Chandler Illumination – truth unveiled

What a rabbit hole this has turned out to be.  It ain’t over til the fat lady sings.  I started out looking into the Balenciaga saga and my days and nights have been consumed by where l have been led.

This is not a gonna be short.  Fair warning.  It is VERY ILLUMINATING, if you stay with me.  Take it in small chunks.  I had to.

GOD is revealing some very important stuff.  Part of the endtime revelations. All evil will be brought to light.  The snakes and rats have no where to hide now. GOD is revealing their tracks!

You will be surprised that some of this stuff is related… but related it is, BELIEVE!!  We will uncover the connections together.  The web is so massive and all encompassing.  If you receive some new revelation, share it.  We are in this together.  The more we know, the closer we get to freedom.  TRUTH is ALL THAT MATTERS.

SO this particular roller coaster ride started with “Ray” Chandler.   Chandler is the jump off point.  Buckle up!!!  It is a wild ride.  Pay close attention to the details.  It is hard to keep the high points in your mind as you forge your way through all the information.

Oh… also remember that these people take the worship of their gods/spirits/entities VERY SERIOUSLY.  They hate GOD and love the Devil.  They hate the light/life/truth/right and wrong and they love darkness/death/lies and freedom to do as they please!!  They love WAR.  That is what they do, that is what they want.  WAR.  That is why ALL the money goes to WAR and the Weapons of War.  Now, they are creating WAR in SPACE.  IT WILL NEVER END as long as the elite rule. They are children of their father –

See the Rest of this Series:



candle      –  n     (wax)    bougie    f     
→ I blew out my candle and went to sleep.        
     (tallow   chandelle    f    (in church)    cierge    m  
to burn the candle at both ends      brûler la chandelle par les deux bouts  
he can’t hold a candle to you      il ne vous arrive pas à la cheville  
the game is not worth the candle      old-fashioned   le jeu n’en vaut pas la chandelle  

candle holder   , candle-holder  
      n   porte-bougie    m     
votive candle  
      n     (in church)    cierge    m       (decorative)    bougie    f   décorative
Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, primarily made up of triglycerides.. In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or mutton fat. In this context, tallow is animal fat that conforms to certain technical criteria, including its melting point. Commercial tallow commonly contains fat derived from other animals, such as lard from pigs, or even from plant sources.     (chandelle a candle made of tallow)
chandelle translate: candle. Learn more in the Cambridge FrenchEnglish Dictionary.



Chandler (derived from candle ) is an English surname that comes from a trade (the word  chandler  designates one who makes or sells candles, it can also be soap). This name is worn by many people

maker or seller of candles,” late 14c., attested as a surname from late 13c. (also, from early 14c. “candle-holder;” see chandelier ), from Old French chandelier (n.2) “candle-maker, candle-seller; person in charge of lighting a household, monastery, etc.,” from Medieval Latin candelariusa candle-maker,” from candelacandle” (see candle ).
  • Chancroid

    CHANCROID Meaning: “resembling a chancre,” 1868, from chancre + -oid. Earlier as a noun, a kind of genital ulcer (1861). See origin and meaning of chancroid.

  • Chancery

    CHANCERY Meaning: “chancellorship;” late 14c., “court of the Lord Chancellor of England,” contracted from chancellery (c.… See definitions of chancery.

  • Chandler

    cylindrical body of tallow, wax, etc., formed on a wick and used as a source of artificial light,” Old English candel “lamp, lantern, candle,” an early ecclesiastical borrowing from Latin candela “a light, torch, candle made of tallow or wax,” from candere “to shine,” from PIE root *kand-“to shine.”. The Latin word is also the source of French chandelle, Spanish candela, Irish coinneal, Welsh …

  • Chandlery

    CHANDLERY Meaning: “store-room for candles,” from French chandelerie, from chandelier “candle-maker” (see chandler). From… See origin and meaning of chandlery.

  • Changeable

    CHANGEABLE Meaning: “unstable, inconstant, unreliable,” from Old French changeable “inconstant,” from changier “to alter;… See origin and meaning of changeable.

  • Chanel

    Chanel. Paris fashion house, founded by Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel (1883-1971),

Wiktionary gives a third sense for chandelier:

(obsolete, military) A portable frame used to support temporary wooden fences.

I can find quite a lot of uses like this from 1800s and earlier, but I can’t find any etymology besides the standard one which applies to lights/candles. Anyone know the connection? Thanks!

  • chandelier originates from candelabrum and the shape of the military chandelier does resemble a candelabrum so the etymology is related but which came first is much harder to answer
  • @vectory Schanze in the ski-jump sense is a short form of Sprungschanze. The other meaning of “entrenchment” can be better translated as “sconce”, which is basically a defensive mound. According to etymoline that was 14c “candlestick with a screen,” and 15c “metal bracket-candlestick fastened to a wall” so there’s the ‘gate’ connection. From the ‘mound of earth’ definition one also easily get to “Sprungschanze” I don’t know if there’s an etymological relation between chandalier and sconce but their purpose is basically the same (military sense)

    – msam

    Sep 3, 2020 at 13:15

sconce 1 (skŏns)  n.
A small defensive earthwork or fort.
[Dutch schans, from German Schanze, from Middle High German.]
sconce 2 (skŏns) n.
1. A decorative wall bracket for holding candles or lights.
2. A flattened candlestick that has a handle.
3. Slang The human head or skull.
[Middle English, from Old French esconse, lantern, hiding place, from Medieval Latin scōnsa, from Latin abscōnsa, feminine past participle of abscondere, to hide away : ab-, abs-, away; see ab-1 + condere, to preserve; see dhē- in Indo-European roots.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
sconce (skɒns) n
1. (Furniture) a bracket fixed to a wall for holding candles or lights
2. (Antiques) a flat candlestick with a handle
[C14: from Old French esconse hiding place, lantern, or from Late Latin sconsa, from absconsa dark lantern]
sconce (skɒns)
(Fortifications) a small protective fortification, such as an earthwork
[C16: from Dutch schans, from Middle High German schanze bundle of brushwood]
sconce (skɒns) vb (tr)
1. to challenge (a fellow student) on the grounds of a social misdemeanour to drink a large quantity of beer without stopping
2. obsolete to fine (a student) for some minor misdemeanour
3. the act of sconcing
4. a mug or tankard used in sconcing
[C17: of obscure origin]
sconce (skɒns) n
1. the head or skull
2. sense, brain, or wit
[C16: probably jocular use of sconce1]
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
sconce1 (skɒns) n.
a bracket for candles or other lights, placed on a wall, mirror, picture frame, etc.
[1350–1400; Middle English sconce, sconse (< Old French esconce) < Medieval Latin scōnsa, aph. variant of abscōnsa, n. use of feminine past participle of abscondere to conceal; see abscond]
sconce2 (skɒns) n.
a small detached fort or defensive work, as to defend a gate or bridge.
[1565–75; < Dutch schans < German Schanze, orig. bundle of wood; compare ensconce]
sconce4 (skɒns) n.
1. the head or skull.
2. sense or wit.
Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
Collins English Verb Tables © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Switch to new thesaurus
Noun 1. sconcea shelter or screen providing protection from enemy fire or from the weather
sheltera structure that provides privacy and protection from danger
shelter – protective covering that provides protection from the weather
2. sconce a small fort or earthwork defending a ford, pass, or castle gate
earthwork – an earthen rampart
fortress, fort – a fortified defensive structure
3. sconce a candle or flaming torch secured in a sconce
light source, light – any device serving as a source of illumination; “he stopped the car and turned off the lights”
4. sconcea decorative wall bracket for holding candles or other sources of lightsconce – a decorative wall bracket for holding candles or other sources of light
wall bracket, bracket – a support projecting from a wall (as to hold a shelf)
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Origin of Crystal Chandeliers

Crystal chandeliers are as common as other expensive furniture and interior models, giving life to luxurious, classy buildings and structural design. Crystal-made chandelier provides distinctive reflections, adding glamour to the light that would roughly ensnare everyone’s eyes. Because of this feature, it is now one of the after sought interior decors in the market.

The use of crystal chandelier is dated back in 1150 A.D. in Europe. However there are notions that it originated from the place of the oldest civilization- China. European style during the ancient period is known for glitzy spendthrift peripheries. Shortly after the trend in Europe, Romans undertook their contribution for architectural concepts brought about by the renaissance view in the year 1400.

Baroque era in 1600 influenced the fashion and elegance of crystal chandelier’s assembly that implicated new affluent designs that can still be witnessed up to date. The Bourgeoisie or the “middle class” in Europe during the Regency period in 1800 and 1830, were engaged in exhibiting Regency chandeliers showing the prosperity and splendor of the Bourgeoisie class.

Bourgeoisie – Wikipedia
The bourgeoisie ( / ˌbʊərʒ.wɑːˈziː /; French: [buʁ.ʒwa.zi] ( listen)) is a sociologically defined social class, equivalent to the middle or upper middle class. They are distinguished from, and traditionally contrasted with, the proletariat/working class by their affluence, [1] and their great cultural and financial capital.

Bourgeoisie: Origin, Values, Examples And Characteristics
The term bourgeoisie is usually referred to as the wealthy, owner and capitalist middle class , although this term can be used with various ranges of nuances in political, economic, sociology and history philosophy . The term, as well as the social class to which it refers, has varied over time since its appearance in the late Middle Ages .

Bourgeoisie – Etymology
Historically, the mediæval French word bourgeois denoted the inhabitants of the bourgs (walled market-towns), the craftsmen, artisans, merchants, and others, who constituted “the bourgeoisie”, they were the socio-economic class between the peasants and the landlords, between the workers and the owners of the means of production.

Its overtones became important in the 18th century, when the middle class of professionals, manufacturers, and their literary and political allies began to demand an influence in politics consistent with their economic status. Source

During the Victorian era in 1849 to 1870, chandeliers grew heavier in furnishings and embellishments that were identified as Victorian crystal chandeliers. The decoration piece had enormously adorned every distinctive marvelous house.

The modern times had exerted influence on the designs of crystal chandelier, combining some styles including method of abstraction, providing sense of modernity to home’s interior decoration and giving more emphasis for appreciation. Recent made chandeliers are made of several materials like metals painted with gold, silver, bronze, and chrome. Some of the designs are combined with glass materials enhanced by the cutting-edge stylish lighting elements or candle holders within it. With the advanced tools and equipments nowadays, designers are given much chance to defy arts and craftsmanship.

Finding styles that suit one’s taste is as easy now as choosing a piece of clothes to wear. There are varieties of style to choose from. With the boosting of crystal chandelier market, people can already embellish their respective humble houses with the gift of art and make them look more like a hotel, museum, or a mansion. Chandelier can manipulate the motif of an interior decoration and add more spices to an idle-looking house interior. The house owner might want to get a set that does not demand for many light bulbs or choose a piece with so many provisions for lighting elements. Incorporating chandelier in a house interior decoration can inspire good reflections and designs. Some chandeliers can be made upon customer’s order with customer’s personal design, giving the home owner an opportunity to flaunt his own designing prowess and to display his flavor of art. According to manufacturers and sellers, majority of the buyers prefer crystal chandelier because of its flashing elegance and beauty, reflecting any lights that might come upon it. There are people who still desire for the Renaissance and Victorian type though.

