involved in the evil NWO agendas are playing god. They thrive on pain and suffering as they sold their souls to the devil for the material world. Many with titles respected by their citizens are selling out their families and friends because they are without conscience. Many are pedophiles because they are insecure beings and thrive on overpowering the weaker sex, the females, and/or children which empower the pedophiles and rapist or murderers and provide instant gratification. They justify their crimes by stating, it’s “normal” because many are sociopaths without conscience.
They are intent on destroying the world and continue to improve the One World Order’s most powerful new computer, the “Worldwide DNA Supercomputer!”
“The Elite Agenda is to destroy the world. “Everything must go.” They intend to remake the world in the image of the Beast. The new world will rise like a Phoenix from the ashes of the old world. It will be a counterfeit world. It will be a world designed to replace [God’s] Creation. They wish to transmute every living thing into an abomination. They want us all to be X-Men or more appropriately ex-men. This is what Trans-humanism/Transcendence is all about. They want to replace the Old World of God with the New World Order of Lucifer.”
This is a photo of a massive computer as seen and pictured on Wikipedia! The massive computers can be connected to other massive computers storing every individual’s information so that the evil one who intends to rule with an iron fist by enacting a One World Government, One World Order, a One World Leader, can access immediately.
YOUR ADDRESS, both physical and even more importantly your digital address is how they keep track of YOU. They know everything about you, what food you eat, how much sleep you get, what temperature you keep your house at, how often you go to the toilet, how much you have in the bank, how many times you use the toilet, when you see a doctor and what the doctor found,… I think you get the picture. Your digital address is tracking your every move. They say now, even your every thought, because they claim that AI can read your thoughts. No kidding. Based on that information the determine if and when you should be taken out of the system…and whether or not they can use any of your parts in the process.
|Swiss National Supercomputing Centre CSCS|
|Budget||24.3 million CHF|
|Location||Lugano, Ticino, Switzerland|
The Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (Italian: Centro Svizzero di Calcolo Scientifico; CSCS) is the national high-performance computing centre of Switzerland. It was founded in Manno, canton Ticino, in 1991. In March 2012, the CSCS moved to its new location in Lugano-Cornaredo.
The main function of the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre is a so-called National User Lab. It is open to all Swiss researchers and their assistants, who can get free access to CSCS’ supercomputers in a competitive scientific evaluation process. In addition, the centre operates dedicated computing facilities for specific research projects and national mandates, e.g. weather forecasting. It is the national competence centre for high-performance computing and serves as a technology platform for Swiss research in computational science. CSCS is an autonomous unit of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) and closely collaborates with the local University of Lugano (USI).
Supercomputer procurements at CSCS can be categorised into two phases: In the first phase from 1991 to 2011, the centre focused on proven technologies in order to facilitate user access to its services. This strategy was centred on the SX vector processor architecture of NEC. The IBM SP4, installed 2002, was the first production system of CSCS with a massively-parallel computer architecture. The procurement of the first Cray XT3 in Europe in 2005 marked the beginning of the second phase. Since then, CSCS concentrates on early technologies, preferably before they become a generally available product.
in other words since 2005 they like to stay at the top of the line/head of the class/be first in technology.
