The world today is screaming out for a concordance.  For a world where everyone and everything is embraced.  Whatever the belief, whatever the desire, whatever the fantasy…its all good.  Love is for everyone.  We can all get along if we just choose to do so.   What a lovely notion, but childish and extremely naïve.

For the fallen nature of the world in which we live is filled with evil.  No matter how much you try to make evil good it is not possible.  I remember when my son came home from school one day and declared that he believed that “EVERYONE SHOULD BE FREE TO DO WHATEVER THEY WANT”… I responded by saying.. “OK, tomorrow, I am coming to your house.  I am going to rape your wife, kill all your children in front of you, take everything that belongs to you and make you my slave, because that is what I WANT to do.”  He said “oh Mother, you are just exaggerating.” I told him certainly I was exaggerating to make a point, but the TRUTH is that there are people in this world who WANT to do EXACTLY that.

Everything and Everyone cannot be embraced.  There are consequences for evil/sin.  Not everyone is caring and giving by nature.  Only those who love GOD and keep His Commandments.  It is not a matter of whose God is better.  It is a matter of FACT that there is ONLY ONE CREATOR.

Just as there is no other god about which Our Creator said “You cannot serve GOD and Mammon” (which is money, or the world’s system.)  There is only one nation which the bible tells us to “COME OUT OF HER MY PEOPLE” and the Bible tells us that in the last days BABYLON is FALLEN.

There is a tie, a continuity of Rebellion from the first people to the last.  REBELLION rules.  God showed me long ago, when I first received the Baptism of the Holy Spirit and the Word of God was opened up to me, that it all started with NIMROD!  Organized Pagan Religion.

From NIMROD, to EGYPT, to France, to ROME, the dark authority has been passed.  In this post, I hope you will find evidence that will help you to see the progression and recognize the players.

It really does not matter who is King or what Nation rules… the evil forces, the dark spirits behind the throne remain the same.  Darkness, violence, rebellion, sin, deception and death.

There are only two choices in this world.  You can choose to follow the Creator or you can choose to rebel and join those who hate God.  There is ONLY ONE TRUE KING and GOD.  I know the world HATES THAT TRUTH.  But, TRUTH is all that matters.

The TRUTH is that anyone who does not love  ALMIGHTY GOD, loves death.

Proverbs 8

36 But he that sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul: all they that hate me love death.


The whole world is clamoring for peace.  They are demanding this treaty and that treaty in the hopes of resolving all the issues real or imagined.    The world is calling for inclusivity, unity, acceptance, love and harmony.


concordia Noun

     f (genitive concordiae)first declension

an agreement together, unionharmonyconcord synonyms, antonyms ▲

Synonyms: cōnsēnsiōcōnsēnsuscōnspīrātiōcongruentia
Antonyms: discordiadissidentiadissēnsiō


concord (n.)

early 14c., “agreement between persons, union in opinions or sentiment, state of mutual friendship, amiability,” from Old French concorde (12c.) “concord, harmony, agreement, treaty,” from Latin concordia “agreement, union,” from concors (genitive concordis) “of the same mind,” literally “hearts together,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + cor (genitive cordis) “heart,” from PIE root *kerd- “heart.” Related: Concordial.

concord (v.)

late 14c., “reconcile, bring into harmony” (transitive); c. 1400, “agree, cooperate,” from Old French concorder and directly from Latin concordare “be of one mind,” from concors “of the same mind” (see concord (n.)). Related: Concorded; concording.  also from late 14c.spacer

  • Matthew 5:33-37
    “Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform your oaths to the Lord.’ But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Nor shall you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black. But let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No.’ For whatever is more than these is from the evil one.
  • James 5:12
    But above all, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath. But let your “Yes” be “Yes,” and your “No,” “No,” lest you fall into judgment.


But, there will be NO PEACE until the PRINCE OF PEACE RETURNS.

They tell you that we all must come together at the place of commonality/convergence.   In other words the lowest common denominator.  They demand that you embrace and accept every outlandish demand, belief, practice or ritual.  ANYTHING that is except the TRUTH.  It is all a deception and a lie.  The only way to peace and security is in GOD through the Blood of Jesus the Christ.  The one and only way to salvation and redemption.  This world is dying because it is reaching its expiration date.  God created this world for a set period of time.  Thankfully.  There is a limit on the evil that God will allow.


They Swore an Oath – Octagon

Mt Hermon – They’re Here!

Mt Hermon Part 1 -GOD’s CREATION or PAN’s EVOLUTION?



Old English Lucifer “Satan,” also “morning star, Venus in the morning sky before sunrise,” also an
epithet or name of Diana, from Latin Lucifer“morning star,” noun use of adjective, literally “light-bringing,”from lux (genitive lucis) “light”(from PIE root *leuk- “light,
ferre “to carry, bear,”
from PIE root *bher- (1) “to carry,” also “to bear
children.” Venus in the evening sky was Hesperus.

Proto-Indo-European root meaning “light, brightness.”It forms all or part of: allumetteelucidateilluminationillustrationlealeukemialeuko-;
light (n.) “brightness, radiant energy;” lightninglimnlink (n.2) “torch of pitch, tow, etc.;”
lunatelunationlunaticlunelunetteluni-lusterlustrumluxpellucidsublunarytranslucent.It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit rocate “shines;” Armenian lois “light,” lusin “moon;” Greek leukos “bright, shining, white;” Latin lucere “to shine,” lux “light,” lucidus “clear;” Old Church Slavonic luci “light;” Lithuanian laukas “pale;”
Welsh llug “gleam, glimmer;” Old Irish loche “lightning,” luchair “brightness;” Hittite lukezi
“is bright;” Old English lehtleoht “light, daylight; spiritual illumination,” German Licht, Gothic
liuhaþ “light.”


Temple of BAAL – LUXEMBURG – ARCH of TRIUMPH or should we say VICTORY?



BABEL Then and NOW!


Luxor Obelisk

Monument in Paris, France

The Luxor Obelisks are a pair of Ancient Egyptian obelisks carved to stand either side of the portal of the Luxor Temple in the reign of Ramesses II. The left-hand obelisk remains in its location in Egypt, but the right-hand stone, 23 metres high, is now at the centre of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France. Wikipedia

AddressPlace de la Concorde, 75008 Paris, France
Opened1290 BC
Hours: Open 24 hours

Together in Egypt


The Luxor Temple predated Ramesses II by about 150 years. During his reign, renovations were made that included the addition of the two obelisks.

The obelisks were each carved from a single piece of red granite, quarried about 100 miles (160 km) south of Luxor in Aswan, transported on a specially designed barge, and lowered into place with ropes and sand.[1]

Physical features

The two obelisks were slightly different heights, and the one remaining in Luxor is taller. The shorter obelisk was mounted on a taller pedestal and placed farther from the pylon than the other. To an advancing spectator the obelisks may have appeared to be the same height, and this design choice may have been highly deliberate.[2][3]

The obelisk remaining in Luxor is leaning.[4] The Paris obelisk has a fissure in the original stone that had been tended to in antiquity.[5]

The eastern and western faces of each obelisk were slightly convex, the only two ancient obelisks with the feature, and the reason for this is not understood.[2]


Both obelisks feature hieroglyphic text carved in sunken relief on all four sides. In the 19th century, François Chabas produced a full translation of the western (Paris) obelisk, which is about Ramesses II, Amun-Ra, and Horus, and can be read here.

Luxor Obelisk in Paris


pylon noun  py·​lon ˈpī-ˌlän    -lən

aa usually massive gateway
ban ancient Egyptian gateway building in a truncated pyramidal form
c: a monumental mass flanking an entranceway or an approach to a bridge
a:chiefly British a tower for supporting either end of usually a number of wires over a long span
bany of various towerlike structures
aa post or tower marking a prescribed course of flight for an airplane
cone of the flexible upright markers positioned on a football field at the corners of the end zone
a rigid structure on the outside of an aircraft for supporting something (such as an engine or missile) see airplane illustration

Illustration of pylon

pylon 1b

What is a pylon?

Pylonsalso known as electricity transmission and distribution towers – are the structural supports that have carried the network of high-voltage overhead power lines for nearly 100 years.

The word pylon comes from the Greek word ‘pyle’ for ‘gateway’.

In Ancient Egypt, pylons were the impressive obelisk-shaped towers on either side of the doors to temples. Egyptology was all the rage in the Twenties, after the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb and the boy king mummy in 1922. And this was the decade when the first steel pylons were erected and they eventually became the gateways to electricity for everyone.

What is a T-pylon?

The T-pylon is the first new design for UK electricity pylons in nearly 100 years.

T-pylons, the first new design for UK pylons in nearly 100 years, are now operational.

This new shorter, sleeker pylon design was chosen from 250 entries in an international competition organised by National Grid, the UK Government and the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2011.

The winning T-shaped pylon comes from Danish firm Bystrup and measures 114ft (35 metres) tall. It’s about 50ft shorter than the traditional steel lattice structure but can still transmit 400,000 volts. The overhead power lines it carries are suspended from a diamond-shaped ‘earring’.

The world’s first operational T-pylon construction project currently underway and is expected to be completed in 2026. This project will see 116 T-pylons installed along National Grid’s 57 km Hinkley Connection route. The route will connect low-carbon energy from EDF’s Hinkley Point C power station to six million UK homes and businesses.

In 2023, 36 of the world’s first T-pylons were energised between Bridgwater and Loxton in Somerset – a major milestone in National Grid’s Hinkley Connection project to connect 6 million homes and businesses in the South West to home-grown, low-carbon energy. A further 80 T-pylons will be completed and energised by 2024.    Source

Last updated: 18 October 2023

The first thing that came to my mind as I saw this is that the ENTIRE world is being wired into the forces of EGYPT!  Connected to the Temple by sympathetic magic.  LUXOR is BRINGING LIGHT TO THE WORLD – ELECTRICITY.


The idea to transport the Luxor Obelisks to Paris appeared first during Napoleon‘s campaign in Egypt. On 21 March 1799 General Louis-Charles-Antoine Desaix wrote a letter to Napoleon informing him of the existence of two obelisks in Thebes which would constitute an extraordinary sight once brought to Paris.[6] Similarly, Vivant Denon recalls in his 1802 Voyage dans la basse et la Haute Égypte the possibility to bring the obelisks to Paris as a trophy of French conquest.[7] Finally, on
8 October 1800 (or 8/8/8), Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle presented before the Institut d’Égypte in Cairo the first technical considerations on the transport and erection of one of the obelisks to the Place de la Concorde.[8] With the eventual end of the French Campaign in Egypt, these plans, however, were never realized.

Under Napoleon’s successor, Louis XVIII (Louis the 8th) , the French acquired rights to Cleopatra’s Needle in Alexandria, though this obelisk was never moved to France and ended up in New York City in 1881.