During the past decades, crystal chandelier were only associated with middle class people who are fitted to enjoy the grandeur of its beauty; but as years pass by, the use of crystal chandelier for interior decoration had been wide opened to most contemporary houses and building structures around the world.


Chandeliers As a Symbol of Status and Wealth

Fundamental to our experience as human beings is the desire to control our surroundings.

We desire to do this for many reasons. The paramount one is our survival. Next on this list is the adoration of other people. We admire the goal achievers in our society and wish we could control our world as they do. Not surprisingly we have created many items that symbolize our mastery of our world.
(Actually this is a symptom of fallen man.  They want control of themselves, their experiences and their environment.  The truth is that GOD is in control.  When God is in control all goes well.  When man tries to control things, he falls into rebellion against God and things do not go well.)

The main one is wealth itself. After that comes all the symbols of wealth. It seems that virtually anything expensive and/or hard to get can be made to show the world how capable one is. Boats. Cars. Jewelry. Clothing items. Houses.

And this brings us to one that has served as a symbol of wealth and status for centuries nowthe chandelier.

It seems that from it’s birth it was meant to play a role in distinguishing between the rich and the poor. Centuries ago the materials involved in night-time lighting were expensive enough to alienate all but the rich in society. As a result chandelier lighting became the providence of the wealthy and this association has stuck in peoples heads for centuries.

Chandeliers adorn the halls of Buckingham Palace, the White House, and Celebrity Mansions. And though our main impression of those who have chandeliers is that they are wealthy, modern manufacturing technology has made it possible for anyone to get a chandelier.

In fact you have now have one…as well as the status it bestows for a very reasonable price. You can even get one to go with almost any kind of decor or style. Traditional, Modern, Williamsburg, Art Deco, and Crystal are just some of the many options available.

You can have a glass chandelier, a black chandelier, a bronze chandelier or the very popular oil rubbed bronze chandelier. It is possible for you to get a Schonbek Chandelier. (Schonbek is the maker of some of the finest chandeliers in history including many that adorn the White House and Buckingham Palace.) Chandeliers have even adapted to those who prefer more of an informal “outdoorsy” kind of style, the Rustic Chandelier.

So even if you aren’t exactly among the super-rich you can now have some of the symbols of their wealth. You can enjoy the same beauty reserved in the past for the privileged elite. And you can do so without spending a fortune.

Bronze chandelier []

Article Source:


Shining a light on the history of the chandelier

A close-up of candles burning on a crystal chandelier.
Chandeliers used candles until electric light was introduced after the 1880s.(Getty: secablue)

According to a recent biography, Princess Margaret put it about that the first word her infant son uttered was ‘chandelier.’

Joke or not, it says something for the way the object is seen, although the story of the chandelier is really the story of the candle and of lighting in general.

Are chandeliers timeless? Yes, according to Associate Professor Wendy Davis from the University of Sydney.

We see across architecture, elements that are to this day very popular, that mimic something that is obsolete,” Professor Davis said.

“In certain countries residences might have shutters on them that might just be decorative, they no longer protect the building from storms.

The chandelier is one of the more iconic examples of that.It is based around these old holders of candles suspended from the ceiling and that’s what they’re intended to conjure up.

They ‘guttered and stank’

A candle flame burning against a black background.
It’s believed the Romans began making candles from tallow, beginning around 500 BC, while the earliest surviving candles, made from whale fat, originated in Han China around 200 BC.(Getty: Towfiqu Photography)

Candles in some form have existed since the earliest civilisations.

By medieval times, they were made mainly from rendered animal fat.

An illustration of a medieval chandelier made of wood hanging over four people's heads.
An illustration of a medieval chandelier from King René’s Tournament Book in 1460.(Wikimedia Commons)

These guttered and stank as they burned and gave out precious little light but most people went to bed when daylight ended, anyway.

But as homes became grander, they needed decent lighting at night.

The wealthy used beeswax candlesand generally had enough servants to deal with the constant changing and cutting of wicks.

Symbols of wealth and power

It’s no surprise to find that the Sun King himself, Louis XIV, used 20,000 candles to illuminate the dazzling Hall of Mirrors in Versailles.

After all, the chandelier is surely a symbol of the sun: something almost pagan, capturing the essence of light, obviously something only the very wealthy could afford.

Certainly they remain a widespread sign of wealth and power despite changing trends in interior design, says Associate Professor Wendy Davis.

“Interior design seems to have a number of different ways to express wealth these days. There are very high-end finishes and styles that would be very inconsistent with a chandelier,” she said.

“But there’s something, I guess in American vernacular I’d say, quite ‘old money’ about a chandelier.”

A large hall filled with crystal chandeliers, gold statues, artworks and mirrors.
The Galeries des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors) in the Palace of Versailles, France.(Wikimedia Commons: Myrabella)

If you are not familiar with the Magic Mirrors of China you need to see my posts, and remember now we know that Chandeliers were also made first in China.  Now, we can add LIGHTS and Angles to their tool belt. By the end of this post, we will add music, sound and SINGING to their tools.   Their servants are the craftsmen, artisans, merchants, technologists, scientists and alchemists. 


Quantum Illusion (MIRRORED VIDEO)  (Click to View) RePosted by:  Merrimour The Red I submit to you, that we have allowed witches, wizards and magi to become the teachers, preachers and priests over us.  This is totally against GOD and against our humanity. God did indeed create heaven and earth, he gave us all the knowledge … Click Here to Read More

By the eighteenth century, the crystal makers of Bohemia were making tiered chandeliers festooned with crystal droplets that cast rainbows around a room. The ornate chandeliers from Murano near Venice were also popular.

And yet most people’s homes remained resolutely gloomy. Despite the invention of the oil lamp in 1783, and the introduction of gas lighting soon after, many continued to rely on the traditional candle.

Play Audio. Duration: 4 minutes 10 seconds
Colin Bisset asks who among us isn’t secretly a little enchanted by the sight of a chandelier suspended over a dining table?

In the middle of the 19th century, even Buckingham Palace was lit only by candles, although these were now made from paraffin wax which didn’t drip.

The crystal chandelier really came into its own when electric light was introduced after the 1880s, enabling truly bright light.

Opulent theatres, opera houses and hotels wanted a statement piece and manufacturers produced chandeliers of immense size, such as the huge chandelier in the Paris Opera House whose counterweight famously broke free in 1896, killing one man, and inspiring Gaston Leroux’s 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera.

‘They make people happy’

A chandelier hanging underneath a dome.
A chandelier inside the dome of the Great Sultan Qaboos Mosque in Oman, Arabia.(Getty: Karl-Heinz Schein)

Chandeliers continue to wow us. The largest are now found in the biggest mosques, like the one in Oman’s Grand Mosque which weighs nearly eight tonnes.

Although they’re not a popular form in architectural lighting design because of a lack of efficiency, Associate Professor Davis says they remain timeless because people love them.

“What a purely engineering-focused approach to lighting design ignores is the fact that people like them – they make people happy,” she said.

“The things that people like sometimes aren’t the most efficient or even the most effective way to do something but that doesn’t mean they shouldn’t be done.”

Dictators love them, too. Nicolai Ceausescu’s vulgar palace in Bucharest used 3,500 tonnes of crystal in over 400 chandeliers.

And yet, who among us isn’t secretly a little enchanted by the sight of even the smallest chandelier suspended over a dining table? A sign surely that we all relish a hint of grandeur in our lives.

A chandelier hangs above a dining table and chairs.
Chandeliers became a common sight in grander homes.(Unsplash: Michael D Beckwith)Chandelier nostalgia, once an opulent symbol of status and wealth

The Hall of Mirrors, the most famous room in the Palace, was built to replace a large terrace designed by the architect Louis Le Vau, which opened onto the garden. The terrace originally stood between the King’s Apartments to the north and the Queen’s to the south, but was awkward and above all exposed to bad weather, and it was not long before the decision was made to demolish it. Le Vau’s successor, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, produced a more suitable design that replaced the terrace with a large gallery. Work started in 1678 and ended in 1684.

the hall of mirrors

Following on from the victory over the three united powers, depicted in the War Room, the whole length of the Hall of Mirrors (73m) pays tribute to the political, economic and artistic success of France. Political successes are illustrated through the 30 painted compositions on the vaulted ceiling by Le Brun, which depict the glorious history of Louis XIV during the first 18 years of his reign, from 1661 to the peace treaties of Nijmegen. Military and diplomatic victories and reforms with a view to reorganising the kingdom are illustrated through allegories from Antiquity. Economic prosperity is revealed in the number and size of the 357 mirrors bedecking the 17 arches opposite the windows, demonstrating that the new French manufacture could rival the Venetian monopoly on mirror manufacturing. At the time such items were a great luxury. Artistic success is shown by the Rouge de Rance pilasters topped with capitals of gilded bronze based on a new design, which was referred to as “the French style” and was created by Le Brun upon the request of Colbert. The design incorporates the national emblems, with a fleur-de-lis topped by a royal sun between two Gallic roosters (the Latin word for rooster was gallus).

The Gallic rooster is the unofficial symbol of France. The Latin word “gallus” means both “rooster” and “inhabitant of Gaul”. Certain ancient coins bore a rooster, but the animal was not used as the emblem of the tribes of Gaul. Gradually the figure of the rooster became the most widely shared representation of the French people.The rooster played an important role as the revolutionary symbol, but it would become an official emblem under the July Monarchy and the Second Republic when it was seen on the pole of regiments’ flags. In 1830, the “Gallic Rooster” replaced the fleur-de-lis as the national emblem, and it was again discarded by Napoleon III.

Since 1848, the rooster has been seen on the seal of the Republic (Liberty is seated on a rudder decorated by a rooster); it was used from 1899 as a motif on gold 20 franc coins and it occasionally appears on stamps. souce

The ‘coq’
The rooster recalls the Gallic origins of the nation, with the symbol initially adopted, linguists believe, owing to a pun on the Latin word for cockerel and the ancient state of Gaul. France’s enemies made this joke because of the supposed stubbornness and brazen pride of the people, but it was to be turned on its head as the French took the bird to their hearts as an icon of their nation.Regardless of the strange heritage, the rooster has great symbolic value as it signifies faith and light. The crowing of the cockerel each morning represents the triumph of light over darkness and good over evil.  source

Do You Know How to Say Cockerel in Latin?
Here is the translation and the Latin word for cockerel: Gallus Edit. Cockerel in all languages. Dictionary Entries near cockerel. cock-up; cockade; cockatoo; cockerel; cockfight; cockfighting; cockiness; Cite this Entry “Cockerel in Latin.” In Different Languages, …

chanticleer  noun
chan·​ti·​cleer ˌchant-ə-ˈkli(ə)r   ˌshant-  ROOSTER

Chantecler chicken – Wikipedia
Roosters weigh around 9 pounds (4.1 kg), and hens are 6.5-7.5 lb (2.9-3.4 kg).The breed possess yellow skin and beaks, and lay brown eggs. With plumage that lies tight against the body but has a good deal of fluff, and an exceptionally small cushion comb and wattles, the Chantecler is one of the most cold hardy chickens.