Current computing facilities
Name Model Processor type No. of processors Start of operation (last upgrade) Peak performance (FLOPS) Use Piz Daint Hybrid Cray XC40/XC50 Intel Haswell-EP + Nvidia Tesla P100 GPUs 206,720 cores November 2016 15.988 petaflops Research (computer simulations) Kesch and Es-cha Cray CS-Storm Intel Haswell-EP + Nvidia Tesla K80 GPUs 2015 Numerical weather prediction (MeteoSwiss) Mönch NEC cluster Monte Leone HP DL 360 Gen 9 Phoenix Computer cluster (various manufacturers) Intel Sandy Bridge 2.6 GHz and AMD Opteron 16-core Interlagos 2.1 GHz 82 (736 cores) October 2007 (May 2012) 13.32 teraflops Computing grid of the CERN LHC
Previous computing facilities
Name Model Processor type No. of processors Period of operation Peak performance (TFLOPS) Use Piz Daint Hybrid Cray XC30 Intel Sandy Bridge 2.6 GHz + NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPUs 5,272 (42,176 cores; 84,352 hardware threads + 1 GPU x node) November 2013 7,787 Research (computer simulations) Blue Brain 4 IBM Blue Gene/Q Power BQC 16C 1.6 GHz 65,536 cores 2013–2018 838.9 Blue Brain Project Piz Daint Cray XC30 Intel Sandy Bridge 2.6 GHz 4,512 (36,096 cores; 72,192 hardware threads) December 2012 750.7 Research (computer simulations) Monte Lema Cray XE6 AMD Opteron 12-core Magny-Cours 2.1 GHz 336 (4,032 cores) April 2012 33.87 Numerical weather prediction (MeteoSwiss) Albis Cray XE6 AMD Opteron 12-core Magny-Cours 2.1 GHz 144 (1,728 cores) April 2012 14.52 Numerical weather prediction (MeteoSwiss) Tödi Cray XK7 AMD Opteron 16-core Interlagos 2.1 GHz and Nvidia Tesla K20x GPU 272 (4,352 cores) + 272 GPUs October 2011 (October 2012) 393.00 Research (computer simulations) Matterhorn Cray XMT Next Generation Cray Threadstorm 64 (8,192 hardware threads) June 2011 n/a Research (in particular analysis of unstructured data) Monte Rosa Cray XE6 AMD Opteron 16-core Interlagos 2.1 GHz 2,992 (47,872
May 2009 (November 2011) 402.12 Research (computer simulations) La Dôle Cray XT4 AMD Opteron quad-core Barcelona 2.3 GHz 160 (640 cores) May 2007–June 2012 5.88 Numerical weather prediction (MeteoSwiss) Piz Buin Cray XT4 AMD Opteron quad-core Barcelona 2.3 GHz 264 (1,056 cores) May 2007–June 2012 9.71 Numerical weather prediction (MeteoSwiss) Mont Blanc IBM System p575 IBM POWER5, 1.5 GHz 768 October 2006–January 2010 4.6 Research (computer simulations) Piz Palü Cray XT3 AMD Opteron dual-core 2.6 GHz 1,664 (3,328 cores) June 2005–April 2009 17.31 Research (computer simulations) Venus IBM System p690 IBM POWER4, 1.3 GHz 256 2002–2006 1.33 Research (computer simulations) Prometeo NEC SX-5 NEC SX-5 vector processor 16 1999–2007 0.128 Research (computer simulations) and numerical weather prediction (MeteoSwiss) Gottardo NEC SX-4 NEC SX-4 vector processor 16 1995–2004 0.032 Research (computer simulations) Adula NEC SX-3 NEC SX-3 vector processor 2 1992–1995 0.0128 Research (computer simulations)
National Supercomputing Service
Run as a user lab, CSCS promotes and encourages top-notch research. Simulations created on supercomputers yield completely new insights in science. Consequently, CSCS operates cutting-edge computer systems as an essential service facility for Swiss researchers. These computers aid scientists with diverse issues and requirements – from the pure calculation of complex problems to analysis of complex data. The pool of national high-performance computers is available to its users as a so-called user lab: all researchers in and out of Switzerland can use the supercomputer infrastructure.
Dedicated HPC Services
In addition to the computers of the User Lab, CSCS operates dedicated compute resources for strategic research projects and tasks of national interest. Since 2001, the calculations for the numerical weather prediction of the Swiss meteorological survey MeteoSwiss take place at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre. In January 2008, the first operational high-resolution weather forecasting suite in Europe was taken in production on a massively-parallel supercomputer at CSCS. Another dedicated computer resource operated by CSCS is the Swiss tier-2 computer cluster for the Computing Grid of the CERN LHC accelerator.
Research and development
For supporting the further development of its supercomputing services, CSCS regularly evaluates relevant new technologies (technology scouting) and publishes the results as white papers on its website.
What does GDPR stand for?
GDPR stands for General Data Protection Regulation. It’s the core of Europe’s digital privacy legislation.
How did it come about?
In January 2012, the European Commission set out plans for data protection reform across the European Union in order to make Europe ‘fit for the digital age’. Almost four years later, agreement was reached on what that involved and how it will be enforced.
One of the key components of the reforms is the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This new EU framework applies to organisations in all member-states and has implications for businesses and individuals across Europe,and beyond.
“The digital future of Europe can only be built on trust. With solid common standards for data protection, people can be sure they are in control of their personal information,” said Andrus Ansip, vice-president for the Digital Single Market, speaking when the reforms were agreed in December 2015.
At its core, GDPR is a new set of rules designed to give EU citizens more control over their personal data. It aims to simplify the regulatory environment for business so both citizens and businesses in the European Union can fully benefit from the digital economy.