19th century. British presence was heavy in Egypt, especially its military presence, and in 1819 the de facto ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, gifted the fallen obelisk to the British government in commemoration of the victories of Lord Nelson at the Battle of the Nile in 1798 and Ralph Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. Though the Brits accepted the gift, they declined to move it for a number of years due to the cost of transportation. It wasn’t until 1877 that the obelisk was moved to London and erected on the Victoria Embankment.

What spurred the move of the London obelisk almost 60 years after it was initially gifted was not a built up yearning for something promised long ago, but rather a fascination the British had that in the 1870’s had reached an all time high. Egyptomania had gripped the European elite, and all things Egypt were in vogue. Everyone wanted their own piece of the ancient civilization, and that included pillaged grave goods, hieroglyphs chipped off of monuments, and even powered mummies.

It was in this cultural climate that America, watching England claim its own obelisk, decided it wanted one too. In the same year that the first obelisk was transported to London, US consul-general in Egypt Elbert Farman began petitioning the Egyptian Khedive, Isma’il Pasha, to formally gift the second obelisk to the United States. Shortly thereafter the Commissioner of the Department of Public Parks of New York, Henry Stebbins, began to organize funding for the monument’s move. The petitioning efforts lasted over a year, during which time railroad magnate William Vanderbilt provided the majority of the funds needed, until the Egyptian government formally gifted the second of Cleopatra’s Needles to the US on May 18th, 1879.

It left Egypt by ship on June 12, 1880A full Masonic cornerstone ceremony was held the cornerstone of the pedestal upon which it stands was laid, on October 9, 1880 . .  Source

January the 22nd, 1881a huge crowd was on hand as the second of Cleopatra’s Needles was erected in Central Park, anchored by four replica bronze crabs (two of the original crabs can be found in the Metropolitan Museum of Art) engraved with the history of the obelisk, and Central Park’s personal chunk of Egyptian history has remained a prominent sight ever sinceSource

In the 1820s 
King Charles X opened an Egyptian Museum and sought an obelisk as a piece of Egyptian art. Around this time, Jean-François Champollion, who had recently achieved prominence for his decipherment of the Rosetta hieroglyphs, saw the Luxor obelisks for the first time and urged the French government to acquire them over any other obelisks.[9]


Cairo Citadel Clock, reportedly given by the French in the 1840s, outside the Mosque of Muhammad Ali

In November 1830Muhammad Ali Pasha, ruler of Ottoman Egypt, officially gave the Luxor obelisks to France. In so doing he reversed a previous gift of the two obelisks to the British: on a suggestion by France’s Consul-General Mimault, himself inspired by Champollion, he instead gave the UK the obelisk of Hatshepsut in Karnak Temple, which was in fact impractical to extract from the surrounding stone structures as Champollion knew well; the British nevertheless accepted.[10] Also, French diplomat Baron Isidore Justin Séverin Taylor, Mimault’s senior, finalized the terms of the gift despite having been mandated to do so by Charles X, who had been overthrown in the meantime by the July Revolution.[11]

In reciprocation for the gift, France gave the Ottomans a mechanical clock in the 1840s, today known as the Cairo Citadel Clock.[4] The clock has rarely worked since its arrival in Cairo, but in 2021 the Supreme Council of Antiquities announced that “Egypt is seeking to repair the citadel clock, one of the oldest of its type in the world, so that it will work again.”[12][13]

In 1981, President François Mitterrand of France definitively renounced possession of the second obelisk, thus restoring its property to Egypt.[14]

Orange Order

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Northern Ireland order. For Dutch dynastic knighthood, see Order of the House of Orange. For Dutch chivalric order, see Order of Orange-Nassau. For others, see Order of Orange.

Loyal Orange Institution
The Orange Order Logo.jpg

The Orange Order logo
Flag of the Orange Order.svg

The Orange Order flag, incorporating the colour orange, the purple star of the Williamites and the St George’s Cross
Named after King William of Orange
Formation 1795
Founded at LoughgallCounty Armagh
Type Fraternal order
Headquarters BelfastNorthern Ireland
Edward Stevenson

The Loyal Orange Institution, commonly known as the Orange Order, is an international  Protestant fraternal order based in Northern Ireland. It also has lodges in EnglandScotland and the Republic of Ireland, as well as throughout the British Commonwealth and the United States.[1][2][3] The Orange Order was founded in County Armagh in 1795, during a period of Protestant–Catholic sectarian conflict, asMasonic-style fraternity sworn to maintain the Protestant Ascendancy. It is headed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, which was established in 1798. Its name is a tribute to the Dutch-born Protestant Parliament-supported prince William of Orange‘s defeat of Catholic English king James II in the Williamite–Jacobite War (1688–1691). The order is best known for its yearly marches, the biggest of which is held on or around 12 July (The Twelfth).

The Orange Order is a conservative unionist organisation,[4][5] with links to Ulster loyalism. It campaigned against Scottish independence in 2014.[6] The Order sees itself as defending Protestant civil and religious liberties, whilst critics accuse the Order of being sectarian, triumphalist,[7][8][9][10] and supremacist.[10][11][12][13] As a strict Protestant society, it does not accept non-Protestants as members unless they convert and adhere to the principles of Orangeism, nor does it accept Protestants married to Catholics.[14][15][16] Although many Orange marches are without incident, marches through mainly Catholic and Irish nationalist neighbourhoods are controversial and have often led to violence.[17][18]


William III (“William of Orange”) King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Stadtholder of the Netherlands

The Orange Institution commemorates the civil and religious privileges conferred on Protestants by William of Orange, the Dutch prince who became King of EnglandScotland, and Ireland in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In particular, the Institution remembers the victories of William III and his forces in Ireland in the early 1690s, especially the Battle of the Boyne.

Formation and early years

Since the 1690s commemorations—British state-sponsored and those held by the lower British classes—had been held throughout Ireland celebrating key dates in the Williamite War such as the Battle of AughrimBattle of the BoyneSiege of Derry and the second Siege of Limerick.[19][20] These followed a tradition started in Elizabethan England of celebrating key events in the Protestant calendar.[19] By the 1740s there were organisations holding parades in Dublin such as the Boyne Club and the Protestant Society, both seen as forerunners to the Orange Order.[19]

Armagh disturbances

Throughout the 1780s, sectarian tension had been building in County Armagh, largely due to the relaxation of the Penal Laws.[21] Here the number of Protestants and Catholics (in what was then Ireland’s most populous county) were of roughly equal number, and competition between them to rent patches of land near markets was fierce.[21] Drunken brawls between rival gangs had by 1786 become openly sectarian.[21] These gangs eventually reorganised as the Protestant Peep o’ Day Boys and the Catholic Defenders, with the next decade in County Armagh marked by fierce sectarian conflict between both groups, which escalated and spread into neighbouring counties.[21]

Battle of the Diamond

In September 1795, at a crossroads known as “The Diamond” near Loughgall, Defenders and Protestant Peep o’ Day Boys gathered to fight each other.[21] This initial stand-off ended without battle when the priest that accompanied the Defenders persuaded them to seek a truce, after a group called the “Bleary Boys” came from County Down to reinforce the Peep o’ Day Boys.[21] When a contingent of Defenders from County Tyrone arrived on 21 September, however, they were “determined to fight”.[21] The Peep o’ Day Boys quickly regrouped and opened fire on the Defenders.[21] According to William Blacker, the battle was short and the Defenders suffered “not less than thirty” deaths.[21]

After the battle had ended, the Peep o’ Days marched into Loughgall, and in the house of James Sloan they founded the Orange Order, which was to be a Protestant defence association made up of lodges.[21] The principal pledge of these lodges was to defend “the King and his heirs so long as he or they support the Protestant Ascendancy.[21] At the start the Orange Order was a “parallel organisation” to the Defenders in that it was a secret oath-bound society that used passwords and signs.[21]

One of the very few landed gentry that joined the Orange Order at the outset, William Blacker, was unhappy with some of the outcomes of the Battle of the Diamond.[21] He says that a determination was expressed to “driving from this quarter of the county the entire of its Roman Catholic population”, with notices posted warning them “to Hell or Connaught”.[21] Other people were warned by notices not to inform on local Orangemen or “I will Blow your Soul to the Low hils of Hell And Burn the House you are in”.[21] Within two months, 7,000 Catholics had been driven out of County Armagh.[21] According to Lord Gosford, the governor of Armagh:

It is no secret that a persecution is now raging in this country … the only crime is … profession of the Roman Catholic faith. Lawless banditti have constituted themselves judges … and the sentence they have denounced … is nothing less than a confiscation of all property, and an immediate banishment.[21]

A former Grand Master of the Order, also called William Blacker, and a former County Grand Master of Belfast, Robert Hugh Wallace have questioned this statement, saying whoever the Governor believed were the “lawless banditti”, they could not have been Orangemen as there were no lodges in existence at the time of his speech.[22] According to historian Jim Smyth:

Later apologists rather implausibly deny any connection between the Peep-o’-Day Boys and the first Orangemen or, even less plausibly, between the Orangemen and the mass wrecking of Catholic cottages in Armagh in the months following ‘the Diamond’ – all of them, however, acknowledge the movement’s lower-class origins.[23]

The Order’s three main founders were James Wilson (founder of the Orange Boys), Daniel Winter and James Sloan.[24] The first Orange lodge was established in nearby Dyan, and its first grandmaster was James Sloan of Loughgall.[25] Its first-ever marches were to celebrate the Battle of the Boyne and they took place on 12 July 1796 in PortadownLurgan and Waringstown.[26]

United Irishmen rebellion

The Society of United Irishmen was formed by liberal Presbyterians and Anglicans in Belfast in 1791. It sought reform of the Irish Parliament, Catholic Emancipation and the repeal of the Penal Laws. By the time the Orange Order was formed, the United Irishmen had become a revolutionary group advocating an independent Irish republic that would “Unite Catholic, Protestant and Dissenter”. United Irishmen activity was on the rise, and the government hoped to thwart it by backing the Orange Order from 1796 onward.[27] Irish nationalist historians Thomas A. Jackson and John Mitchel argued that the government’s goal was to hinder the United Irishmen by fomenting sectarianism, thereby creating disunity and disorder under pretence of “passion for the Protestant religion”.[28]Mitchel wrote that the government invented and spread “fearful rumours of intended massacres of all the Protestant people by the Catholics“.[29] Historian Richard R Madden wrote that “efforts were made to infuse into the mind of the Protestant feelings of distrust to his Catholic fellow-countrymen”.[29] Thomas Knox, British military commander in Ulster, wrote in August 1796 that “As for the Orangemen, we have rather a difficult card to play … we must to a certain degree uphold them, for with all their licentiousness, on them we must rely for the preservation of our lives and properties should critical times occur”.[27][30]