Rooster vs Chanticleer – What’s the difference? | WikiDiff
Noun ()A rooster or cock. *c.1599 , (William Shakespeare), As You Like It , act 2, scene 7: *:When I did heare / The motley Foole, thus morall on the time, / My Lungs began to crow like Chanticleere , / That Fooles should be so deepe contemplatiue. *, II.12: *:It is happily some particular sense that unto cockes or chanticleares discovereth the morning and midnight houre, and moveth them to crow.

The Rooster Emblem of the Democratic Party
Published in The Journal of American History in 1913. AT THE CLOSE of a most notable campaign in American history, when a Democratic victory has swept the country from coast to coast, it is fitting that the story of the origin of the party’s emblem-the Roosterbe told in this little volume, for it was in the heart of Indiana, in a pioneer …

The Symbolism of the Rooster – New Acropolis Library
The rooster, along with the hound and the horse, is among the animals offered in sacrifice in the funeral rites of the ancient Germans. In Norse traditions, the rooster  is  symbol  of soldierly vigilance, posted on the topmost branches of the ash Yggdrasil to warn the gods when the giants, their foes, are preparing to attack. 


Courtiers and visitors crossed the Hall of Mirrors daily, and it also served as a place for waiting and meeting. It was used for ceremonies on rare occasions, for example when sovereigns wanted an extra dash of lavishness for entertainment (balls or games) held for royal weddings or diplomatic receptions. During the latter events, the throne was placed on a platform at the end of the hall near the Peace Room, whose arch was closed off. Rarely has the show of power reached such a level of ostentation. In 1685 the Doge of Genoa and the ambassadors of Siam (1686), Persia (1715) and the Ottoman Empire (1742) crossed the full length of the gallery, under the scutiny of the French Court seated to either side on tiered seating, before they reached the king.

It was also here that the Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919, ending the First World War. Since then, presidents of the Republic have continued to receive official guests here.

the war room

Hardouin Mansart started building the War Room in 1678. The decoration, completed by Le Brun in 1686, pays tribute to the military victories which led to the peace treaties of Nijmegen. The walls are covered with marble panels decorated with six trophies and weapons in gilded bronze. The wall adjacent to the Apollo Room bears an oval stucco bas-relief depicting Louis XIV on horseback trampling his enemies. At the top of this masterpiece by Coysevox are two sculptures of Pheme, and two captives in chains huddle beneath it.

Pheme – Wikipedia
In Greek mythology, Pheme (/ ˈ f iː m iː / FEE-mee; Greek: Φήμη, Roman equivalent: Fama), also known as Ossa in Homeric sources, was the personification of fame and renown, her favour being notability, her wrath being scandalous rumours. She was a daughter either of Gaia or of Elpis (Hope), was described as “she who initiates and furthers communication” and had an altar at Athens.

Below, in the bas-relief in the fake fireplace, Clio, the muse of history, is recording the king’s great deeds for posterity. In the centre of the cupola ceiling is a personified depiction of France, armed and sitting on a cloud and surrounded by Victories. Her shield is decorated with a portrait of Louis XIV. Her three defeated enemies are depicted in the arches: Germany kneeling down with an eagle; Spain making threats with a roaring lion; Holland overturned on another lion. The fourth arch depicts Bellona, the goddess of war, in a rage of fury between Rebellion and Contention.

Bellona (goddess)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Goddess of War, Destruction, Conquest, and Bloodlust
Bruxelles Bellone 905.jpg
A bust of Bellona by Jean Cosyn, a 1697 victory celebration over a Brussels doorway Goddess Bellona – God Pictures in 2021 | God pictures
Symbol Military helmet and torch
Personal information
Parents Jupiter and Juno
Siblings MarsVulcanJuventasDiscordiaLucina
Consort Mars
Greek equivalent Enyo

Bellona (IPA: [bɛlˈloːna]) was an ancient Roman goddess of war. Her main attribute is the military helmet worn on her head; she often holds a sword, spear, or shield, and brandishes a torch or whip as she rides into battle in a four-horse chariot. She had many temples throughout the Roman Empire.[1] She is known for her temple outside of Rome being the official decision making centre in regards to war and for her bloodlust and madness in battle.[2] Her iconography was extended by painters and sculptors following the Renaissance.

The name of the goddess of war Bellōna stems from an earlier Duellona,[3] itself a derivative of Old Latin duellum (‘war, warfare’), which likewise turned into bellum in Classical Latin.[4]

The etymology of duellum remains obscure. Linguist Georges-Jean Pinault has proposed a derivation from *duenelo- (‘quite good, quite brave’), a reconstructed diminutive of the word duenos, attested on an eponymous inscription as an early Old Latin antecedent of the word bonus (‘good’). According to linguist Michiel de Vaan, the use of *duenelo- “in the context of war (bella acta, bella gesta) could be understood as a euphemism, ultimately yielding a meaning ‘action of valour, war’ for the noun bellum.”[4]

Cult, beliefs, and temples

Bellona was originally an ancient Sabine goddess of war identified with Nerio, the consort of the war god Mars, and later with the Greek war goddess Enyo. Her temple in Rome was dedicated in 296 BCE near the Circus Flaminius by Appius Claudius Caecus, during the war with the Etruscans and Samnites.[3] This temple was the first location to have decorative shields dedicated to mortals hung in a holy place. Appius Claudius hung the shields and dedicated them to his family.[5]

Her festival was celebrated on 3 June, and her priests were known as Bellonarii and used to wound their own arms or legs as a blood sacrifice to her.[6] These rites took place on 24 March, called the day of blood (dies sanguinis), after the ceremony. In consequence of this practice, which approximated to the rites dedicated to Cybele in Asia Minor, both Enyo and Bellona became identified with her Cappadocian aspect, Ma.[7]

The Roman Campus Martius area, in which Bellona’s temple was situated, had extraterritorial status. Ambassadors from foreign states, who were not allowed to enter the city proper, stayed in this complex. Since the area of the temple was outside the pomerium, the Senate met there with ambassadors and received victorious generals prior to their triumphs. Beside the temple was the war column (columna bellica), which represented non-Roman territory. To declare war on a distant state, a javelin was thrown over the column by one of the priests concerned with diplomacy (fetiales) in a modification of the archaic practice, from Roman territory toward the direction of the enemy land and this symbolical attack was considered the opening of war.[8] The first enemy declared in this fashion was Pyrrhus in 280 BC.[9]

There were many people willing to assist in the upkeep and improvement of her temples and shrines.[9] In addition, they were also willing to incur the cost upon themselves.[9] Because she was widely believed to be a volatile goddess, she was rarely worshipped openly and most of her worshippers preferred to quietly assuage her.[10] Despite their subtlety, evidence of her worship can be found throughout Rome. At least seven inscriptions that are affiliated with the worship of Bellona have been found.[9] An early inscription in the Forum of Augustus harkens back to the time of the war with Pyrrhus.[9] Five of the inscriptions are found around the Aedem Bellonae (a shrine of Bellona’s) and the other two inscriptions are damaged.[9] The worship of her was not limited to Rome, however. Bellona had a temple as far north as YorkEngland, where the church of St. Peter currently stands.[11]

The worship of Bellona and beliefs about her were often gory or frightening. It was believed that when she went to war, Discordia, Strife, and the Furies would accompany her and terrify her enemies.[10] The belief in her bloodlust and madness in battle is widely accepted and is one of the more prevalent beliefs.[2] According to Ammianus Marcellinus, the Scordici people believed in the violent worship of Bellona. They were brutal and they worshipped both Mars and Bellona with savagery.[12] They would offer up human sacrifices and drink blood from the skulls of their victims.[12]

In the military cult of Bellona, she was associated with Virtus, the personification of valour. (Hmm, Virtue and Valour sounds like a cult of “Chivalry” to me.  Ring any bells? lol Bellona. So in Versailles we have Chivalry, WAR and Luxury.) She then travelled outside Rome with the imperial legions and her temples have been recorded in France, Germany, Britain, and North Africa.[1]

Often in poetry, the name Bellona is used simply as a synonym for war, although in the Thebaid of Statius the goddess appears as a character, representing the destructive and belligerent aspect of war. There she is described as carrying a spear and a flaming torch or riding in a chariot and waving a blood-stained sword.[13] Classical allusions to Bellona later appear in Shakespeare‘s plays in the appropriate context of warrior characters: Hotspur describes the goddess as “the fire-eyed maid of smoky war”, for example,[14] and Macbeth is referred to as “Bellona’s bridegroom”,[15] that is to say, the equivalent of Mars.

Bellona is commonly portrayed wearing a plumed helmet and dressed in armour, or at least a breastplate with a skirt beneath. In her hand she carries a spear, shield, or other weapons, and occasionally, she sounds a trumpet for the attack. Anciently, she was associated with the winged Victory, holding a laurel crown in her hand, a statue of whom she sometimes carries; when she appears on war memorials she may hold that attribute.

Examples of such an armoured figure appear in the 1633 painting attributed to Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art,[22] and statues by Johann Baptist Straub (1770) and Johann Wilhelm Beyer (1773–80). In the latter, she appears with the god Janus, since both were associated with the Roman ceremonies of declaring war. In the case of Janus, the doors to his temple were left open during the whole period of hostilities.

Straub’s statue (below) has a gorgon head on her shield to instil terror in her enemies,,,

Bellona, by Johann Baptist Straub, 1770

Another common innovation was Bellona’s association with cannons, as in the drawing by Hans Krieg (1590–1645) [25] and the 1700 ceiling fresco at Hammerschloss Schmidmühlen by Hans Georg Asam (1649–1711).[26] An early Dutch engraving in a series of prints depicting Personifications of Industrial and Professional Life suggests that it is this goddess who inspires the invention of war materiels, showing her seated in a factory workshop with all manner of arms at her feet (plate 6, see the Gallery below). In the fresco by Constantino Brumidi in the U.S. Capitol (1855–60), her image is updated. There she is shown standing next to an artillery piece and has the stars and stripes on her shield.