The reforms are designed to reflect the world we’re living in now, and brings laws and obligations – including those around personal data, privacy and consent – across Europe up to speed for the internet-connected age.
Fundamentally, almost every aspect of our lives revolves around data. From social media companies, to banks, retailers, and governments – almost every service we use involves the collection and analysis of our personal data. Your name, address, credit card number and more all collected, analysed and, perhaps most importantly, stored by organisations.
What is GDPR compliance?
Data breaches inevitably happen. Information gets lost, stolen or otherwise released into the hands of people who were never intended to see it – and those people often have malicious intent.
Under the terms of GDPR, not only do organisations have to ensure that personal data is gathered legally and under strict conditions, but those who collect and manage it are obliged to protect it from misuse and exploitation, as well as to respect the rights of data owners – or face penalties for not doing so.
Who does GDPR apply to?
GDPR applies to any organisation operating within the EU, as well as any organisations outside of the EU which offer goods or services to customers or businesses in the EU. That ultimately means that almost every major corporation in the world needs a GDPR compliance strategy.
There are two different types of data-handlers the legislation applies to: ‘processors’ and ‘controllers’. The definitions of each are laid out in Article 4 of the General Data Protection Regulation.
A controller is a “person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of processing of personal data”, while the processor is a “person, public authority, agency or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller”. If you were subject to the UK’s Data Protection Act, for example, you’ll likely need to be GDPR compliant, too.
What is personal data under the GDPR?
The types of data considered personal under the existing legislation include name, address, and photos. GDPR extends the definition of personal data so that something like an IP address can be personal data. It also includes sensitive personal data such as genetic data, and biometric data which could be processed to uniquely identify an individual.
When did GDPR come into force?
Following four years of preparation and debate, GDPR was approved by the European Parliament in April 2016 and the official texts and regulation of the directive were published in all of the official languages of the EU on May 2016. The legislation came into force across the European Union on 25 May 2018.
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In other words, if the name, address, data of birth, health records, bank details, or any private or personal data about customers is breached, the organisation is obliged to tell those affected as well as the relevant regulatory body so everything possible can be done to restrict the damage.
This needs to be done via a breach notification, which must be delivered directly to the victims. This information may not be communicated only in a press release, on social media, or on a company website. It must be a one-to-one correspondence with those affected.
As of May 2019, Google is the recipient of the largest GDPR fine – fined €50m by the French data protection watchdog in January 2019.iStockPhoto / Getty Images
You won’t find gold or weapons stored deep in the granite caves of Switzerland’s Bernese Alps. Instead, the mountain range holds more precious treasure — servers and hard drives.
SWISS ALPS — The data center lies in a former military bunker beneath a mountain in the middle of the Swiss Alps.
This is where pharmaceutical companies save their recipes for patented medicines, where banks save the personal data of their customers and where NGOs save the data of their benefactors. The locals, too, recognize the value of the safe. Both the upper and lower house of Switzerland’s parliament have their servers hidden here.
The data center, known as the Swiss Fort Knox, is considered to be the world’s safest place to store data.
“We are the last resort. If something goes wrong here, it is highly likely that all the data will be gone forever,” says Christoph Oschwald, who co-founded the company Mount 10 that created the Swiss Fort Knox.
Since 1994, Oschwald and business partner Hanspeter Baumann converted the former headquarters of the Swiss Air Force into a top-notch data center by installing emergency diesel engines, a ventilation system, a filter and an air-pressure system to prevent the entry of any poisonous gases. Water from an underground lake keeps the center’s cooling system at 8 degrees Celsius. All the data is encrypted and the digital key to decrypt them remains with clients.
“Should all ties be severed we are still able to function autonomously for several weeks,” says Oschwald.
In case all the security measures fail, an underground network of high-speed cables links the center to a second server that holds a backup of the data in a mountain 10 kilometers away.
Data centers are the latest battleground in the war for information.
Ever since whistleblower Edward Snowden’s revelations, it appears that any means to an end are sanctioned in the digital sphere. Snowden revealed that National Security Agency spies in the U.S. had identified themselves as information technology staff at private companies to gain access to servers.
Such a deception would be difficult to carry out at the Swiss Fort Knox. An intruder may get past the front door camouflaged as rock but, beyond that, it’s a complicated system of tunnels that only people with necessary clearance can access. Oschwald, who was a Swiss paratrooper, ensures that security checks are water-tight. We are only allowed to reveal that these checks start with a biometric facial recognition scan, watched over by a security guard, the head of the company and a camera. On the other end of the camera, someone, somewhere, in Switzerland, pushes the buttons to open steel doors that weigh 3.5 tons and lead into the innermost sanctum of the data center.