The United Irishmen saw the Defenders as potential allies, and between 1794 and 1796 they formed a coalition.[31] The United Irishmen, despite seeing the Defenders as “ignorant and poverty-stricken houghers and rick-burners” would claim in 1798 that they were indebted to the Armagh disturbances as the Orangemen had scattered politicised Catholics throughout the country and encouraged Defender recruitment, creating a proto-army for the United Irishmen to utilise.[21]

The United Irishmen launched a rebellion in 1798. In Ulster, most of the United Irish commanders and many of the rebels were Protestant. Orangemen were recruited into the yeomanry to help fight the rebellion and “proved an invaluable addition to government forces”.[21] No attempt was made to disarm Orangemen outside the yeomanry because they were seen as by far the lesser threat. It was also claimed that if an attempt had been made then “the whole of Ulster would be as bad as Antrim and Down”, where the United Irishmen rebellion was at its strongest.[21] However, sectarian massacres by the Defenders in County Wexford “did much to dampen” the rebellion in Ulster.[21] The Scullabogue Barn massacre saw over 100 non-combatant (mostly Protestant) men, women, and children imprisoned in a barn which was then set alight,[32] with the Catholic rebels ensuring none escaped, not even a child who it is claimed managed to break out only for a rebel to kill with his pike.[32] In the trials that followed the massacres, evidence was recorded of anti-Orange sentiments being expressed by the rebels at Scullabogue.[32] Partly as a result of this atrocity, the Orange Order quickly grew and large numbers of gentry with experience gained in the yeomanry came into the movement.[21]

The homeland and birthplace of the Defenders was mid-Ulster and here they failed to participate in the rebellion, having been cowed into submission and surrounded by their Protestant neighbours who had been armed by the government.[21] The sectarian attacks on them were so severe that Grand Masters of the Orange Order convened to find ways of reducing them.[21] According to Ruth Dudley Edwards and two former Grand Masters, Orangemen were among the first to contribute to repair funds for Catholic property damaged in the rebellion.[33][34]

One major outcome of the United Irishmen rebellion was the 1800 Act of Union that merged the Irish Parliament with that of Westminster, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Many Catholics supported the Act, but the Orange Order saw it as a threat to the “Protestant constitution” and 36 lodges in counties Armagh and Monaghan alone passed declarations opposing the Union.[21]


Dolly’s Brae, site of the “Battle of Dolly’s Brae” (1849) between Orangemen and Catholic Ribbonmen

In the early nineteenth century, Orangemen were heavily involved in violent conflict with an Irish Catholic secret society called the Ribbonmen. One instance, publicised in a 7 October 1816 edition of the Boston Commercial Gazette, included the murder of a Catholic priest and several members of the congregation of Dumreilly parish in County Cavan on 25 May 1816. According to the article, “A number of Orangemen with arms rushed into the church and fired upon the congregation”.[35] On 19 July 1823 the Unlawful Oaths Bill was passed, banning all oath-bound societies in Ireland. This included the Orange Order, which had to be dissolved and reconstituted. In 1825 a bill banning unlawful associations – largely directed at Daniel O’Connell and his Catholic Association, compelled the Orangemen once more to dissolve their association. When Westminster finally granted Catholic Emancipation in 1829, Roman Catholics were free to take seats as MPs (and take up various other positions of influence and power from which they had been excluded) and play a part in framing the laws of the land. The likelihood of Irish Catholic members holding the balance of power in the Westminster Parliament further increased the alarm of Orangemen in Ireland, as O’Connell’s ‘Repeal’ movement aimed to bring about the restoration of a separate Irish Parliament in Dublin, which would have a Catholic majority, thereby ending to the Protestant Ascendancy. From this moment on, the Orange Order re-emerged in a new and even more militant form.[36]

In 1836 the Order was accused of plotting to place Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Imperial Grand Master of the Orange Order, on the throne in place of Victoria when King William IV died; once the plot was revealed the House of Commons called upon the King to disband the Order.[37] Under pressure from Joseph HumeWilliam Molesworth and Lord John Russell, the King indicated measures would have to be taken and the Duke of Cumberland was forced to dissolve the Orange lodges.[38]

In 1845 the ban was again lifted, but the notorious Battle of Dolly’s Brae between Orangemen and Ribbonmen in 1849 led to a ban on Orange marches which remained in place for several decades. This was eventually lifted after a campaign of disobedience led by William Johnston of Ballykilbeg.[citation needed]

Revival and the Independent Order

By the late 19th century, the Order was in decline. However, its fortunes were revived in the 1880s after its embrace by the landlords in opposition to both the Irish Land League and later Home Rule.[39][40][41][42] The Order was heavily involved in opposition to Gladstone‘s first Irish Home Rule Bill 1886, and was instrumental in the formation of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). Protestant opposition to Irish self-government under Roman Catholic influence was intense, especially in the Protestant-dominated province of Ulster.

In 1903, the Order suffered a split when Thomas Sloan left the organisation to set up the Independent Orange Order. Sloan had been suspended after running against the official unionist candidate on a pro-Belfast Protestant Association platform in the 1902 Belfast South by-election. For at least some of the independents, the split was a protest against what they saw as the co-optation of the Orange Order by the Ulster Unionist Party and its alignment with the interests of landlords and employers (the “fur coat brigade”).[43] Their Grand Master, R. Lindsay Crawford outlined the new order’s democratic manifesto in Orangeism, its history and progress: a plea for first principles (1904).[44] However, his subsequent call in the Magheramorne Manifesto (1904) on Irish Protestants to “reconsider their position as Irish citizens and their attitude towards their Roman Catholic countrymen” proved too much for Sloan and most of the membership, and Crawford was eventually expelled.[43]

Role in the partition of Ireland

An Orange banner showing the signing of the Ulster Covenant

In 1912 the Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in the British House of Commons. However, its introduction would be delayed until 1914. The Orange Order, along with the British Conservative Party and unionists in general, were inflexible in opposing the Bill.[citation needed] The Order helped to organise the 1912 Ulster Covenant – a pledge to oppose Home Rule which was signed by up to 500,000 people.[citation needed] In 1911 some Orangemen began to arm themselves and train as militias. In 1913 the Ulster Unionist Council decided to bring these groups under central control, creating the Ulster Volunteer Force, an Ulster-wide militia dedicated to resisting Home Rule. There was a strong overlap between Orange Lodges and UVF units.[citation needed] A large shipment of rifles was imported from Germany to arm them in April 1914, in what became known as the Larne gun-running.

However, the crisis was interrupted by the outbreak of the World War I in August 1914, which caused the Home Rule Bill to be suspended for the duration of the war. Many Orangemen served in the war with the 36th (Ulster) Division, suffering heavy losses, and commemorations of their sacrifice are still an important element of Orange ceremonies.[citation needed]

The Fourth Home Rule Act was passed as the Government of Ireland Act 1920; the six northeastern counties of Ulster became Northern Ireland and the other twenty-six counties became Southern Ireland. This self-governing entity within the United Kingdom was confirmed in its status under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, and in its borders by the Boundary Commission agreement of 1925. Southern Ireland became first the Irish Free State in 1922 and then in 1949 a Republic.

Since 1921

The Orange Order had a central place in the new state of Northern Ireland. From 1921 to 1969, every Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was an Orangeman and member of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP); all but three Cabinet Ministers were Orangemen; all but one unionist Senators were Orangemen; and 87 of the 95 MPs who did not become Cabinet Ministers were Orangemen.[45] James Craig, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, maintained always that Ulster was in effect Protestant and the symbol of its ruling forces was the Orange Order. In 1932, Prime Minister Craig maintained that “ours is a Protestant government and I am an Orangeman”. This was in response to a speech the year before by Eamonn de Valera in the Irish Free State claiming that Ireland was a “Catholic nation”[46] in a debate about protests against Protestant woman Letitia Dunbar-Harrison being appointed as County Librarian in County Mayo.[47] Two years later he stated: “I have always said that I am an Orangeman first and a politician and a member of this parliament afterwards … All I boast is that we have a Protestant Parliament and a Protestant State.[48][49][50]

At its peak in 1965, the Order’s membership was around 70,000, which meant that roughly 1 in 5 adult Ulster Protestant males were members.[51] Since 1965, it has lost a third of its membership, especially in Belfast and Derry. The Order’s political influence suffered greatly after the unionist-controlled government of Northern Ireland was abolished in 1973.[51] In 2012, it was stated that estimated membership of the Orange Order was around 34,000.[52]

After the outbreak of “the Troubles” in 1969, the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland encouraged Orangemen to join the Northern Ireland security forces, especially the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and the British Army’s Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR). The response from Orangemen was strong. Over 300 Orangemen were killed during the conflict, the vast majority of them members of the security forces.[53] Some Orangemen also joined loyalist paramilitary groups. During the conflict, the Order had a fractious relationship with loyalist paramilitary groups,[54] the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), the Independent Orange Order and the Free Presbyterian Church. The Order urged its members not to join these organisations, and it is only recently that some of these intra-unionist breaches have been healed.[51]

Drumcree dispute

The Drumcree dispute is perhaps the most well-known episode involving the Order since 1921. On the Sunday before 12 July each year, Orangemen in Portadown would traditionally march to-and-from Drumcree Church. Originally, most of the route was farmland, but is now the densely populated Catholic part of town.[55][56] The residents have sought to re-route the march away from this area, seeing it as “triumphalist” and “supremacist“.[57]

There have been intermittent violent clashes during the march since the 19th century.[58] The onset of the Troubles led to the dispute intensifying in the 1970s and 1980s. At this time, the most contentious part of the march was the outward leg along Obins Street.[55] After serious violence two years in a row, the march was banned from Obins Street in 1986. The focus then shifted to the return leg along Garvaghy Road.[55]

Each July from 1995 to 2000, the dispute drew worldwide attention as it sparked protests and violence throughout Northern Ireland, prompted a massive police/army operation, and threatened to derail the peace process.[55][56] The situation in Portadown was likened to a “war zone”[59] and a “siege”.[60] During this time, supporters of the Orangemen murdered at least six Catholic civilians. In 1995 and 1996, residents succeeded in stopping the march. This led to a standoff at Drumcree between the security forces and thousands of loyalists. Following a wave of loyalist violence, the march was allowed through. In 1997, security forces locked down the Catholic area and forced the march through, citing loyalist threats. This sparked widespread protests and violence by Irish nationalists. From 1998 onward the march was banned from Garvaghy Road[61] and the Catholic area was sealed-off with large barricades. For a few years, there was an annual major standoff at Drumcree and widespread loyalist violence. Since 2001, things have been relatively calm, but the Order still campaigns for the right to march on Garvaghy Road.[62] The dispute led to a short-lived boycott of businesses owned by Orangemen and their supporters elsewhere in the region.[63]

Membership rates

Membership of the Order was historically lower in areas where Protestants are in the majority, and vice versa. In County Fermanagh, where the Catholic and Protestant populations are close to parity, membership in 1971 was three times as high as in the more Protestant counties of Antrim and Down, where it was just over 10% of adult Protestant males.[64] Other factors that are associated with high rates of membership are levels of unemployment that more closely match Catholic levels, and low levels of support for the Democratic Unionist Party among unionists.