Public statements

Batholomaeus Spranger’s “Bellona

As well as having a decorative function, representations of the goddess had a public function too. Batholomaeus Spranger’s “Bellona Leading the Imperial Armies against the Turks” played its part in Austria’s anti-Turkish propaganda during the Long Turkish War. A later phase of the continuing conflict, culminating in victory at the battle of Zenta in 1697, is marked by Jean Cosyn’s celebratory doorway in Brussels in what now is known as the Maison de Bellone, at the centre of which presides the helmeted bust of the goddess surrounded by military standards and cannons.[31]

A dynastic political statement is made in “Marie de Medici as Bellona” (1622/5), designed by Peter Paul Rubens for her public rooms in the Luxembourg Palace. He represents her there as a wielder of political power at a time when it, in fact, had waned.[32] She is standing with armour, cannons, and muskets at her feet, and her triumphs are underlined by emblems of victory. She carries a small statue of the winged goddess (Nike) in her right hand, a smaller winged figure is mounted below the plumes of her helmet, while cupids hover above her, holding a laurel crown. Her portrayal contrasts with Rembrandt’s depiction of Bellona with the homely features of an ordinary Dutchwoman. This makes an anti-imperial statement, with the assurance that the new Dutch Republic is ready to defend itself, particularly against Spain, during the Thirty Years’ War.[23]

The Bellona on the First World War victory archway at Waterloo station is particularly memorable, however. Beneath the demonic sword-brandishing wraith with her gorgon necklace, cower and mourn, not the dead, but the overlooked living victims of war.[41]

the peace room

The Peace Room is symmetrical to the War Room and contains the same marble panel decoration and chased trophies of arms in gilded bronze. Here, however, Le Brun decorated the cupola and arches on the themes of the benefits of peace brought to Europe by France. From the beginning of Louis XIV’s reign this room was separated from the hall by a movable partition and was considered part of the Queen’s Apartment, constituting the final room after the Queen’s Chamber. During the reign of Louis XV, every Sunday Marie Leszczyńska gave concerts of religious or secular music, which played an important role in musical life in Versailles and which were continued by Marie-Antoinette during the subsequent reign. When required, the partition separating the room from the Hall of Mirrors was removed and the room formed part of the King’s State Apartment.

Chandelier nostalgia, once an opulent symbol of status and wealth

MARCH 31, 2019

“There is an early 19th-century French cut-glass and ormolu chandelier in the Green Room of the White House. Equally astonishing is an antique chandelier with candles found in the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam. Or one of the largest of them all, the chandelier at the Al Ameen Mosque in Muscat, the port capital of Omen.
The early 19th-century French cut-glass and ormolu chandelier in the Green Room of the White House, Washington, D.C.

Since chandeliers production began in the world, this most luxurious of all decorative items was set to be a symbol of achievement, wealth and high societal status.

An antique chandelier with candles in Amsterdam’s Portuguese Synagogue, Photo by
Massimo Catarinella, CC BY-SA 3.0

The word ‘chandelier’ derived from the Old French word chandelier, itself a variation from the Latin candelabrum which denotes candle holder. A word that seemed fit for the early chandelier design, which came with a very basic wooden platform upon which animal fat candles were being affixed. Hung to a suitable height, ropes or chains were used to secure the chandelier in place.

Luxury at its finest. Candelabra used for state occasions at the Belgian court. Notice the lavish chandelier in the background. Photo probably from 1960, the courtesy of Nationaal Archief in Brussels.
Illustration of a medieval chandelier from King René’s Tournament Book, 1460

Chandelier “craving” first began in Europe somewhere at the end of the 9th-century and it was the cost of good quality candles that made them an exclusive luxury interior asset. The early chandeliers adorned the ceilings of churches, castles, forts and homes of royals, of course.

By the 15th-century, this type of luxury lighting counted as a quintessential element of all noble households. That is when more elaborate chandeliers also began to appear, fashioned on ring and crown designs and crafted from rock crystal–a translucent type of quartz.

Working class families who could not afford an opulent-looking chandelier in their homes opted for more simple chandelier designs, made of wood, wrought iron and other less attractive materials such as tin.

A look at the Throne Room in the Buckingham Palace, London, 1914

Bohemian and Venetian glassmakers, notably, manufactured the best glass chandeliers. They were the bringers of the dawn of the golden age of the chandelier before the innovations of gas lighting and electricity devalued chandeliers as status symbols.

Bohemian-styled chandeliers in particular rose to prominence around Europe. These old masters of the craft created such fine pieces which radiated magnificent light and which made already glamorous rooms look even more glamorous.

Dazzling gold. At the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia, Photo by
Richard Mortel from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, CC BY 2.0

Italian glass factories quickly tried to outcompete the Bohemian chandelier production, dedicating tremendous efforts to reinvent the art of light making.

A key change in glass manufacturing came with the introduction of the Bohemian and Venetian glassmakers able to obtain at a cheaper price, and which gave way to the crystal chandelier. Softer than Venetian glass, the lead crystal was more dazzling, more translucent, and quite easy to bend and shape.

Crystal vs Lead Crystal

Rock Crystal Droplets Leaded Crystal Droplets

Crystal and lead crystal are largely used for making glassware. Most often people are not aware of the difference between crystal and lead crystal glassware. The only difference that they know is that one of them contains lead.

Crystal is only a type of glass. They are very delicate than the regular glass. In order to give the crystals more stability and weight, lead is often added to it.

Both crystal and lead crystal glassware comprises of manganese, soda, silica sand and lime. Other materials like borax, arsenic and saltpeter are added to give color.

First of all let us look at the cost of the two. Lead crystal is priced higher than the crystals.

Lead crystal sparkles more than the crystals. This is because of the addition of lead oxide, which increases the refractive index. Unlike the crystals, the lead crystals are more clear and bright.

Lead crystal is blown and cut by the hand whereas crystals are machine made. As the lead crystals are hand made, it has added brilliance and sharp facets. On the other hand, the crystals have rounded edges.

When comparing the health issues, there is a saying that lead crystals are not good for the body as they contain lead. Though the warning is there, people prefer lead crystal to crystals as they are more beautiful. Another point that is sometimes raised is that alcohol should not be stored in lead crystal decanters. If alcohol is stored for more than three months, then there is a possibility that the lead oozes into the liquid.

The first crystals were traced around 500 B C in Mesopotamia. On the other hand, Lead crystal was discovered in 1674 after an English glassmaker changed the formula of making crystal glassware by substituting lead oxide for calcium.

Stunning chandelier work at the Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, France, Photo by Myrabella, CC BY-SA 3.0

A famous name to recall from the history of chandelier-making, amongst others, is Daniel Swarovski. The Czech-born Austrian glass cutter included in his work cut stones production for ornate crystal chandeliers. He was born in 1862, about the time gasoliers also began to appear. This new branch of ceiling fixtures slowly started to replace candles as major source of light.

Gasolier Definition & Meaning – Merriam-Webster
gasolier noun gas· olier ˌga-sə-ˈlir : a gaslight chandelier Word History Etymology alteration of gaselier, from gas + -elier (as in chandelier) First Known Use 1849, in the meaning defined above Time Traveler The first known use of gasolier was in 1849 See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries Near gasolier gas oil gasolier gasoline

The Ceremonial Hall (Muayede Salonu) in Dolmabahçe Palace, in Istanbul, Turkey, with the chandelier said to have been given by Queen Victoria, Photo by Gryffindor, CC BY-SA 4.0

Then normally, as the world was ushered in the new era of electricity, it was the dawn of electric-only chandeliers, some of which nicely fitted with bulbs that imitated the flame of a candle. The widespread introduction of gas and electricity reduced chandeliers to merely a room decoration, however.

Housemaid cleaning chandelier in early-20th century Sweden.

Some of the world’s most famous venues today where one can see the finest of chandelier work from history includes Istanbul’s famed Dolmabahçe Palace, where the deathbed of Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey, can also be seen. The world’s largest English Glass chandelier there, is fitted with astonishing 750 lamps and weights 4.5 tons.

The Palace of Versailles, which was France’s Royal residence for a century before the Revolution, also has its fair share of breath-taking chandeliers. The best pieces can be seen in the famed Hall of Mirrors, where the Treaty of Versailles was signed at the closure of World War I.

We also though to remind you of how Art Nouveau furniture uproared our living rooms, dining rooms and bedrooms.

Nov 25, 2022  chant. (v.) late 14c., “sing,” from Old French chanter “to sing, celebrate” (12c.), from Latin cantare “to sing,” originally a frequentative of canere “sing” (which it replaced), from PIE root *kan- “to sing.” The frequentative quality of the word was no longer felt in Latin, and by the time French emerged the word had entirely displaced canere.
Chanting a mantra mindfully can be a form of meditation. A dharani is something like a mantra, although usually longer. Dharanis are said to contain the essence of a teaching, and repetitive chanting of a dharani may evoke some beneficial power, such as protection or healing. Chanting a dharani also subtly affects the mind of the chanter.

Is Chanting a Religion? – Yoga Alliance Professionals
Although some religions have adopted chanting as the heart of their faith you do not have to be a Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist or other to adopt this daily practice. If you have a devout practice then chanting can only enhance your devotion to the ‘God’ of your understanding.

What does the Bible say about chanting? –
Jan 4, 2022 Chants or mantras spoken or sung for the purpose of opening the mind to undefined spiritual influences are also dangerousChanting in a church setting is usually associated with Catholicism, but other liturgical traditions such as Lutheranism also employ chanting.

When chanting, one may come from a religious perspective with a belief that each name of the divine (Shiva, Krishna, Brahma, etc) is a deity worthy of worship. From a non-religious perspective, these names may represent specific aspects of philosophy or even metaphoric lessons provided for our enrichment, without the need to be deified. …  (WOW, what a lie.  They want you to believe you can invoke the names of their demon spirits in the same manner that they use to worship them and not be worshipping them.  How stupid do you have to be to believe that?  Seriously!)

The Power of Mantra Chanting – Why and How to Chant – Learn Religions
A Mantra chanted correctly or incorrectly, knowingly or unknowingly, carefully or carelessly, is sure to bear the desired result for the physical and mental well being. It is also believed by many that the glory of Mantra chanting cannot be established through reasoning and intellect.  (So, there you have it, from their own teaching.  It does not matter whether you practice it KNOWINGLY or UNKNOWINGLY the result is the same.  Spiritual things are not understood by the mind. Invoking the spirits is a communication between your spirit and theirs.  You are inviting them into you being, KNOWINGLY or UNKNOWINGLY.)

Does the Bible say anything about chanting? Should a Christian chant?
When a person or persons chant to connect with evil spirits, that is harmful. Also spiritually dangerous is chanting, singing, or repeating mantras to open the mind to undefined spiritual influences. Catholics sometimes use chanting in worship, and other liturgical traditions use chanting, such as Lutherans.

Exploring Chanting In Different Cultures | Sound of Life
The chants most well-known under Christian practices are the Gregorian chants (or plainchant), named after Pope Gregory The Great in 600 CE. In 1994, it even received attention on the pop charts thanks to the German band Enigma, whose song ” Sadeness ” became an international hit, selling 12 million units and reaching No.1 in 24 countries.  (Demonically inspired.  Gregorian chanting is demonic.)


Cantor in Jewish Liturgy |
A cantor or chanter The role of the cantor, called hazzān in Hebrew, as the leader of sung congregational prayer in Jewish liturgical services came into prominence with the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in a.d. 70, resulting in local synagogue liturgies replacing Temple liturgies of animal sacrifice, public prayer, and choral psalm-singing.  (This was introduced by the same Pharisees that rejected Christ and had him Crucified.  This practice came from BABYLON.)