But not everyone is convinced that data centers like the Swiss Fort Knox are unbreachable.
Zurich-based lawyer Martin Steiger, who specializes in digital privacy, is always amused when he hears of data shelters that promise the highest level of security. “Data is always vulnerable, no matter where it is stored,” he says. Telling customers that they will get the highest level of security possible is a marketing strategy, says Steiger.
Oschwald knows that his fortress is not impregnable. There are cables connected to his servers that allow for data to be sent to and from the outside world. And his firewalls have to be taken down for maintenance every once in a while. “But there are a lot of dangers that we will not be subjected to here. Just think of solar storms.” These storms cut electricity in Sweden in 2003 for several hours resulting in damaged servers. Indeed, several flights to the U.S. had to be rerouted in 2012 after solar storms wreaked havoc on servers. These incidents demonstrate how vulnerable our digital world is and the growing need to store data safely.
The Swiss Association of Telecommunications estimates that the space for data centers will grow 10% every year. The amount of data generated in the world doubles with each passing year. About 300,000 million pictures are uploaded everyday on Facebook alone. Data generated by people has already entered the “zettabyte” sphere, a level that ordinary people are unable to even comprehend. All this data needs to be stored in a physical hard drive and that’s where Switzerland comes in.
Only Ireland has more data centers per capita than Switzerland, a country that has positioned itself well on the international data protection market.
Many companies believe Switzerland is a great location for data servers, preferring it to countries like Germany despite the fact that the latter is home to a quarter of Europe’s server centers. Mike Jank, co-founder and chairman of the encrypted communications company Silent Circle, points out that his customers do not trust a product if it comes from the European Union, Russia or Asia. And certainly not one from the U.S. Customers fear that intelligence services in those parts have unhindered access to supposedly secure information.
But such beliefs are misplaced, says Steiger.
“Switzerland only operates at an average level when it comes to data security as our conditions here are very close to that of the EU,” he says.
Switzerland is attractive to customers because of its image. “If a company is located in Switzerland it still emanates trustworthiness,” Steiger says.
That image also draws the trust of the wrong kind of people. Oschwald is aware of this.
“We most certainly do not want any dubious clients or criminals as customers at our data shelter,” he says. Although the company does not know the contents of the data it stores, the access to external IP addresses gives them an idea about their clientele. “We have never had to cancel a client’s contract to this day,” he says.
After we leave the Swiss Fort Knox, Oschwald points to the camouflaged front door of the center. “This is not just meant to be used by large companies,” he says.
“I am not just interested in the business side of things in this case. I am also a citizen. I do not understand a state which takes liberties and delves ever deeper into our privacy. I do not understand most of the general population who do nothing to protect their private data either. What would you say if you received letters at home that had already been opened and read by authorities? Would you like that? No? There you go.”
The demand for high-performing computing systems in market research, scientific and engineering work and other business associated models continues to surge today. This is where a supercomputer comes in, performing at or near its current highest operational rate. The performance of supercomputers is typically measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), in place of million instructions per second (MIPS). Such computers are composed of thousands of processors working in parallel and respond to increasing needs to process zillions of data in real-time with quality and accuracy.
Analytics Insight compiles a list of the top 10 fastest supercomputers in the world known for their supercomputing capabilities.
According to a quote with several origins, science advances on the shoulders of giants. In our time, these words have taken on a special meaning thanks to a new class of giants—supercomputers—which nowadays are pushing the boundaries of science to levels that the human intellect would be incapable of reaching on its own.
In a few decades, the strength of these giants has multiplied dramatically: in 1985 the world’s most powerful supercomputer, Cray-2, could process 1.9 billion floating point operations per second (FLOPS), or 1.9 gigaflops, the parameter used to measure the power of these machines. By comparison, a current PlayStation 4 game console reaches 1.84 teraflops, almost a thousand times more. Today, there are at least 500 supercomputers in the world that can exceed a petaflop, or one billion flops, according to the TOP500 list drawn up by experts from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the universities of Mannheim (Germany) and Tennessee (USA).
Below we present what are currently the ten most powerful supercomputers in the world and some of their contributions to knowledge.
1. SUMMIT, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)
The world’s most powerful supercomputer today is Summit, built by IBM for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. It occupies the equivalent of two basketball courts and achieves an impressive 148.6 petaflops thanks to its 2.41 million cores.