Beliefs and activities

Orange Order poster depicting historical and religious symbols.


The basis of the modern Orange Order is the promotion and propagation of “biblical Protestantismand the principles of the Reformation. As such the Order only accepts those who confess a belief in a Protestant religion. As well as Catholics, non-creedal and non-Trinitarian Christians are also banned. This includes members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Jehovah’s WitnessesUnitarians, and some branches of Quakers.

Previous rules specifically forbade Roman Catholics and their close relatives from joining[14][15][16] but the current rules use the wording “non-reformed faith” instead. Converts to Protestantism can join by appealing to Grand Lodge.

Masonic influences

James Wilson and James Sloan, who issued the warrants for the first Lodges of the Orange Order along with ‘Diamond’ Dan Winter, were Freemasons,[24] and in the 19th century many Irish Republicans regarded the Orange Order as a front group established by Unionist Masons as a more violent and jingoist vehicle for the promotion of Unionism.[65] Some anti-Masonic evangelical Christian groups have claimed that the Orange Order is still influenced by freemasonry.[66] Many Masonic traditions survive, such as the organisation of the Order into lodges. The Order has a similar system of degrees through which new members advance. These degrees are interactive plays with references to the Bible. There is particular concern over the ritualism of higher degrees such as the Royal Arch Purple and the Royal Black Institutions.[67]


The Order considers important the Fourth Commandment, and that it forbids Christians to work, or engage in non-religious activity generally, on Sundays. When the Twelfth of July falls on a Sunday the parades traditionally held on that date are held the next day instead. In March 2002, the Order threatened “to take every action necessary, regardless of the consequences” to prevent the Ballymena Show being held on a Sunday.[68] The County Antrim Agricultural Association complied with the Order’s wishes.[68]


The Orange Order is strongly linked to British unionism.[69][70][71] This is a political ideology that supports the continued unity of the United Kingdom. Unionism is thus opposed to, for example, the unification of Ireland and Scottish independence.

An Orange Hall in Ballinrees bedecked with Union Flags.

An anti-Orange Order sign in Rasharkin.

The Order, from its very inception, was an overtly political organisation.[72] In 1905, when the Ulster Unionist Council (UUC) was formed, the Orange Order was entitled to send delegates to its meetings. The UUC was the decision-making body of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). Between 1922 and 1972, the UUP was consistently the largest party in the Northern Ireland Parliament, and all Prime Ministers of Northern Ireland and the vast majority of senior UUP figures were members of the Order. Due to its close links with the UUP, the Orange Order was able to exert great influence. The Order was the force behind the UUP no-confidence votes in reformist Prime Ministers Terence O’Neill (1969), James Chichester-Clark (1969–71), and Brian Faulkner (1972–74).[51] At the outbreak of The Troubles in 1969, the Order encouraged its members to join the Northern Ireland security forces.[53] The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) attracted the most seats in an election for the first time in 2003. DUP leader Ian Paisley had been clashing with the Order since 1951, when the Order banned members of Paisley’s Free Presbyterian Church from acting as Orange chaplains and later, from the 1970s, when it openly endorsed the UUP against the DUP.[51][73] Recently, however, Orangemen have begun voting for the DUP in large numbers due to their opposition to the Good Friday Agreement.[74] Relations between the DUP and Order have healed greatly since 2001, and there are now a number of high-profile Orangemen who are DUP MPs and strategists.[75]

In December 2009, the Orange Order held secret talks with Northern Ireland’s two main unionist parties, the DUP and UUP.[76] The main goal of these talks was to foster greater unity between the two parties, in the run-up to the May 2010 general election.[76] Sinn Féin’s Alex Maskey said that the talks exposed the Order as a “very political organisation”.[76] Shortly after the election, Grand Master Robert Saulters called for a “single unionist party” to maintain the union.[77] He said that the Order has members “who represent all the many shades of unionism” and warned, “we will continue to dilute the union if we fight and bicker among ourselves”.[77]

In the October 2010 issue of The Orange Standard, Grand Master Robert Saulters referred to ‘dissident’ Irish republican paramilitaries as the “Roman Catholic IRA“.[78] SDLP MLA John Dallat asked Justice Minister David Ford to find if Saulters had broken the hate speech laws. He said: “Linking the Catholic community or indeed any community to terror groups is inciting weak-minded people to hatred, and surely history tells us what that has led to in the past”.[79] In a 2011 survey of 1,500 Orangemen throughout Northern Ireland, over 60% believed that “most Catholics are IRA sympathisers”.[80]

In 2015, the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland made a submission to the Northern Ireland Department of Arts, Culture and Leisure opposing the introduction of an Irish Language Bill. In its submission, the Lodge stated that it respected “Irish as one of the indigenous languages of the British Isles”. However, the Lodge argued an Irish Language Act would promote inequality because it would be “directed towards a section of the Roman Catholic community”.[81]

Orangemen parading in Bangor on 12 July 2010.


Parades are a big part of the Order’s activities. Most Orange lodges hold a yearly parade from their Orange hall to a local church. The denomination of the church is quite often rotated, depending on local demographics.

The highlights of the Orange year are the parades leading up to the celebrations on the Twelfth of July. The Twelfth, however, remains in places a deeply divisive issue, not least because of the alleged triumphalism, anti-Catholicism and anti-Irish nationalism of the Orange Order.[82] In recent years, most Orange parades have passed peacefully.[83] All but a handful of the Orange Order parades, at so-called “interface areas” where the two communities live next to each other, are peaceful. The locations used for the annual Twelfth parades are located throughout the six counties of Northern Ireland with County Down having the most venues with thirty-three. Counties Armagh and Fermanagh having a smaller population both have twelve host venues.[84] Some smaller villages such as CarrickmoreCushendallRostrevorCrossmaglen and Draperstown are not marched in at all and areas with a sizeable population like Coalisland and Dungiven have never been the host for a major Twelfth parade.[85]

The Grand Lodge of Ireland does not recognise the Parades Commission, which it sees as having been founded to target Protestant parades, as Protestants parade at ten times the rate of Catholics. Grand Lodge is, however, divided on the issue of working with the Parades Commission. 40% of Grand Lodge delegates oppose official policy while 60% are in favour. Most of those opposed to Grand Lodge policy are from areas facing parade restrictions like Portadown District, Bellaghy, Derry City and Lower Ormeau.[51]

In a 2011 survey of Orangemen throughout Northern Ireland, 58% said they should be allowed to march through Irish nationalist and Catholic areas with no restrictions; 20% said they should negotiate with residents first.[86]

Orange halls

Rasharkin Orange hall daubed with republican graffiti.

Clifton Street Orange Hall in Belfast designed by William Batt and completed in 1889,[87] which has a protective cage. The equestrian statue on the roof by Harry Hems[88] is the only one of King William III of Ireland, Scotland and England on any Orange hall in Ireland.

Monthly meetings are held in Orange halls. Orange halls on both sides of the Irish border often function as community halls for Protestants and sometimes those of other faiths, although this was more common in the past.[89] The halls often host community groups such as credit unions, local marching bands, Ulster-Scots and other cultural groups as well as religious missions and unionist political parties.

Of the approximately 700 Orange halls in Ireland, 282 have been targeted by arsonists since the beginning of the Troubles in 1968.[90] Paul Butler, a prominent member of Sinn Féin, has said the arson is a “campaign against properties belonging to the Orange Order and other loyal institutions” by nationalists.[91] On one occasion a member of Sinn Féin’s youth wing was hospitalised after falling off the roof of an Orange hall.[92] In a number of cases halls have been badly damaged or completely destroyed by arson,[93][94] while others have been damaged by paint bombings, graffiti and other vandalism.[95] The Order claims that there is considerable evidence of an organised campaign of sectarian vandalism by Irish republicans. Grand Secretary Drew Nelson claims that statistical analysis shows that this campaign began in the last years of the 1980s and continues to the present.[95]


One of the Orange Order’s activities is teaching members and the general public about William of Orange and associated subjects. Both the Grand Lodge and various individual lodges have published numerous booklets about William and the Battle of the Boyne, often aiming to show that they have continued relevance, and sometimes comparing the actions of William’s adversary James II with those of the Northern Ireland Office. Furthermore, historical articles are often published in the Order’s monthly newspaper The Orange Standard[96] (available in a print edition and also electronically) and the Twelfth souvenir booklet. While William is the most frequent subject, other topics have included the Battle of the Somme (particularly the 36th (Ulster) Division‘s role in it), Saint Patrick (who the Order argues was not Roman Catholic), and the Protestant Reformation.

There are at least two Orange Lodges in Northern Ireland which they claim represent the heritage and religious ethos of Saint Patrick. The best known is the Cross of Saint Patrick LOL (Loyal Orange lodge) 688,[97] instituted in 1968 for the purpose of (re)claiming Saint Patrick. The lodge has had several well-known members, including Rev Robert Bradford MP who was the lodge chaplain who himself was killed by the Provisional IRA, the late Ernest Baird. Today Nelson McCausland MLA and Gordon Lucy, Director of the Ulster Society are the more prominent members within the lodge membership. In the 1970s there was also a Belfast lodge called Oidhreacht Éireann (Ireland’s Heritage) LOL 1303, which argued that the Irish language and Gaelic culture were not the exclusive property of Catholics or republicans.[98]

William was supported by the Pope in his campaigns against James’ backer Louis XIV of France,[99] and this fact is sometimes left out of Orange histories.[100]

Occasionally the Order and the more fundamentalist Independent Order publishes historical arguments based more on religion than on history. British Israelism, which claims that the British people are descended from the Israelites and that Queen Elizabeth II is a direct descendant of the Biblical King David, has from time to time been advanced in Orange publications.[101]

War commemoration

Thiepval Memorial Lodge parade in remembrance of the Battle of the Somme.

The Order has been prominent in commemorating Ulster’s war dead, particularly Orangemen and particularly those who died in the Battle of the Somme (1916) during World War I. There are many parades on and around 1 July in commemoration of the Somme, although the war memorial aspect is more obvious in some parades than others. There are several memorial lodges, and a number of banners which depict the Battle of the Somme, war memorials, or other commemorative images. In the grounds of the Ulster Tower Thiepval, which commemorates the men of the Ulster Division who died in the Battle of the Somme, a smaller monument pays homage to the Orangemen who died in the war.[102]

Relationship with loyalist paramilitaries

Orangemen carrying a banner of killed UVF member and Orangeman Brian Robinson in 2003.