What Is A Cantor (Hazzan or Chazan)? | My Jewish Learning
A cantor or chanter  Professional cantors are a comparatively recent innovation in Jewish life. The earliest appearances of the word “hazzan” in Jewish literature are in the Mishnah and Talmud (Rabbinical Documents not the Bible.)  and referred to a sort of congregational officiant or sexton. The first reference to a hazzan as a musical prayer leader occurred around the sixth century.

incantation (n.)
“art or act of enchanting by uttering magical words, with ceremonies supposed to have magical power; the formula of words or the ceremony employed,” late 14c., from Old French incantacion “spell, exorcism” (13c.), from Late Latin incantationem (nominative incantatio) “art of enchanting,” noun of action from past-participle stem of incantare “to bewitch, charm, cast a spell upon, chant magic over, sing spells(see enchantment).

enchantment | Etymology, origin and meaning of enchantment by etymonline
enchauntement, “act of magic or witchcraft; use of magic; magic power,” from Old French encantement “magical spell; song, concert, chorus,” from enchanter “bewitch, charm,” from Latin incantareenchant, cast a (magic) spell upon,from in- “upon, into” (from PIE root *en “in”) + cantare “to sing” (from PIE root *kan- “to sing”).


enchantment (n.)
c. 1300, enchauntement, “act of magic or witchcraft; use of magic; magic power,” from Old French  encantement  “magical spell; song, concert, chorus,” from enchanter “bewitch, charm,” from Latin incantare “enchant, cast a (magic) spell upon,” from in- “upon, into” (from PIE root *en “in”) + cantare “to sing” (from PIE root *kan- “to sing”). Figurative sense of “allurement” is from 1670s. Compare Old English galdor “song,” also “spell, enchantment,from galan “to sing,” which also is the source of the second element in nightingale.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning “to sing.”

It forms all or part of: accentcant (n.1); cantabilecantatacantatricecanticlecantocantorcanzoneCarmenchansonchantchanterchanteusechantychanticleercharmconcentdescantenchantenchantmenthenincantationincentiveoscineprecentorrecant. chandler , chandelier, candle as we have seen.It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek eikanos “cock,” literally “bird who sings (for sunrise);” Latin cantarecanere “to sing;” Old Irish caniaid “sings,” Welsh canu “sing;” Old English hana “cock.”

Meaning of “Chandelier” by Sia

The lyrics of Sia’s “Chandelier” are about a party girls’ love for living life to the fullest. She loves the attention being a party girl gives her despite the fact that it’s fleeting and not genuine. (So it is a a deceit, a lie, an enchantment! The party folk know this, and they want it anyway.  They are bewitched.) She knows she’s the one for the good time. The one people call on only for fun. Swinging from a chandelier has always been one way of describing a life of excessive partying and that’s what she is doing.
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Lyrics of the song "Chandelier"

But despite the thrill, she admits that her life is not all excitement and joy. It’s also about pain, tears and holding on to life any way possible. Sia insinuates that whenever she tries to drown her pain, it barely works and she should have learnt by now but no. She keeps trying. In so doing, she tries to drown her pain in a bottle and keep living like there’s no tomorrow. She drinks until she loses count and can’t feel anything but that barely stops her.

Furthermore, she makes it clear that all the effort is for the night. She’s just trying to hold on to her life for the night. At least when she keeps drinking, she won’t have to face the night or her challenges.

The second verse brings us to the realization that, running and drowning herself in a bottle doesn’t stop the sun from coming up. Neither does it stop reality from hitting her nor her from facing her shame for the mess she’s turned her life into.

All in all, “Chandelier” is like an autobiography considering how challenging Sia’s life had been around the time the song had been written. It’s common knowledge that Sia once battled intensely with addictions to drugs and alcohol.


Vancouver’s ‘symbol of disparity’: a $4.8-million chandelier

The city’s latest piece of public art: a vision of opulence in the type of space where homeless people seek shelter

The 3,400 kg chandelier had been affixed days earlier by a web of thin metal cables to the underside of Vancouver’s Granville St. Bridge, a space that has long been an unwelcoming dead zone. Despite its heft, the translucent sculpture looks ethereal against the towering cement bridge supports. A crowd had gathered, not so much to hear renowned Vancouver conceptual artist Rodney Graham thank Isaac Newton for inspiring the piece he calls Spinning Chandelier, developer Ian Gillespie who bankrolled the $4.8 million sculpture or the many crafts people at the artists’ foundry in Walla Walla, Wash. who constructed it from more than 600 polyurethane crystals and stainless steel. They were waiting for the moment when the chandelier would be illuminated, slowly descend and then spin before rising again to its resting spot with lights off: a cycle it will repeat twice a day.

When the switch was flicked, Spinning Chandelier lit up like the 200-year-old French chandelier upon which it was modelled. There were cheers from the well turned out audience, who looked to be mostly neighbourhood folk living in condominiums, many with views of nearby False Creek.

One woman in a full-length fur coat admired the artwork but wondered how they would control pigeon droppings which are the bane of artists world-wide. Claud Brunelle who has lived in the area for more than 20 years applauded the sculpture which will be the centrepiece of an artsy gathering spaceeventually photographs will be projected against the bridge struts—edged by shops and cafes. “We never really had anything down here. Now we are getting a grocery store and a London Drugs. This is going to revitalize the whole area.”


READ MORE: Yachts versus rowers: In Vancouver this is class warfare

Of course, this being Vancouver where the gap between rich and poor is widening, not everyone is as enthusiastic about this or any other move that smacks of gentrification. Backlash against the sculpture erupted before the official unveiling from people, mostly on the political left, who hadn’t yet seen it. In part it was a reaction to the high cost of the sculpture which fulfilled Gillespie’s public art contribution for a luxury tower called Vancouver House adjacent to the bridge. The city requires developers to contribute $1.2 million toward public art for developments over 100,000 square feet, says Erick Fredericksen, Vancouver’s head of public art. In this case, Gillespie was permitted to bundle his art contribution from Vancouver House and three other developments to pay for Graham’s signature piece.

The disapprobation is exacerbated by the location and symbolism of the chandeliera vision of opulence in the type of space where homeless people seek shelter. When the first photographs of the artwork appeared, Twitter erupted with critiques from Vancouver’s left pointing out the sculpture is only a few kilometres from a downtown park where homeless people have been living in a tent city for more than a year. Among those voices was Carrie Bercic, a city activist and former school trustee. “It really breaks my heart,” she says. “I’m certainly in favour of public art and I’m in no way disparaging the obvious talent of this artist.But in a city facing an opioid and homelessness crisis, it’s money that could be put to better use, she says. “It looks like a symbol of disparity between the haves and have nots in this city.”

Critics like Bercic are unmoved or perhaps don’t know that in addition to the public art contribution, Gillespie’s company Westbank was required by the city to build 106 units of rental housing and contributed $17 million in community amenity contributions and development cost charges in exchange for rezoning the Vancouver House site. The city can use that money to help pay for social housing, childcare spaces, heritage conservation and cultural facilities, to name a few.

Still, there those in Vancouver who won’t cut Gillespie any slack, regardless of his contributions. A collector of couture gowns who muses poetic about the value of beauty, Gillespie often faces backlash from Vancouverites priced out of the housing market over the past decade. In lefty circles his name is synonymous with the boom in luxury condos, which he unabashedly markets to overseas buyers who in turn are blamed for pushing up property values.

Since 2000, the value of Vancouver real estate has increased by more than 300 per cent. And the benchmark price of a detached home in the city, although lower than it was last year, is still $1.2 million. Although there are plenty of other developers building luxury condos and selling into the same market, Gillespie gets more than his share of the flack probably because he is one of the most successful. He defends his buildings and the art in and around them as beautiful and important cultural additions to the city and blames government inaction, not foreign buyers, for the city’s lack of affordable housing.

Fredericksen points out the city has an art committee that vets public art projects, but the whole process takes a fairly hands-off approach. He says developing the nowhere land under Granville Bridge mirrors an international trend of cities trying to make better use of the unused space under bridges and freeways. New York has been working on uses for space under elevated portion of FDR Drive and Seattle has built dog and skateboard parks beneath an elevated section of the I-5.

There is, he points out, another way to look at the transformative effect the city hopes Spinning Chandelier will have on the space under the Granville Bridge. “It’s a big move to point to this very industrial infrastructural landscape as public realm.” Part of what a chandelier hung under there does, he says, is domesticate the space, albeit in a “really scaled up sort of way.”


La Chandeleur: The Quirky French celebration of Candlemas
If it is La Chandeleur in France, it must be for some crêpes. Beyond the crêpes however, are some rather
quirky French traditions and superstitions surrounding Candlemas.
 French Holidays ( –
 Nassie (

Candlemas is not one of the most widely recognized holidays, but if you like crêpes this is the day for you.  Known in France as La Chandeleur, it is celebrated on February 2nd by gathering at friends’ homes and eating a ton of crêpes. A lot of crêpes. Alright, it is not just about the food, although in France, it certainly seems like it. Over the years, it has lost a lot of its religious meaning, and is no longer celebrated as a public holiday.
The original day was linked to a celebration of pagan fertility before becoming a Christian holy day commemorating the presentation of Jesus Christ at the Temple. It is traditionally the 40th day after the end of Christmas and 3 Kings Day (both also big occasions for French feasting), and right before Mardi Gras .
In some countries to remove their Christmas decorations  the eve of 3 Kings day, but in other countries, it is on Candlemas. The crêpes are said to relate to Pope Gelasius I in the 5th century, who had pancakes distributed to pilgrims arriving in Rome.
Some believe that it dates to the earlier pagan ritual of the Vestal Virgins making offerings of cakes at the time of the Lupercalia fertility festival. But either, there is food involved!
Celebrating with Crepes
La Chandeleur is one of those French celebrations that is combined with another french tradition, the goûter. Otherwise known as the afternoon snack. French people usually gather around at someone’s house on the nearest Sunday afternoon, and watch the chef serve up crêpes.
If you’ve never made a crêpe before, not to worry, they are quite easy to make. Similar to pancakes, just add all-purpose flour, eggs, milk, and you have the base of a crêpe.

(See full crêpe sucrée recipe ( here.)
Once the crêpe is ready, guests are free to add  whatever you want to it, such as nutella, jam, chocolate syrup etc.

For chandeleur, the crêpes served are usually sugary, but some hosts may prefer to serve savory crêpes  that use buckwheat flour. Traditional toppings are ham, eggs and cheese, but you can use other ingredients like spinach, mushrooms, etc. (See recipe for crêpe salée.  Sugary or savory, the crêpes are usually served with large pitchers of cider.
Chandeleur superstitions
Now that we have the crêpes under our belt, it is time for some superstitions! Back in the day, candlelight processions were carried out to mark the Chandeleur. The Candlemas candle was to be brought back from the church to your home, while remaining lit.
As the saying goes: “Celui qui la rapporte chez lui allumée, pour sûr ne mourra pas dans l’année.”
Whoever brings it home on fire, for sure will not die within a year.
With candlelight processions are rare these days, the superstitions have turned to crêpes:
La veille de la Chandeleur… L’hiver se passe ou prend rigueur Si tu sais bien tenir ta poêle À toi l’argent en quantité
Mais gare à la mauvaise étoile Si tu mets ta crêpe à côté.