In addition to its large capacity, Summit is also the most energy-efficient machine in the top 10 of the world’s supercomputers. Its mission is civil scientific research, and since it came into operation in 2018 it has already participated in projects such as the search for genetic variants in the population related to diseases, the simulation of earthquakes in urban environments, the study of extreme climatic phenomena, the study of materials on an atomic scale and the explosion of supernovae, among others.
2. SIERRA, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)
IBM is also responsible for the second most powerful supercomputer on the list, Sierra, located in California’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Based on Summit-like hardware, Sierra manages 94.6 petaflops.
Unlike its older brother, Sierra is dedicated to military research, more specifically to the simulation of nuclear weapons in place of underground tests, so its studies are classified material.
3. SUNWAY TAIHULIGHT, NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE (WUXI, CHINA)
Until Summit and Sierra came into service in 2018, China was at the forefront of global supercomputing with TaihuLight, a machine built by the National Centre for Engineering Research and Parallel Computing Technology and installed at the National Supercomputing Centre in Wuxi. Unlike other machines of its calibre, it lacks accelerator chips, so its 93 petaflops depend on its more than 10 million Chinese Sunway processors.
TaihuLight is in a way a product of the trade war between China and the US, since its construction has completely dispensed with US technology, in response to the restrictions imposed by the US. This supercomputer has participated in research such as the simulation of the birth and expansion of the universe using 10 billion digital particles.
4. TIANHE-2A, NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE (GUANGZHOU, CHINA)
China also retains fourth place in the ranking with Tianhe-2A, or Milky Way 2A, developed by the National University of Defence Technology and equipped with Intel Xeon processors that allow it to reach 61.4 petaflops. According to its operators, the machine is use for computing related to government security, among others.
5. FRONTIER, TEXAS ADVANCED COMPUTING CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS (USA)
The Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin has entered the top 10 in global supercomputing thanks to Frontera, a new system built by Dell and equipped by Intel. Frontera was unveiled to the world in September 2019 as the world’s fastest supercomputer located in a university. Since June, it has been collaborating with three dozen scientific teams in research related to the physics of black holes, quantum mechanics, drug design and climate models. Its 23.5 petaflops will be available to the scientific community, which will benefit from its computational capacity especially in the areas of astrophysics, materials science, energy, genomics and the modelling of natural disasters.
6. PIZ DAINT, SWISS NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE
Europe’s most powerful system ranks sixth on the list. Piz Daint is a supercomputer named after an alpine mountain—whose image is displayed on its housing—located at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre in Lugano. It is an upgrade of a system built by the American company Cray, founded by the father of supercomputing Seymour Cray and responsible for several of the world’s most powerful machines. Its Intel and NVIDIA processors give it a speed of 21.2 petaflops. Piz Daint is involved in extensive research in materials science, physics, geophysics, life sciences, climatology and data science.
7. TRINITY, LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)
Also a product of the Cray company is Trinity, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory system that is able to reach nearly 20.2 petaflops. This machine, which inherited its name from the first U.S. nuclear test in 1945, is mainly devoted to nuclear weapons-related calculations.
8. AI BRIDGING CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE (ABCI), NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (JAPAN)
The 19.9 petaflops of ABCI, a system built by Fujitsu and belonging to Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, place this machine in eighth place in the ranking. One of its most striking features is its energy efficiency, a parameter in which it scores just below Summit. ABCI’s goal is to serve as a cloud-based Artificial Intelligence resource available to Japanese companies and research groups.
9. SUPERMUC-NG, LEIBNIZ RECHENZENTRUM (GERMANY)
In 2018, the new generation SuperMUC supercomputer officially came into service at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre in Garching, near Munich (Germany). Built by Lenovo with technology from the company and Intel, the most powerful supercomputer in the European Union achieves a processing speed of 19.5 petaflops.
10. LASSEN, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)
The top 10 closes with Lassen, Sierra’s little brother at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, built by IBM with the same architecture. Its recent improvements have increased its speed to 18.2 petaflops. Unlike its brother, Lassen is dedicated to unclassified research.
I wanted you to see how quickly these things get updated/or new ones come out. See the difference between last year’s Top 10 and this year’s TOP 7? Don’t think for a minute any of them go out of commission. They are all being used somewhere. They just keep building more and more and bigger and bigger. The same is true of the Hadron Colliders. They keep getting bigger and they keep building more.
I also wanted you to see that there are well over 500 of these SUPER COMPUTERS. More all the time.