The Orange Order has been criticised for associating with loyalist paramilitary groups such as the UVF and UDA, which are classified as terrorist organisations. However, it has publicly condemned terrorism and paramilitary violence. Some bands that appear at Orange marches openly display support for loyalist paramilitary groups, such as by carrying paramilitary flags or sporting paramilitary names and emblems.[103] For example, prominent loyalist John Gregg was a member of Cloughfern Young Conquerors band,[104] while Coleraine-based Freeman Memorial band was named after a UVF member who was killed by his own bomb.[105] It has also been claimed that paramilitary groups approach certain bands asking the band to carry a flag of their organisation with financial assistance sometimes offered for doing so.[106]

A number of prominent loyalist militants were members of the Orange Order at the same time. This includes Gusty Spence,[107] Robert Bates,[108] Davy Payne,[109] David Ervine,[110] John Bingham,[111] George Seawright,[112] Richard Jameson,[113] Billy McCaughey,[114] Robert McConnell[113] and Ernie Elliott.[115] The banner of Old Boyne Island Heroes Orange lodge bears the names of John Bingham and Shankill Butcher Robert Bates, who were both members.[116] Another Shankill Butcher, UDR soldier Eddie McIlwaine, was pictured taking part in an Orange march in 2003 with a bannerette of killed UVF member Brian Robinson (who himself was an Orangeman).[114][117] McIlwaine was also pictured acting as a steward at a 2014 Orange march. An Orange Order spokesman refused to condemn McIlwaine’s membership of the Order.[118]

On 12 July 1972, at least fifty masked and uniformed members of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) escorted an Orange march into the Catholic area of Portadown,[58][119][120] saluting the Orangemen as they passed.[121] That year, Orangemen formed a paramilitary group called the Orange Volunteers. This group “bombed a pub in Belfast in 1973 but otherwise did little illegal other than collect the considerable bodies of arms found in Belfast Orange Halls”.[122] Portadown Orangemen allowed known militants such as George Seawright to take part in a 6 July 1986 march, contrary to a prior agreement.[123] Seawright was a unionist politician and UVF member who had publicly proposed burning Catholics in ovens.[123] As the march entered the town’s Catholic district, the RUC seized Seawright and other known militants. The Orangemen attacked the officers with stones and other missiles.[123]

When a July 1992 Orange march passed the scene of the Sean Graham bookmakers’ shooting—in which the UDA killed five Catholic civilians—Orangemen shouted pro-UDA slogans and held aloft five fingers as a taunt to residents.[124] Journalists Henry McDonald and Jim Cusack said images of Orangemen “gloating over the massacre” were beamed around the world and were a public relations disaster for the Order. Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, said the marchers “would have disgraced a tribe of cannibals”.[124] The incident led to a more concerted effort by residents to have the marches banned from the area.[125] In 2007, a banner commemorating UDA member Joe Bratty appeared at an Orange march. Bratty was said to have orchestrated the massacre.[126]

Orange lodges in Britain have also been accused of links with loyalist paramilitaries. In the early years of The Troubles, the Order’s Grand Secretary in Scotland toured Orange lodges for volunteers to “go to Ulster to fight”. Thousands are believed to have volunteered although only a small number travelled to Ulster.[127][128] During the 1970s an Orangeman—Roddy MacDonald—was the UDA’s ‘commander’ in Scotland.[129] In 1976, senior Scottish Orangemen tried to expel him after he admitted on television that he was a UDA leader and had smuggled weapons to Northern Ireland. However, his expulsion was blocked by 300 Orangemen at a special disciplinary hearing.[129][130][131] His successor as Scottish UDA commander, James Hamilton, was also an Orangeman.[129] Many Scottish Orangemen were also convicted for loyalist paramilitary activity, and some Orange meetings were used to raise funds for loyalist prisoners’ welfare groups.[132][133] In 2006, three Liverpool Orangemen were jailed for possession of weapons and UVF membership. Local MP Louise Ellman called for them to be expelled from the Order.[134]

Stoneyford Orange Hall in County Antrim.

During the Drumcree standoffs, loyalist militants publicly supported the Orangemen and launched waves of violence across NI in protest at the Orange march being blocked. They smuggled homemade weaponry to Drumcree, apparently unhindered by the Orangemen,[135] and attacked police lines. Members of the UDA/UFF appeared at Drumcree with banners supporting the Orangemen. Portadown Orange Lodge said it could not stop such people from gathering, but added that it welcomed any support.[136] Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) leader Billy Wright was frequently seen at Drumcree in the company of Harold Gracey, head of Portadown Orange Lodge.[135] Gracey later attended a rally in support of Wright[137] and refused to condemn the loyalist violence linked to the standoff.[138]

In the late 1990s, Stoneyford Orange Hall was reported to be a focal point for the Orange Volunteers.[139] Following a police raid on the hall, two Orangemen were convicted for possession of “documents likely to be of use to terrorists”, an automatic rifle, and membership of the Orange Volunteers.[140] Their Orange lodge refused to expel them.[141]

An Orangeman and DUP election candidate with links to the Real UFF in Antrim was jailed in 2013 for his part in a sectarian attack on a Polish family. He was expelled from the Order.[142]

The Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland has issued several statements condemning violence and paramilitarism.[143] Answering accusations of paramilitary links by Sinn Féin in 2011, an Orange spokesman said: “The Orange Order has consistently condemned all terrorist violence”.[144] In 2008, Armagh Orangemen condemned the flying of paramilitary flags.[145] Denis Watson, the then secretary of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, has publicly called for anyone convicted of terrorist offences to be thrown out.[146] Addressing a 12 July demonstration in 2000, Orangeman and Democratic Unionist politician Jeffrey Donaldson said “It is essential that the Orange Order does not allow the paramilitaries to infiltrate its parades or hijack legitimate protests as a means of flaunting their aggression and engaging in displays of naked intimidation … The Orange Order stands for higher ideals than this and must at every opportunity condemn the illegal activities of the paramilitaries and of all those who engage in acts of violence”.[147] Eric Kaufmann, in his book The New Unionism, writes: “The Orange Order actually took a firm stand against violence and paramilitarism throughout the Troubles. This opposition was rooted in the large contingent of Protestant clergymen who are built into the power structure of the Order. Young Orangemen were urged to join the RUC (police) or UDR (local security forces) and to stay away from paramilitaries”.[148]


The Orange Institution in Ireland has the structure of a pyramid. At its base are about 1400 private lodges; every Orangeman belongs to a private lodge. Each private lodge sends six representatives to the district lodge, of which there are 126. Depending on size, each district lodge sends seven to thirteen representatives to the county lodge, of which there are 12. Each of these sends representatives to the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, which heads the Orange Order.

The Grand Lodge of Ireland has 373 members. As a result, much of the real power in the Order resides in the Central Committee of the Grand Lodge, which is made up of three members from each of the six counties of Northern Ireland (Down, Antrim, Armagh, Londonderry, Tyrone and Fermanagh) as well as the two other County Lodges in Northern Ireland, the City of Belfast Grand Lodge and the City of Londonderry Grand Orange Lodge, two each from the remaining Ulster counties (Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan), one from Leitrim, and 19 others. There are other committees of the Grand Lodge, including rules revision, finance, and education.

Despite this hierarchy, private lodges are basically autonomous as long as they generally obey the rules of the Institution. Breaking these can lead to suspension of the lodge’s warrant – essentially the dissolution of the lodge – by the Grand Lodge, but this rarely occurs.[citation needed] Private lodges may disobey policies laid down by senior lodges without consequence. For example, several lodges have failed to expel members convicted of murder despite a rule stating that anyone convicted of a serious crime should be expelled,[155] and Portadown lodges have negotiated with the Parades Commission in defiance of Grand Lodge policy that the commission should not be acknowledged.

Private lodges wishing to change Orange Order rules or policy can submit a resolution to their district lodge, which may submit it upwards until it eventually reaches the Grand Lodge.[citation needed]

All Lodge meetings commence with the reading of the Bible and prayers that non-practising Protestants, Roman Catholics and people of other faiths and none, ‘may become wise unto salvation’ (which is direct quote from 2 Timothy 3:15 in the Bible).[156] [157]

Related organisations

An Orangewoman marching in an Orange Order parade in Glasgow.

Association of Loyal Orangewomen of Ireland

A distinct[158] women’s organisation grew up out of the Orange Order. Called the Association of Loyal Orangewomen of Ireland,[159] this organisation was revived in December 1911 having been dormant since the late 1880s. They have risen in prominence in recent years, largely due to protests in Drumcree.[160] The women’s order is parallel to the male order, and participates in its parades as much as the males apart from ‘all male’ parades and ‘all ladies’ parades respectively. The contribution of women to the Orange Order is recognised in the song “Ladies Orange Lodges O!”.

Independent Orange Institution

The Independent Orange Institution was formed in 1903 by Thomas Sloane, who opposed the main Order’s domination by Unionist Party politicians and the upper classes. A dispute between unionist candidates in East Belfast who were both Orangemen, saw one being kicked out of the Order for embarrassing an Orange grandee who had apparently not voted against a nationalist motion.[161] The Independent Order originally had radical tendencies, especially in the area of labour relations, but this soon faded. In the 1950s and 60s the Independents focused primarily on religious issues, especially the maintenance of Sunday as a holy day and separation of politics from religion. With the outbreak of the Troubles, Ian Paisley began regularly speaking at Independent meetings, although he was never a member. As a result, the Independent Institution has become associated with Paisley and the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster and Democratic Unionist Party. Recently the relationship between the two Orange Institutions has improved, with joint church services being held. Some people believe that this will ultimately result in a healing of the split which led to the Independent Orange Institution breaking away from the mainstream Order. Like the main Order, the Independent Institution parades and holds meetings on the Twelfth of July. It is based mainly in north Antrim.

Royal Black Institution

The Royal Black Institution was formed out of the Orange Order two years after the founding of the parent body. Although it is a separate organisation, one of the requirements for membership in the Royal Black is membership of the Orange Order and to be no less than 17 years old. The membership is exclusively male and the Royal Black Chapter is generally considered to be more religious and respectable in its proceedings than the Orange Order.

Apprentice Boys of Derry

The Apprentice Boys of Derry exist for their acts during the siege of Derry from James II. Although they have no formal connection with the Orange Order, the two societies have overlapping membership.