The eve of Candlemas…
Winter is happening or getting harsh If you know how to hold your pan To you the money in quantity But beware of the bad star If you put your crêpe aside.
More recently, a newer superstition has emerged: you have to sauté the first crêpe in the pan with your right hand while holding a gold coin in your left hand.
“Happiness, today, day of Candlemas, for those who eat pancakes with a gold coin in their fingers”.
The coin is then rolled in the pancake and placed in a cabinet for a year. At the end of the year, the coin is collected and given to a poor person. If the rite was respected, the family would experience long prosperity.
Since we now live in the age of immediate satisfaction, a simple coin in the hand when flipping the pancake is enough to fulfill the superstition!
The other thing I should mention, is that Chandeleur is also the French equivalent of North American Groundhog day which is also on February 2. It doesn’t snow in much of France, but it does rain. A lot.
As the saying goes: “Quand il pleut pour la Chandeleur, il pleut pendant quarante jours. Quand la Chandeleur est claire, l’hiver est par derriere.”
When it rains on Chandeleur, it will rain for 40 days. When it is clear on Chandeleur, the winter is behind us.”   As a bonus, no furry animals are harmed during the French weather predictions.

So will you be enjoying some crêpes this Candlemas? If you enjoyed that article, you may like to read more about France in winter  A bientôt!


Chandeleur / Candlemas

Hypapant Candlemas
Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, Andrea Mantegna, 1465.
Presentation of Jesus in the Temple , Andrea Mantegna , 1465.

Observed by Christians
Kind Religious and traditional celebration
Meaning Commemoration of the Presentation in the Temple of the Child Jesus
Date February 2
Celebrations Solemnity
Linked to Christmas

Candlemas ( feast of candles ) is an ancient pagan and Latin feast , which later became a Christian religious feast corresponding to the presentation of Jesus in the Temple and his recognition by Simeon as “Light which is revealed to the nations” 1 . It is one of the twelve major liturgical feasts celebrated by the Orthodox Churches .

This holiday takes place on February 2 , 2 which is 40 days after Christmas .

Nowadays, in France , Belgium and French-speaking Switzerland , pancakes are traditionally eaten in a festive atmosphere on Candlemas Day.


The name of this festival comes from the Latin festa candelarum , “the festival of candles  ” ( candela  : “candle”) 3 .


Among the Romans , the Lupercalia were celebrated around February 15 , in honor of Lupercus , god of fertility and herds. Around the same date, the feast of Feralia also took place .

The Lupercalia have frequently been linked to Candlemas [unclear] , as by Cardinal Cesare Baronio in the 16th century 4 , 5 , no  doubt because of their common purifying aim. In 494 , “candles” were associated with Candlemas by Pope Gelasius I , the first to organize torchlight processions on 1 . In a letter to Senator Andromachus, he says he wishes to restore the Lupercalia and argues about their purifying power 6 . As the Gelasian sacramentary mentions Candlemas, it is concluded that Gelasius had replaced the pagan feast by the feast of the Presentation. However, the Gelasian Sacramentary came under strong Gallican influence and was compiled between 628 and 731  ; it is therefore also possible that this addition is not due to Gelase. Indeed, when the latter addresses Andromachus, he does not use arguments of authority, but is content to show that the Lupercalia festival would no longer have any effect by its distortion and its incompatibility with ideals. christians 4. This fact has been interpreted as denoting his lack of influence over the Roman aristocracy .

The Feast of the Presentation in the Temple was celebrated from  the 4th century in Jerusalem . We thus find homilies on this feast attributed to Methodius of Patare († 312 ) 8 , to pseudo- Cyril of Jerusalem 9 , to pseudo- Gregory of Nyssa († 400 ) 10 or to Saint John Chrysostom († 407 ) 11 . In addition, we have the pilgrimage account of Egeria ( 381 – 384 ) stating that festivities took place at Jerusalem forty days after Epiphany  the birth of Christ being then celebrated on this date in the East (this is still the case for Armenians ) — in honor of the Presentation in the Temple

“The fortieth day after Epiphany, in truth, is celebrated here with great pomp. That day, the meeting takes place at the Anastasis. Everyone gathers there and everything is celebrated in the usual way with the greatest solemnity, as at Easter. All the priests preach, then the bishop, always commenting on this passage of the Gospel according to which on the fortieth day Joseph and Mary carried the Lord to the temple, where he saw him Simeon and the prophetess Anne, daughter of Phanuel, as well as their words in the sight of the Lord and the offering made by his parents. After which, when everything has been celebrated in the usual way, the mysteries are accomplished, then the dismissal takes place 13 . The Nativity was, in the West ,since at least its attestation in the year 354 in the Chronograph of 354 . Forty days later, it automatically falls on February 2 . In the eastern part of the Roman Empire , Justin institutes the feast of the Hypapante on14 .

Our Lady of Candelaria (Patroness of the Canary Islands ). In this Spanish archipelago began the identification of Candlemas with the Virgin Mary .

SO, now we have a connection to the Canary Islands!

Consequently, Gelasius – if he may have contributed to spreading it – did not invent this celebration, and the link made by Cardinal Baronius between February 14 and the Lupercalia is inoperative, since the Lupercalia, a Roman feast by Excellence through its connection with Remus and Romulus, were not celebrated in Jerusalem and that it is only there that we find celebrations of the Presentation made around this date 4 . But it seems that it rather gained importance following the plague of Justinian in 541 before spreading slowly in the West.

Among the  Celts Imbolc was celebrated on February 1stThis rite in honor of the goddess  Brigit  celebrated purification and fertility at the end of winter. Peasants carried torches and marched through the fields in procession, praying to the goddess to purify the land before sowing 15 .

In churches, torches are replaced by blessed candles whose glow is supposed to ward off evil and remind us that Christ is the light of the world . Christians then take the candles home to protect their homes. In 1372 , this feast will also be associated with the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary , in other words her successors 16 .

This is a regular practice of the ROMAN CHURCH, to take the pagan rituals of all people and adapt them to suit their sensitivities.  However, as we have seen, IT MATTERS NOT whether you practice pagan worship/witchcraft KNOWINGLY or UNKNOWINGLY, as long as you are practicing it the same way, the results are the same.

The pancakes with their round shape and their golden color would remind the Sun finally returning after the night of winter 17 , which would explain that we make pancakes at Candlemas, time of the year when the days get longer Faster and faster. It was also during this period that winter sowing began. Surplus flour was therefore used to make these pancakes, a symbol of prosperity for the coming year.

The feast took on a Marian character after the appearance of the image of Our Lady on the island of  Tenerife .  In 1497 the conqueror of Tenerife, Alonso Fernández de Lugo , celebrated the first Feast of Candlemas dedicated to the Virgin 18 . Another custom, that of the gold coin: people flipped the first pancake with the right hand while holding a gold coin in the left. Then the gold coin was rolled up in the crepe before being carried in procession by the family to the bedroom where it was placed on the cupboard until the following year 19 . Before the conquest of Tenerife, the Guanche aborigines celebrated a feast around the image of the Virgin during the feast of Beñesmer in August . It was the harvest festival, which also marked the beginning of the year. Currently, the feast of the Virgin of Candelaria in the Canary Islands is celebrated not only on, but also on August 15 , the day of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary among Catholics. For some historians, the festivities organized in honor of the Virgin in August are a syncretism reminiscent of the old parties (???) beñesmer 20 .

Bear Hypothesis
Main articles: Bear Festivals in Vallespir, Arles-sur-Tech Bear Festival  (AND BEARS!! (as in BDSM Teddy Bears),  Saint-Laurent-de-Cerdans Bear Festival  
(AND FASHION!!), and Prats-de-Mollo Bear Festival la-Preste 

The Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste Bear Festival or El Dia dels Óssos (Day of the Bears) is a festive practice taking place annually at the end of winter in Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste ( Pyrénées-Orientales , Occitanie ).

The bear festival is listed in the Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in France 1 as part of the practice of ” Haut-Vallespir Bear Festivals “.

the, the Bear Festivals in the Pyrenees of Andorra and France are listed as Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO 3 .

Description of the party 

Three groups share the festivities: the Three Bears, the Hunters and the Barbers. Bears are recognizable by the sheepskins on their backs. Barbers are usually mature men. The three groups finally bring together about thirty men between 18 and 55 years old. This marks a confrontation between the generations that can only be seen in the bear festivals of Prats. The hunt lasts two hours during which the bears roam the city, catch girls, smear them with soot. The final shaving scene brings together the Bears and the Barbers on the Place du Foirail, the main square of the village, under the gaze of the population. The Bear Festival is the first festival in the carnival cycle , which continues over the next four days.

The Dark Truth about BEARS! – Joe Rogan


For a long time in Europe 21 , the bear was the object of a cult which extended from Antiquity to the heart of the Middle Ages The Germanic , Scandinavian and, to a lesser extent, Celtic peoples celebrated the animal’s emergence from hibernation around the end of January or the beginning of February. But the most celebrated date was January 24 in most of Europe. This was when the bear came out of its den to see if the weather was good. This festival was characterized by disguises or disguises as bears and simulacra of rapes or abductions of young girls.

According to the “bear hypothesis”, the Catholic Church, having long sought to eradicate this pagan worship, would have instituted for this purpose the feast of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple on . However, the celebrations of the bear and the return of the light would have survived in bonfires and other torchlight processions. These customs are said to have prompted Pope Gelasius I to institute the candlelight festival in  the 5th century . From the 12th to the 18th century  , the Chandeleur was called “Chandelours” in many regions (notably the Alps , the Pyrenees and the Ardennes ). Proponents of the bear hypothesis see it as a reminder of the bear cult .

Other arguments advanced in favor of the bear hypothesis are based on the Christian calendar. Candlemas is set there at , and Saint Bridget on February 1 (named after the Celtic goddess, celebrated on the same date) There is also the Saint-Ours d’Aoste , the Saint-Blaise (meaning “bear”). Candlemas can also be seen there as the opening of the Carnival period, the bear being “the carnival animal par excellence 23  ”. However, the liturgical custom of celebrating the Presentation on was already established in Jerusalem 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 long before it was in Rome in  the fifth century .

A pagan festa candelarum is also said to have taken place in Rome [citation needed] , commemorating the search for the chthonic goddess Proserpina abducted and married by the god of the Underworld Pluto , by her mother Ceres , goddess of agriculture and harvest. Proserpine now residing underground, her mother threatened to deprive men of food, but obtained from Jupiter that her daughter return to earth for half the year, corresponding to the seasons of spring and summer, and return to the kingdom. hellish fall and winter. Thus, the candlelight festival symbolizes the return of spring with the sun making the sown land grow.

February , on the other hand, takes its name from the Latin verb februare “to purify”. It is for this reason that Christianity ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH would have placed the feast of the Purification of the Virgin at this time. The purification in question is that of coming out of the “winter darkness”. The myths of Theseus and Ariadne or Sleeping Beauty, for example, would be narrations of the release of light (the Dawn of the year) by the “solar knight” [citation needed] .