Throughout the world

The Orange Order was brought to other parts of the English-speaking world by Ulster Protestant migrants and missionaries. Grand Lodges have been set up in Scotland, England, Wales, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and West Africa. However, the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland have always been the largest by far. The Imperial Grand Orange Council is made up of representatives from all of these various Grand Lodges. It has the power to arbitrate in disputes between Grand Lodges, and in internal disputes when invited.

Famous Orangemen have included Dr Thomas Barnardo, who joined the Order in Dublin; Mackenzie Bowell, who was Grandmaster of the Orange Order of British North America before becoming the Prime Minister of Canada; William Massey, who was Prime Minister of New Zealand; Harry Ferguson, inventor of the Ferguson tractor; and Earl Alexander, the Second World War general. Mohawk chief Dr Oronhyatekha, an Oxford scholar, was also a member.[162]

Republic of Ireland

An Orange Hall in Monaghan

The Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland represents lodges in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, where Orangeism remains particularly strong in border counties such as Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan. Before the partition of Ireland the Order’s headquarters were in Dublin, which at one stage had more than 300 private lodges. After partition the Order declined rapidly in the Republic of Ireland. Following partition parades continued to take place in counties Monaghan and Cavan but none have taken place since 1931.[163] The last 12 July parade in Dublin took place in 1937. The last Orange parade in the Republic of Ireland is at RossnowlaghCounty Donegal, an event which has been largely free from trouble and controversy.[164] It is held on the Saturday before the Twelfth as the day is not a holiday in the Republic of Ireland. There are still Orange lodges in nine counties of the Republic of Ireland – counties CavanCorkDonegal, Dublin, LaoisLeitrimLouthMonaghan and Wicklow, but most either do not parade or travel to other areas to do so.[165]

In February 2008 it was announced that the Orange Order was to be granted nearly €250,000 from the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. The grant is intended to provide support for members in border areas and fund the repair of Orange halls, many of which have been subjected to vandalism.[166][167]

In July 2011 there were 45 Orange Lodges in the Republic.[168]


Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003)

The Scottish branch of the Orange Order is the largest outside Ireland. The vast majority of Scotland’s lodges are found in the Lowlands, especially the west Central Lowlands (GlasgowAyrshireRenfrewshireLanarkshire).

Scotland’s first Orange lodges were founded in 1798 by soldiers returning home from Ireland, where they had helped suppress an Irish republican rebellion.[169] The Scottish branch grew swiftly in the early 1800s, when there was an influx of working-class Ulster Protestant immigrants into the Scottish Lowlands. Many of these immigrants saw themselves as returning to the land of their forefathers (see Plantation of Ulster).[170]

As such, the Scottish branch has always had strong links with Northern Ireland, and tends to be largest wherever there are most descendants of Irish Protestants.[171] In 1881, three-quarters of its lodge masters were born in Ireland and, when compared to Canada, the Scottish branch has been both smaller (no more than two percent of adult male Protestants in west central Scotland have ever been members) and had more of an Ulster link.[172][173]

Scottish Orangeism was associated with the Tory party. The Order’s political influence crested between the World Wars, but was effectively nil thereafter as the Tory party began to move away from Protestant politics.[174]

After the onset of the Troubles, many Scottish Orangemen began giving support to loyalist militant groups in Northern Ireland,[128] such as the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). Although the Grand Lodge publicly denounced paramilitary groups, many Scottish Orangemen were convicted of involvement in loyalist paramilitary activity,[175] and Orange meetings were used to raise funds for loyalist prisoners’ welfare groups.[132][176]

The Grand Orange Lodge of Scotland has long been opposed to Scottish independence. In 2007, 12,000 Orangemen and women marched along Edinburgh‘s Royal Mile to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Act of Union.[177] It registered as an official participant in the 2014 independence referendum[6] and formed an anti-independence campaign group called British Together.[178]

In 2004 former Scottish Orangeman Adam Ingram, then Armed Forces Minister, sued George Galloway for stating in his book I’m Not the Only One that Ingram had “played the flute in a sectarian, anti-Catholic, Protestant-supremacist Orange Order band”. The Lord OrdinaryLord Kingarth, ruled that the phrase was ‘fair comment‘ on the Orange Order and that Ingram had been a member, although he had not played the flute.[179]


An Orange Order parade in Hyde Park, London, June 2007

The Orange Order reached England in 1807, spread by soldiers returning to the Manchester area from service in Ireland. Since then, the English branch of the Order has generally supported the Conservative and Unionist Party.[180]

The Orange Order in England is strongest in Liverpool including Toxteth and Garston. Its presence in Liverpool dates to at least 1819, when the first parade was held to mark the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne, on 12 July. The Order was an important component in the founding of the Liverpool Protestant Party in 1909, keeping an association until the party’s demise in 1974.

The Orange Order in Liverpool holds its annual Twelfth parade in Southport, a seaside town north of Liverpool. The Institution also holds a Junior parade there on Whit Monday. The Black Institution holds its Southport parade on the first Saturday in August. The parades in Southport have attracted controversy in recent times, with criticism of the disruption that results from the closure of main roads.[citation needed]

Other parades are held in Liverpool on the Sunday prior to the Twelfth and on the Sunday after. These parades along with St George’s day; Reformation Snday and Remembrance Sunday go to and from church. Other parades are held by individual Districts of the Province town square has an equestrian statue of King William III, as does Hull.


Cymru LOL 1922 was the only Orange lodge in Wales. A new Lodge in Cardiff opened on 17 March 2012, the first new Orange Lodge to be opened there for over 90 years.


An Orange parade in Toronto (1860s).

Founded by Ogle Gowan, in Brockville Ontario, the Orange Order played an important role in the history of Canada, where it was established in 1830. Most early members were from Ireland, but later many English, Scots, Italians[181] and other Protestant Europeans joined the Order, as well as Mohawk Native Americans.[182] Four Canadian prime ministers were Orangemen.[183] Toronto was the epicentre of Canadian Orangeism: most mayors were Orange until the 1950s, and Toronto Orangemen battled against Ottawa-driven initiatives like bilingualism and Catholic immigration. The Toronto lodge has held an annual Orange parade since 1821, claiming it to be the longest running consecutive parade on the North American continent.[184] A third of the Ontario legislature was Orange in 1920, but in Newfoundland, the proportion has been as high as 50% at times. Indeed, between 1920 and 1960, 35% of adult male Protestant Newfoundlanders were Orangemen, as compared with just 20% in Northern Ireland and 5%–10% in Ontario in the same period.[185]

In addition to Newfoundland and Ontario, the Orange Order played an important role in the frontier regions of Quebec, including the GatineauPontiac, Quebec region. The region’s earliest Protestant settlement occurred when fifteen families from County Tipperary settled in the valley in Carleton County after 1818.[186] These families spread across the valley, settling towns near Shawville, Quebec.[186] Despite these early Protestant migrants, it was only during the early 1820s that a larger wave of Irish migrants, many of them Protestants, came to the Ottawa valley region.[187] Orangism developed throughout the region’s Protestant communities, including BristolLachute– Brownsburg, Shawville and Quyon.[188] After further Protestant settlement throughout the 1830s and 40s, the Pontiac region’s Orange Lodges developed into the largest rural contingent of Orangism in the Province.[189] The Orange Lodges were seen as community cultural centres, as they hosted numerous dances, events, parades, and even the teaching of step dancing.[188] Orange Parades still occur in the Pontiac-Gatineau- Ottawa Valley area; however, not every community hosts a parade.[190] Now one larger parade is hosted by a different town every year.[190]

United States

A picture of the Orange Order headquarters in New York City during the 1871 riot.

Participation in the Orange Institution was not as large in the United States as it was in Canada. In the early nineteenth century, the post-Revolutionary republican spirit of the new United States attracted exiled Protestant United Irishmen such as Wolfe Tone and others.[191] Most Protestant Irish immigrants in the first several decades of the century were those who held to the republicanism of the 1790s, and who were unable to accept Orangeism. Loyalists and Orangemen made up a minority of Irish Protestant immigrants during this period.[192] America offered a new beginning, and “… most descendents of the Ulster Presbyterians of the eighteenth century and even many new Protestant Irish immigrants turned their backs on all associations with Ireland and melted into the American Protestant mainstream.[193]

Most of the Irish loyalist emigration was bound for Upper Canada and the Maritime provinces, where Orange lodges were able to flourish under the British flag.[192] By 1870, when there were about 930 Orange lodges in Ontario, there were only 43 in the entire eastern United States.

The few American lodges were founded by newly arriving Protestant Irish immigrants in coastal cities such as Philadelphia and New York.[194] The Institution maintained a home for sick and aged members.[195] Qualifications for membership were restrictive, according to their “Declaration of Principles”, and “no person who ever was or is a Roman Catholic, or who shall educate, or cause to be educated, his children or any children in his charge, in any Roman Catholic school, convent, nunnery or monastery, shall ever be admitted to membership.” [196] These ventures were short-lived and of limited political and social impact, although there were specific instances of violence involving Orangemen between Catholic and Protestant Irish immigrants, such as the Orange Riots in New York City in 1824, 1870 and 1871.[197]

The first “Orange riot” on record was in 1824, in Abingdon, New York, resulting from a 12 July march. Several Orangemen were arrested and found guilty of inciting the riot. According to the State prosecutor in the court record, “the Orange celebration was until then unknown in the country”. The immigrants involved were admonished: “In the United States the oppressed of all nations find an asylum, and all that is asked in return is that they become law-abiding citizens. Orangemen, Ribbonmen, and United Irishmen are alike unknown. They are all entitled to protection by the laws of the country.”[198]

The Orange riots of 1870 and 1871 killed nearly 70 people, and were fought out between Irish Protestant and Catholic immigrants. After this the activities of the Orange Order were banned for a time, the Order dissolved, and most members joined Masonic lodges. After 1871, there were no more riots between Irish Catholics and Protestants.[199]

In 1923 the Loyal Orange Institution of the United States of America had 32,862 members in 256 lodges. The office of the “Supreme Grand Secretary” was at 229 Rhode Island Avenue, Washington, D.C.. There was apparently a split in the group in the early 1920s.[200]

There are currently two Orange Lodges in New York City, one in Manhattan and the other in the Bronx.[201][202]

The Ulster-Scots LOL 1690 was established in Torrance, California in 1998.[203] It was the first new lodge to be instituted in the US for more than 20 years. The latest American Lodge, Heirs of Cromwell LOL 1599 was formed in 2011 in Naples, Florida.


Flag of the Grand Orange Lodge of Australia.

The first Orange Institution Warrant (No. 1780) arrived in Australia with the ship Lady Nugent. It was sewn in the tunic of Private Andrew Alexander of the 50th Regiment. The 50th was mainly Irish; many of its members were Orangemen belonging to the Regimental lodge and they had secretly decided to retain their lodge warrant when they had been ordered to surrender all military warrants, believing that the order would eventually be rescinded and that the warrant would be useful in Australia.[204]

There are five state Grand Lodges in Australia which sit under the warrant of the Grand Lodge of Australia, the overall governing body for the institution in Australia.[citation needed]

New Zealand

Former Orange hall in Auckland, New Zealand, now a church.

New Zealand’s first Orange lodge was founded in Auckland in 1842, only two years after the country became part of the British Empire, by James Carlton Hill of County Wicklow. The lodge initially had problems finding a place to meet, as several landlords were threatened by Irish Catholic immigrants for hosting it.[205] The arrival of large numbers of British troops to fight the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s provided a boost for New Zealand Orangeism, and in 1867 a North Island Grand Lodge was formed. A decade later a South Island Grand Lodge was formed, and the two merged in 1908.[206]

From the 1870s the Order was involved in local and general elections, although Rory Sweetman argues that ‘the longed-for Protestant block vote ultimately proved unobtainable’.[207] Processions seem to have been unusual before the late 1870s: the Auckland lodges did not march until 1877 and in most places Orangemen celebrated the Twelfth and 5 November with dinners and concerts. The emergence of Orange parades in New Zealand was probably due to a Catholic revival movement which took place around this time. Although some parades resulted in rioting, Sweetman argues that the Order and its right to march were broadly supported by most New Zealanders, although many felt uneasy about the emergence of sectarianism in the colony.[208] From 1912 to 1925 New Zealand’s most famous Orangeman, William Massey, was Prime Minister. During World War I Massey co-led a coalition government with Irish Catholic Joseph Ward. Historian Geoffrey W. Rice maintains that William Massey’s Orange sympathies were assumed rather than demonstrated.[209]

Flag of the Grand Orange Lodge of New Zealand.

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand argues that New Zealand Orangeism, along with other Protestant and anti-Catholic organisations, faded from the 1920s.[210] The Order has certainly declined in visibility since that decade, although in 1994 it was still strong enough to host the Imperial Orange Council for its biennial meeting.[211] However parades have ceased,[212] and most New Zealanders are probably unaware of the Order’s existence in their country. The New Zealand Order is unusual in having mixed-gender lodges,[213] and at one point had a female Grand Master.[214]

West Africa


The Orange Order in Ghana was founded by Ulster-Scots missionaries some time during the early twentieth century, and is currently supported by the Institute of Ulster Scots Studies.[215] Its rituals mirror those of the Orange Order in Ulster, though it does not place restrictions on membership for those who have Roman Catholic family members. The Orange Order in Ghana appears to be growing, largely based with the growing democracy there.[216] [217]


The first Orange Lodge in Nigeria was the Lagos Fine Blues LOL 801, which was first listed in 1907 in the returns of Woolwich District 64 to the Grand Orange Lodge of England, this District providing the traditional ‘home’ to overseas and military Lodges.[218] Altogether there were three male lodges and one female lodge. They all appear to have died out some time in the 1960s, due to political unrest. Conversely the Ghana lodges increased greatly in popularity with the return of democracy.[215][219]


In 1915 John Amate Atayi, a member of the Lagos Fine Blues LOL 801 moved to LomeTogo, for work. Here he founded the Lome Defenders of the Truth LOL 867, under warrant of the Grand Orange Lodge of England. In 1916 a second lodge, Paline Heroes LOL No 884 was constituted.[215][219]

‘Diamond Dan’

As part of the re-branding of Orangeism to encourage younger people into a largely ageing membership, and as part of the planned rebranding of the July marches into an ‘Orangefest’, the ‘superhero’ Diamond Dan was created – named after one of its founding members, ‘Diamond’ Dan Winter – Diamond referring to the Institution’s formation at the Diamond, Loughgall, in 1795.

Initially unveiled with a competition for children to name their new mascot in November 2007 (it was nicknamed ‘Sash Gordon‘ by several parts of the British media); at the official unveiling of the character’s name in February 2008, Orange Order education officer David Scott said Diamond Dan was meant to represent the true values of the Order: “… the kind of person who offers his seat on a crowded bus to an elderly lady. He won’t drop litter and he will be keen on recycling”.[220] There were plans for a range of Diamond Dan merchandise designed to appeal to children.

There was however, uproar when it was revealed in the middle of the ‘Marching Season’ that Diamond Dan was a repaint of illustrator Dan Bailey‘s well-known “Super Guy” character (often used by British computer magazines), and taken without his permission,[221] leading to the character being lampooned as “Bootleg Billy”.

List of members

Grand Masters

Grand Masters, of the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland:[222]

See also:  ARAUSIO


Royal Black Institution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Royal Black Institution
The Royal Black Logo.png

Logo of the Royal Black Institution
Formation 1797
Headquarters LurganCounty Armagh
Areas found:
United Kingdom (based mainly in Northern Ireland and Scotland),
Republic of Ireland (almost exclusively in County Donegal),
United States,
New Zealand
other Commonwealth countries
Rev. William Anderson
Imperial Grand Registrar
Mr. William Scott

Symbol of the Institution, and logo — In Hoc Signo Vinces.

The Royal Black Institution, the Imperial Grand Black Chapter Of The British Commonwealth, or simply the Black Institution,[1] is a Protestant fraternal society.


The Royal Black Institution was formed in Ireland in 1797, two years after the formation of the Orange Order in Daniel Winter’s cottage, LoughgallCounty ArmaghIreland.

The society is formed from Orangemen and can be seen as a progression of that Order although they are separate institutions. Anyone wishing to be admitted to the Royal Black Institution must first become a member of an Orange Order Lodge, and many are members of both.

The Royal Black is often referred to as “the senior of the loyal orders”.

Members wear a sash or collarette of which the predominant colour is black.

Organisation and events

Its headquarters are in Loughgall, County Armagh. Members refer to each other as “Sir Knight”, whereas in the Orange Order members are referred to as “Brother” or “Brethren”. The RBI claim that their basis is the promotion of scripture and the principles of the Protestant Reformation. However, this is contested by people who suggest that the rituals are not biblical.[2] It has preceptories throughout the world, mainly in the major English speaking countries, and is particularly strong in Newfoundland.

In 1931 the IRA occupied Cootehill in County Cavan, on the day before a planned demonstration by members of the Royal Black Institution.[3]

In Northern Ireland it holds an annual parade in the village of ScarvaCounty Down, on 13 July (the day after the Orange Order’s 12 July celebrations). It is commonly referred to as “The Sham Fight” as it involves a mock fight between actors reenacting the Battle of the Boyne. The other major parade of the year is “Black Saturday”, also known as “Last Saturday”, held on the last Saturday in August at several locations throughout Ulster (including a major parade in Raphoe in the Laggan district of East DonegalIreland).

The society is also popular in Scotland, where 60 preceptories exist organised into 11 districts across the country.[4] Twenty-six marches by the Black Institution have taken place in Glasgow alone between 2009 and 2010.[1]


The society’s members are assigned one of eleven degrees, as follows, in descending order:

  • Royal Black Degree
  • Royal Scarlet Degree
  • Royal Mark Degree
  • Apron and Royal Blue Degree
  • Royal White Degree
  • Royal Green Degree
  • Gold Degree
  • Star and Garter Degree
  • Crimson Arrow Degree
  • Link and Chain Degree
  • Red Cross Degree

The Institution also possesses a final retrospective overview degree, which is essentially an overview of the eleven.

Sovereign Grand Masters

A chronological list of Sovereign Grand Masters of the Royal Black Preceptory:


The initial reason for MSA’s formation was so U.S. Freemasonry could provide aid to our military servicemen near the end of World War I. The War Department (now Defense Department) refused to work with 49 (at that time) different Grand Lodges, but the government department agreed to work with just one agency. So Grand Masters gathered in Cedar Rapids in 1918 to discuss and formulate the concept of MSA, and again in 1919 to formally give birth to the new organization.

MSA’s goal from the start was to provide services to the Grand Lodges that they could not perform as easily individually.

Masonic Service Association of North America

No one knows with certainty how or when the Masonic Fraternity was formed. A widely accepted theory among Masonic scholars is that it arose from the stonemasons’ guilds during the Middle Ages. The language and symbols used in the fraternity’s rituals come from this era. The oldest document that makes reference to Masons is the Regius Poem, printed about 1390, which was a copy of an earlier work. In 1717, four lodges in London formed the first Grand Lodge of England, and records from that point on are more complete.

Within thirty years, the fraternity had spread throughout Europe and the American Colonies. Freemasonry became very popular in colonial America. George Washington was a Mason, Benjamin Franklin served as the head of the fraternity in Pennsylvania, as did Paul Revere and Joseph Warren in Massachusetts. Other well-known Masons involved with the founding of America included John Hancock, John Sullivan, Lafayette, Baron Fredrick von Stuben, Nathanael Greene, and John Paul Jones. Another Mason, Chief Justice John Marshall, shaped the Supreme Court into its present form.

Over the centuries, Freemasonry has developed into a worldwide fraternity emphasizing personal study, self-improvement, and social betterment via individual involvement and philanthropy. During the late 1700s it was one of the organizations most responsible for spreading the ideals of the Enlightenment: the dignity of man and the liberty of the individual, the right of all persons to worship as they choose, the formation of democratic governments, and the importance of public education. Masons supported the first public schools in both Europe and America.

During the 1800s and early 1900s, Freemasonry grew dramatically. At that time, the government had provided no social “safety net”. The Masonic tradition of founding orphanages, homes for widows, and homes for the aged provided the only security many people knew.

Today in North America, the Masonic Fraternity continues this tradition by giving almost $1.5 million each day to causes that range from operating children’s hospitals, providing treatment for childhood language disorders, treating eye diseases, funding medical research, contributing to local community service, and providing care to Masons and their families at Masonic Homes.

The four million Masons worldwide continue to help men and women face the problems of the 21st century by building bridges of brotherhood and instilling in the hearts of men ideals for a better tomorrow.



Grand Orient of the Netherlands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Grand Orient of the Netherlands or Grand East of the Netherlands (DutchOrde van Vrijmetselaren onder het Grootoosten der Nederlanden) is a Masonic Grand Lodge in the Netherlands. It falls within the mainstream Anglo-American tradition of Freemasonry, being recognized by The United Grand Lodge of England[1] and the 51 Grand Lodges in the United States. In addition to its jurisdiction over nine districts[2] in the Netherlands, it also administers three Lodges in Suriname through the Provincial Grand Lodge of Suriname,[3] three lodges in Curaçao, one in South Africa, one in Thailand,[4] and through the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Caribbean, three lodges in Aruba and one in St. Maarten.[3] In the Netherlands it claims to have 145 lodges with 5,792 members.[5]

It also runs the Prince Frederick Museum, and has an online catalog available for its library.