A distant heir to an ancient torchlight procession, the current tradition makes the Liichtmëssdag a celebration at the center of which children find themselves. In small groups, they roam the streets in the afternoon or evening of , holding in their hand a lighted stick or a lampion made by them, to sing in each house or shop one or the other traditional song 29 , in particular Léiwer Härgottsblieschen  (Translation: Love of God Pencils) . They hope to receive in exchange a reward in the form of sweets or loose change (formerly bacon, peas, biscuits31 .


In Mexico , it is traditional to commemorate the presentation of the infant Jesus to the Temple on . This celebration, very important for Mexicans , passes through the lifting of the child (the ”  levantada  ” del niño) from the nativity scene which is followed by the tradition of the dressing and adoration of the child Jesus and accompanied several songs (Ya vienen los Reyes Magos, Levantada del niño Dios, Levantamiento del niño Jesús y Arrullo de Dios) 32 . Then comes the family meal around tamales .

This celebration is closely linked to that of Epiphany , since it is on this day, during the tasting of the ”  Rosca de Reyes  ” 33 ( kings cake ), that the person who is responsible for organizing the Candlemas. Indeed, whoever finds the muñeco (bean in the shape of the child Jesus ) (THIS IS A MARDI GRAS TRADITION, So now we have a connection to Mardi Gras and the USA!) in the brioche is designated as the child’s godfather. It is he who will have to dress the niño dios(image of the child Jesus in the form of a doll of more or less size) on the day of Candlemas with richly decorated clothes and bring it to the church to be blessed. These images are often passed down from generation to generation in families. They are also sold in specialized shops. Every year, new clothes for the image of the child Jesus are purchased as a sign of devotion.

A family meal follows this blessing. Whoever pulled the bean at Epiphany must also prepare the tamales, a corn -based dish thought to recall the corn offerings of Mexico’s pre-Christian past. The whole family is invited to this meal (these are often the same people as for the Rosca tasting at Epiphany), which gives this celebration a family dimension and sharing. These celebrations are not only held in Mexico, but also in Mexican communities around the world, especially in France . This is why this typical Mexican practice appears in the Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in France 34 .

United States and Canada

The celebration of Candlemas has generally been replaced in the media by Groundhog Day, although the tradition of Candlemas still persists under this name in several regions where French traditions remain strong, such as in Quebec, Acadia, Louisiana, in the Mississippi Valley and in Maine 35 , 36 .


I know that there is a spiritual relation between the Chandelier and the Menorah.  I believe the Chandelier is the devil’s perverted imitation/corruption of the God’s Lampstand. The Menorah is the Symbol of the relationship of God with His people.  It is the official symbol of the Hebrews.  As such it should be the symbol of ALL those who know and love GOD and are bought by the blood of the Lamb.

The Perfect Menorah vs. The Imperfect Chandelier

Posted by  YOEL GANOR

Date  JUNE 5, 2020


This week’s Torah portion “Be’haalotkha” starts with the description of lighting up the Menorahthe sacred candelabrum with seven branches used in the Temple.

וְזֶה מַעֲשֵׂה הַמְּנֹרָה מִקְשָׁה זָהָב, עַד-יְרֵכָהּ עַד-פִּרְחָהּ מִקְשָׁה הִוא

כַּמַּרְאֶה, אֲשֶׁר הֶרְאָה יְהוָה אֶת-מֹשֶׁה–כֵּן עָשָׂה, אֶת-הַמְּנֹרָה

This was the form of the menorah: hammered work of gold, from its base to its flower it was hammered work; according to the form that the Lord had shown Moses, so did he construct the menorah.(8:4)

Hammered work of gold,means that the menorah was to be made of a single piece of gold, beaten or pounded with a hammer and other tools, until it assumed the proper shape.

The Torah demands that the menorah be made out of one piece of gold, just as the all people of Israel are actually one entity.

Every person is incomplete by himself, without the rest of the people, just as in the human body, the foot needs the head to function no less than the head requires the foot for mobility.

Chandelier in Hebrew  

Lampstand – Hebrew מעמד מנורה

And now a little bit of Modern Hebrew:

  • Chandelier, lamp – מנורה (MENORAH)  (As you can see above, this is a lie.  There are three different words in Hebrew for these three things.  Spelled completely different with completely different meaning.s)
  • Bulb – נורה (NURAH)
  • Gold – זהב (ZAHAV)
  • Orange (n) – תפוח זהב (TAPUAH ZAHAV),
    or in short תפוז  (TAPUZ)
  • Elderly (age) – גיל הזהב – (GIL HA’ZAHAV)
  • Great guy – בחור זהב – (BAKHUR ZAHAV)

TAPPUAH (1) tap’-u-a, ta-pu’-a (tappuach, “apple”): (1) A royal city of the Canaanites, the king of which was slain by Joshua (12:17).
tappuah ), a kind of sensuous fruit.

The name Tappuah

Love Apple
From the noun תפוח (tappuah), a kind of aphrodisiac fruit.


The Structure of the Menorah

God instructed the House of Israel to build a seven-branched lampstand of pure gold (Ex 25:31-40).

The shape reminds of a flowering tree of life. On each of the six side arms were 3 golden almond blossoms and together with the 4 on the center shaft, there were exactly 22 almond blossoms. Between the 22 flowers, there are 21 connections. From the lowest flower to the top flower on the shaft to the 6 lamps, there are 27 (3×8+3=27) connections, and together with the highest connection from the top flower on the shaft to the middle lamp, there are a total of 28 (4×7) connections. Together they are 50 parts + 7 lamps.

The almond tree is the first tree in Israel, which awakes from its winter sleep to life and blooms. Therefore, the white almond blossom is a symbol of life and purity. God paid attention to the details from the very beginning; for he commanded that every single almond blossom on the Menorah should consist of three parts, namely, the cups, buds and blossoms (petals). Together they are 3×22=66 single flower parts.

The Menorah stood in the Tabernacle and in Solomon’s Temple. The Menorah stood also in the Temple of Herod in Jerusalem when Jesus was crucified.

In the year 66 AD began the Jewish-Roman War. In 70 AD was the temple in Jerusalem destroyed by the Romans. After more than 10 years the Arch of Titus in Rome was created, showing the removal of the Menorah, whose shape was outlined, however inaccurate.

The Biblical Menorah is a Reference to the Bible, the Light to the World

The Menorah has a symbolism for eternity, for there is a clear correlation between the construction of the Menorah and the structure of the Bible. This is especially evident at 3 points:

  1. THE 49 SCROLLS OF THE BIBLE:The Hebrew alphabet has22 letters and the Greek has 27 letters (in total there are 22+27=49 letters). The Menorah has 22 almond blossoms and the OT has been written on 22 scrolls. The 22 almond flowers on the Menorah are a symbol of the 22 scrolls of the OT (the basis of the Bible). The Menorah has 3×8+3=27 connections from the lowest to the top flower of the shaft toward the 6 lamps (the 6 is the number of man) and the NT was written on 27 scrolls. The 27 connections stands for the 27 books of the NT. Together, there are 22+27=49 scrolls of the Bible.

Your WORD is a LAMP to my feet and a LIGHT to my path” (Psalm 119,105)

The Menorah has 22 almond blossoms and 27 connecting parts; together they are 22+27=49 items. On the shaft there are 7 parts and on all 6 side arms as well. They are therefore exactly 7x7=49 parts of the Menorah.

The Bible was written on 22 (OT) plus 27 (NT) scrolls; together they are 22+27=49 scrolls. The 49 symbolizes the complete conclusion and final completeness of the Word of God: 7x7=49.

However, the Menorah still has a connection from the uppermost almond blossom at the shaft to the middle lamp. This symbolizes the most important part, or the most important book of the Bible, namely the Book of Life49 + 1 = 50

  1. THE 7 PARTS OF THE BIBLE:The Menorah has7 lamps and the Bible consists of 7 parts. Each of these parts symbolizes a lamp, for the Word of God is the light for our dark world. The 7 parts are: 1. Law, 2. Prophets, 3. Writings, 4. Gospels, 5. Acts of the Apostles, 6. Epistles, and 7. Revelation.
  2. THE 66 AND 70 BOOKS OF BIBLE:Each almond flower consists of 3 parts (cups,buds and blossoms/petals). Together they are 3x22=66 almond blossom items. On the center shaft are 4 almond blossoms with a total of 12 flower items. On the left side of the Menorah, there are 3x3x3=27 flower parts on the 3 arms. The 12 flower parts on the stem plus the 27 flower parts on the left side are a reference to the basis of the Bible, namely the 12+27=39 books of the OT. The other 3x3x3=27 flower parts on the right side of the shaft indicate the 27 books of the NT. In addition, there are exactly 3×7=21 connections between the 22 almond blossoms. The Old Testament was written on 22 scrolls, but it contains a total of 39 individual books.

The New Testament was written on 27 scrolls, and here each scroll corresponds to a single book. The entire Bible was written on 49 scrolls and contains 66 individual books.

A lamp also has the wick and the olive oil. There are therefore 3×7=21 lamp items. The 22 almond blossoms with the 27 connecting parts together produce 49 items and with the 21 lamp items the total number is 70 (10×7=70). Since the Psalms originally consisted of 5 books, the total number of the Bible is 70 books. Interestingly, Josephus himself described that the Menorah consisted of 70 parts. However, we do not know exactly how they counted. And we do not know whether the construction of the Temple Menorah was exactly according to the Bible’s instructions (Ex 25:31-40) or changed by the priests.

Oil is also important because it is a reference to the Holy Spirit, which enables us to be a light in this world. The parable of the 10 virgins (Mt 25:1-13) emphasizes the importance of this oil, for the darkness will not enter into the kingdom of God. The Bridegroom will certainly not pick up the sinful darkness, but only the spiritual virgins who have enough oil (Holy Spirit). Christians who do not follow Jesus, who radiate little love and are therefore no light for the world, are not genuine Christians, but part of this dark world (Mt 25:1-13).

The Symbol and Meaning of the Numbers

The Bible was written on 49 scrolls (22 + 27), but it contains 39 + 27 = 66 books.
Since the Psalms originally consisted of 5 books, there are altogether 70 books.

Both views are correct. The numbers 49 (7×7), 66 (3×22) and 70 (10×7) symbolize the complete conclusion and completeness of the Word of God. There are Christians who believe that the 66 is related to the number 666 (number of the Beast, Satan). However, this is a great error, for the 66 has nothing to do with it, but it means 3 times 22 (22 Hebrew letters), which is a very positive number of the Old Testament closeness of the books. The OT also contains 36 (3×12) and the NT 21 (3×7) book names. No scroll and no book may be removed or added.