It was founded in either 1756[5] or 1757[6]

Historic Grand Lodges under the Grand Orient

The Grand Orient of the Netherlands used to have provincial Grand Lodges under its jurisdiction, including the Grand Lodge of South Africa and the Grand Lodge of the Transvaal.[7] One of the Lodges that was subservient to the Grand Lodge hosted the early legislative assemblies of the Cape Colony.[8]

Active freemasonry existed throughout the Dutch East Indies (now: Indonesia). In 1922 a Dutch Provincial Grand Lodge, under the Grand Orient of the Netherlands, at Weltevreden (Batavia) controlled twenty Lodges in the colony: fourteen in Java, three in Sumatra and others in Makassar and Salatiga.[9]

Administers the Provincial Grand Lodge of Zimbabwe which has 5 lodges under its jurisdiction, 3 in Harare and one each in Marondera and Bulawayo. The Grand Lodge was formed in 1963 and the first lodge, Zambesia in Bulawayo in 1896.


Jan 31, 2023 Charlemagne, also called Charles I, byname Charles the Great, (born April 2, 747?—died January 28, 814, Aachen, Austrasia [now in Germany]), king of the Franks (768-814), king of the Lombards (774-814), and first emperor (800-814) of the Romans and of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire. Around the time of the birth of Charlemagne—conventionally held to be 742 but likely to …
Charlemagne assumed rulership at a moment when powerful forces of change were affecting his kingdom. By Frankish tradition he was a warrior king, expected to lead his followers in wars that would expand Frankish hegemony and produce rewards for his companions. His Merovingian predecessors had succeeded remarkably well as conquerors, but their victories resulted in a kingdom made up of diverse peoples over which unified rule grew increasingly difficult. Complicating the situation for the Merovingian kings were both the insatiable appetite of the Frankish aristocracy for wealth and power and the constant partitioning of the Frankish realm that resulted from the custom of treating the kingdom as a patrimony to be divided among all the male heirs surviving each king. By the early 8th century these forces had reduced the Merovingian rulers to what their Carolingian successors dubbed “do nothing” kings. Real power had been assumed by an aristocratic dynasty, later called the Carolingians after Charlemagne, which during the 7th century clawed its way to dominance by utilizing the office of mayor of the palace to establish control over the royal administration and royal resources and to build a following strong enough to fend off rival Frankish families seeking comparable power. During the 8th century the Carolingian mayors of the palace Charles Martel (714–741) and (prior to becoming king) Pippin III (741–751) increasingly turned their attention to activities aimed at checking the political fragmentation of the Frankish kingdom. Charlemagne was thus heir to a long tradition that measured a king by his success at war, which in turn required him to devise means of governance capable of sustaining control over an increasingly polyglot population.
The first of the many French kings to bear the name Louis was actually Clovis. He ruled from 481 to 511 and founded the kingdom of the Franks. Later the “C” was dropped and the “v” was written as “u,” thus making the name Louis. It is the same as the English Lewis and the German Ludwig. Louis the Pious (born 778, ruled 814-40).

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LOUIS (given name)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Louis XIV/Full name: Louis Dieudonné
Dieudonné is a French name meaning “Gift of God”
Louis XIV of France.jpg

Louis XIV, King of France (1643–1715)
Pronunciation UK/ˈli/
French: [lwi]
Gender Male
Language(s) French and English
Word/name French
Meaning “Famed warrior” or “loot bringer”
Other names
Derived Louise
Related names LouieClovisLewisLudovicoLuigiLuisLudvigLudwigLodewijkLodewykAlois
See also Lothar
Robert, name with a similar meaning

Louis is the French form of the Old Frankish given name Chlodowig and one of two English forms,[1] the other being Lewis (/ˈlɪs/).


The name Louis (through the intermediate form Clovis) derives from the Frankish name ᚺᛚᛟᛞᛟᚹᛁᚷ (in runic alphabet) or *Hlōdowik or *Hlōdowig (in Latin alphabet). Traditionally, this name is considered to be composed of two elements, deriving from both Proto-Germanic *hlūdaz (“loud, famous”) and *wiganą (“to battle, to fight”) respectively, resulting in the traditional practice of translating Clovis’ name as meaning “famous warrior” or “famous in battle”.[2]

However, scholars have pointed out that Gregory of Tours consequently transcribes the names of various Merovingian royal names containing the first element as chlodo-. The use of a close-mid back protruded vowel (o), rather than the expected close back rounded vowel (u) which Gregory does use in various other Germanic names (i.e. FredegundisArnulfusGundobadus, etc.) opens up the possibility that the first element instead derives from Proto-Germanic *hlutą (“lot, share, portion”), giving the meaning of the name as “loot bringer” or “plunder (bringing) warrior”. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that if the first element is taken to mean “famous”, then the name of Chlodomer (one of Clovis’ sons) would contain two elements (*hlūdaz and *mērijaz) both meaning “famous”, which would be highly uncommon within the typical Germanic name structure.[3][4]

French form of Ludovicus, the Latinized form of Ludwig. This was the name of 18 kings of France, starting with Louis I the son of Charlemagne. Others include Louis IX (Saint Louis) who led two crusades and Louis XIV (called the Sun King) who was the ruler of France during the height of its power, the builder of the Palace of Versailles, and the longest reigning monarch in the history of Europe. It was also borne by kings of Germany (as Ludwig), Hungary (as Lajos), and other places.

Apart from royalty, this name was only moderately popular in France during the Middle Ages. After the French Revolution, when Louis XVI was guillotined, it became less common.

The Normans brought the name to England, where it was usually spelled Lewis, though the spelling Louis has been more common in America. Famous bearers include French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), Métis leader Louis Riel (1844-1885), who led a rebellion against Canada, Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), who wrote Treasure Island and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and American jazz musician Louis Armstrong (1901-1971).

Louis I

Louis the Pious as a miles Christi
Public Domain; courtesy of Wikimedia

Louis I was also known as:  Louis the Pious or Louis the Debonair (in French, Louis le Pieux, or Louis le Débonnaire; in German, Ludwig der Fromme; known to contemporaries by the Latin Hludovicus or Chlodovicus).

Louis I was known for:  Holding the Carolingian Empire together in the wake of his father Charlemagne’s death. Louis was the only designated heir to survive his father.



Places of Residence and Influence

Europe, France

Important Dates

  • Born: April 16, 778
  • Forced to abdicate: June 30, 833
  • Died: June 20, 840

About Louis I

In 781 Louis was appointed king of Aquitaine, one of the “sub-kingdoms” of the Carolingian Empire, and though he was only three years old at the time he would acquire great experience managing the kingdom as he matured. In 813 he became co-emperor with his father, then, when Charlemagne died a year later, he inherited the empire though not the title Roman Emperor.

The empire was a conglomerate of several different ethnic groups, including Franks, Saxons, Lombards, Jews, Byzantines and many others across a great span of territory. Charlemagne had handled the many differences and the large size of his realm by dividing it up into “sub-kingdoms,” but Louis represented himself not as a ruler of different ethnic groups, but as a leader of Christians in a unified land.

As emperor, Louis initiated reforms and redefined the relationship between the Frankish empire and the papacy. He carefully structured a system whereby various territories could be assigned to his three grown sons while the empire remained intact. He took swift action in quashing challenges to his authority and even sent his half-brothers into monasteries to prevent any future dynastic conflicts. Louis also performed voluntary penance for his sins, a display that deeply impressed contemporary chroniclers.

The birth of a fourth son in 823 to Louis and his second wife, Judith, triggered a dynastic crisis. Louis’s elder sons, Pippin, Lothair and Louis the German, had maintained a delicate if uneasy balance, and when Louis attempted to reorganize the empire to include little Charles, resentment raised its ugly head. There was a palace revolt in 830, and in 833 when Louis agreed to meet Lothair to settle their differences (at what became known as the “Field of Lies,” in Alsace), he was instead confronted by all his sons and a coalition of their supporters, who forced him to abdicate.

But within a year Louis had been released from confinement and was back in power. He continued to rule energetically and decisively until his death in 840.

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France is so intricately connected to EGYPT and the SHAPESHIFTING gods.

loup-garou – Wiktionary

Etymology [ edit] From Old French leu garoul, a pleonastic compound of leu (“wolf”) + garoul (“werewolf”); the latter from garulf, from Frankish *werawulf. Equivalent to loup +‎ -garou . Pronunciation [ edit] IPA ( key): /lu.ɡa.ʁu/ Noun [ edit] loup – garou m ( plural loups-garous ) werewolf Descendants [ edit] → English: loup-garou

The French Werewolf Epidemic

Over a period of 110 years, werewolves roamed France. Or maybe they were just wolves, but a lot of people were killed or injured, and a lot of people were executed, accused of being a werewolf. Between 1530 and 1640, those accusations were lodged against around 30,000 people.

As it pertains to France, the country’s history with wolf-related mythology is long and rich with stories such as the La Bête duGévaudan, or The Beast of Gévaudan, which for three years terrorized the area. The first attack occurred in April of 1764, and the victim, a young woman tending her flock of sheep, described her assailant as looking “like a wolf, yet not a wolf.” She survived when her sheep went into action, defending the teenage girl from the Beast. Two months later, another young girl, Jeanne Boulet, was attacked and killed by what the residents of Gévaudan thought to be a natural predator, given the fact Boulet was also tending a flock of sheep. Two more fatal attacks would follow within a matter of weeks, both young field workers, a girl, age fifteen, and a boy age sixteen. This would be the start of more than 100 documented fatal attacks in Gévaudan in which most of the victims were partially eaten. The residents of Gévaudan would take up arms, and large rewards were offered for the capture or killing of The Beast of Gévaudan. Experienced hunters and even groups of children would go out in search of the Beast and return with stories of battling a giant wolf (noted in the book Monsters of the Gévaudan: The Making of a Beast). One such incident describes the wolf attacking a group of young children, five boys and two girls in a bog where they were playing. The wolf preyed on the youngest of the group, an eight-year-old boy who he clenched in his massive jaws as the kids attacked the wolf with their make-believe weapons (in this time period, pretend bayonets), finally getting the animal/manimal torelease their friend.

Some actual beasts were hunted and killed, but the attacks went on in Gévaudan and different parts of France. Read more about the “werewolves” and their victims at Dangerous Minds.

The word “loup-garou” is derived from French. In French language, the word loup means wolf while garoul means a man who can turn into a wolf – basically werewolf in English. The belief in loup garous is especially strong among French Canadians, Cajun people and the people of Louisiana.
Medieval France and the Legend of the Loup-Garou Back in the day of armor, swords and jousting, there was a lot more to fear than the plague and witches. Beasts called “loup-garous,” which means werewolves in French, were also infamous throughout the country. Back in the 16 th century, they’d regularly blame various crimes on loup-garous.