The number 22:

  • 22  Almond blossoms of the Menorah
  • 22  Letters in the ancient Hebrew alphabet
  • 22  Scrolls of the Old Testament

The number 27:

  • 27  Connections in the flowering area of the Menorah
  • 27  Letters in the ancient Greek alphabet (with digamma, koppa, sampi)
  • 27  Scrolls of the New Testament

The Biblical Menorah has:

  • 7   Lamps (with wick and oil it is 3 x 7 = 21 items)
  • 21  Connecting parts between the 22 almond blossoms
  • 22  Cups buds and blossoms = 3 x 22 = 66 Flower Items:
  • 66  Flower items: 12 on shaft + 27 on the left side = 39 + 27 on the right side
  • 27  Connections between the flowers and 6 lamps (3 x 8 + 3 = 27)
  • 28  Connections from beginning of flowering to all 7 lamps (3 x 8 + 4 = 28)
  • 49  Flowers and compounds in the flowering area (22 + 27 = 49 = 7 x 7)
  • 50  Flowers and connections to all 7 lamps (22 + 28 = 50 = 7 x 7 = 49 + 1)

The Book of Life

When the tree of life blossoms, it has exactly 49 parts from the lowest to the highest flower on the shaft to the 6 lamps (6 = number of man). This symbolizes the Bible (22+27=49 scrolls with the 39+27=66 or 70 books). However, the most important detail is still missing, namely the piece from the top flower to the middle lamp. It symbolizes the “Book of Life” (49+1=50) and the perfect communion with God. As in the counting of the days until Pentecost (49+1) and in the counting of the years up to the year of Jubilee (49+1), so also indicates the uppermost part of the Menorah (49+1) the complete conclusion and the new beginning. (More information about the Book of Life)

The Menorah is a reference to the Word of God. God speaks to us through the scrolls of the Bible; His word is the light in this world. But the 50th (49+1) section to the Central Lamp is a symbol of the “Book of Life” and the eternal direct contact with Yahweh / Jesus.

The Menorah symbolizes Jesus

Jesus is the living menorah. He was the light that the whole world had been waiting for. He not only paid the debt for our sins, but also showed us the way to the eternal light.

  • Let it be known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of JESUS CHRIST…  this man stands here before you whole… Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved  (Acts 4:10-12).
  • In the beginning was the WORD, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the LIGHT of all mankind. The LIGHT shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. There was a man sent from God whose name was John. He came as a witness to testify concerning that LIGHT, so that through him all might believe. He himself was not the LIGHT; he came only as a witness to the LIGHT. The true LIGHT that gives LIGHT to everyone was coming into the world. He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God – children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband’s will, but born of God. The WORD became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-14).
  • I am the LIGHT of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the LIGHT of life (John 8:12).
  • I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me  (John 14:6).
  • And behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to give to every one according to his work (Rev 22:12).

JESUS is the Light. The Menorah symbolizes [1.] JESUS (Light, Love, Word and Savior), [2.] His Word, the BIBLE (49 scrolls with 66/70 books, they are the light in this dark world) and [3.] The “BOOK OF LIFE,” that is eternal life (Rev 3:5; 20:12-15) and our way of life, the light in the dark world (Mt 5:13-16). When we shine our light and are an example to the world, our name will stand forever in the Book of Life. This is our hope and joy.

The Menorah is not a normal lampstand; it is a miracle, just as the Bible itself is also a miracle.

Download ths image in large size: Link

The Light of the Menorah Symbolizes:

  1. JESUS: he is the light of the world, because he is the love in person, the word and the savior of the world
  2. The HOLY SPIRIT: without the oil there is no light and no illumination
  3. TheBIBLE: The 7 parts, 49 scrolls with 66/70 books = the word of God = the light in this dark world
  4. TheBOOK OF LIFE: eternal life (Rev 3:5, 20:12-15), and our way of life, as a light in this world (Mt 5:13-16)

Why did God allow the Menorah to be removed from the Temple?

Is God not able to protect His people (Israel)? God can protect His people; this is not a problem for Him. However, the sins of Israel were the reason why God had not prevented the destruction of Jerusalem and the robbery of the Menorah by [1.] the Babylonians (586 BC), [2.] the Greeks (Seleucid Empire, 169 BC), and [3.] the Romans (AD 70). Israel did not obey the commandments of God and even rejected Jesus: the Word, the Light, the Savior, the Messiah (Mt 27:20-66; John 1:9-11). The prophets of the Old Testament predicted the coming and the life of Jesus in every detail. Nevertheless, Israel has ignored and twisted these many passages from the Bible (OT). Even the followers of Jesus were also persecuted, expelled and cruelly killed by the Jews as so-called “apostates and seduces” (John 20:19, Acts 2:1-4:31; 5:17-42; Acts 7; 8:1-3; 12:1-5; 14:4-7,19). Paul, a former Pharisee, was a devoted persecutor of Christians, who destroyed whole families (Acts 8:1; 9:1-29; 22:3-8; 26:10-11). It was not the Christians who killed the Jews, but the Jews who killed Christians first and before that, they led Jesus (their own relative and the Light of the World) to execution by the Romans.

However, we cannot make it so easy for ourselves and put all the blame on the Romans alone. This is what God wanted to make clear to us in His Word. The historical background: The Israelites were not allowed to kill anyone (John 18:31), as this was strictly forbidden by the brutal Roman occupying power. Only the Romans were allowed to take the lives of other people. In doing so they invented or changed various methods of torture, such as crucifixion, one of the most torturous punishments of all. Sometimes it took days of suffering before death finally occurred. The high priests did not want to punish Jesus according to their own law (John 18:31), but they wanted more; they wanted His death. Therefore they were forced to take Jesus to the Romans. Pilate “found no guilt in Him” and wanted Jesus to live and be set free (John 18:38; Mt 27:24; John 19:12); but the people wanted Him to die, and to die IMMEDIATELY, the same day, the 14th of Nisan (before the feast day, the high Sabbath, on the 15th of Nisan). The priests forced the Romans to kill Jesus, and even threatened Pilate with his boss (the brutal Roman emperor), who could not stand any opposition:

John 19:12: “From then on Pilate [the Roman] sought to release Him [Jesus], but the Jews [not the Romans] cried out, “If you release this man [Jesus], you are not Caesar’s friend. Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.”

Pilate feared for his position and for his own existence. For the Roman emperor tolerated no others, they called themselves king and then spoke of another God of love (John 18:33-40). These are historical facts that God gave us.

Israel has incurred a very great guilt by rejecting (John 1:11) the Messiah Jesus (Yeshua ha-Mashiach) and persecuting his disciples. More and more people from Israel realize this and have become Christians. The responsibility of Israel for Jesus’ death was clearly addressed by Paul when he said:

Acts 4:10: “Let it be known to all of YOU and to all the people of Israel that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom YOU [= the Jews, by the hand of the Romans] crucified, whom God raised from the dead – by him this [healed] man is standing before YOU well.”

Israel did not recognize that the Messiah was to come twice, once to die for sin and the second time to save Israel and the whole world from destruction. It is a double salvation, spiritual and physical. The prophets of the Old Testament spoke at length about these two coming of the Lord, and foretold even the smallest details about the life of Jesus. The whole first Christian church also knew this, the Bible is so extremely clear on this point:

Heb 9:28: “so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him.”

However, Christians must never judge the Jews. We love the people of Israel, because from their forefathers came the Saviour of the whole world, who made eternal life possible for us, Jesus Christ. He himself said:  for salvation is from the Jews” (John 4:22) and from no other people. And the first Christians (the founders of the Christian Church) all came from Judaism. From their hands we have the entire Bible, 100%, that is, the Old Testament and the entire New Testament (see Structure of the Bible: Link). Without the Hebrews we would not have a single book of the Bible. Anyone who hates the people of Israel cannot love Jesus, because He is love, and they (the Jews) are therefore His own relatives. , His own family, the apple of His [Gods] eye” (Zech 2:8). Which Christian has not done harm to other people before his conversion? Therefore, all Christians should not judge, but love. Otherwise they will not participate in the Rapture. A converted Christian, on the other hand, must not do violence to anyone and certainly not to the people to whom our Lord Jesus (the Saviour of the world) came.

However, the rejection of Jesus (the Messiah) was Israel’s greatest sin ever. Israel has eliminated the “light of the world” through the Romans (John 8:12; 14:6). Therefore, God allowed the light of the Menorah to be removed from its people for 2,000 years and hidden by the Romans. It was 40 years after Jesus’ death, in 70 AD, that almost all Jews were expelled from their homeland and dispersed throughout the world. The ancient prophets knew it and predicted it in detail in their books. Israel again did not want to listen to the commandments and warnings of God. It rejected the light (Jesus) instead of being proud of him, so it had to bear the consequences in exile among all the peoples of the world and suffer in the deepest darkness of the world. In the Diaspora, the Israelites longed for God’s protection, which was guaranteed to their fathers by God, before they fell away from God and His commandments. However, since the end of the Second World War, the Jews have been able to return to their land and no nation can destroy Israel, because the protective hand of God is again above Israel.  The prophets of the Old Testament also predicted this exactly. This generation (born after 1948 or 1967) will not pass away until Jesus (the Messiah) returns (see Mt 24:32-35; the fig tree is a symbol of Israel). Only then will Jesus’ light and love shine on the world and there will be no more wars and no more suffering. But first several prophecies from the book of Revelation have to be fulfilled. And the nations of the world will gather against Israel until Yeshua ha-Mashiach (Jesus, the Messiah) will visibly return to earth and save Israel.

Many people seek the ancient Menorah from the Temple of Herod. However, it would be better if they were to seek Jesus Christ, for he is the true meaning behind the Menorah. What is the use of a perishable physical chandelier when denying the true spiritual eternal light? Whoever wants to see the Light of the Menorah for all eternity must follow Jesus and go the path of love and willingness to help others. Otherwise, his name will not be written in the BOOK OF LIFE (more information about the Book of Life).

The Menorah on the Arch of Titus is not the Biblical Menorah

The shape of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome does not match that mentioned in the Book of Exodus. That’s 100% clear. What is the reason?

  1. The Arch of Titus was built about 10 years after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple. It is therefore not sure if the sculptors have seen the Menorah with their own eyes at all. Even if the artists had seen it, it does not mean that they were exactly oriented to the original and paid close attention to every biblical detail, because they have obviously chosen a simplified symbolic form. This concerns e.g. the lack of representation of the 22 almond blossoms, whose tips made of rock not only difficult to produce, but over time anyway weathered quickly and they would fall off. The Romans were indifferent to the biblical details, for them it was only a matter of showing the spoils of war to all men for all time.
  2. The temple of God was destroyed several times over the centuries; the Menorah was stolen and then replaced by a NEW one with a slightly different shape. The entire inventory of the First Temple was lost in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar in July 586 BC. For the Second Temple, a new Menorah was created. Antiochus IV. Epiphanes plundered in 169 BCE the Second Temple, „and took away the golden altar, the lampstand, and all the devices that belong to it“ (1 Maccabees 1:21). Kurt Freyer already wrote in 1918: „The candelabrum of the Second Temple was destroyed by Antiochus Epiphanes in 169 BC, and four years later Jehuda Makkabi replaced it with a NEW Candlestick“ (Source: Kurt Freyer: „Die Menora“, In: „Moaus Zur, a Hanukkah Book,“ Jewish publishing house Berlin, 1918). So no one knows in how many details the temple menorah stolen by the Romans differed from that at the time of the Exodus.
  3. There are also sources that report that the Romans themselves have made some changes. This concerns in particular the pedestal, which was created hexagonal, equipped with Roman animal figures and made extra large, so that the Menorah during the transport in the triumphal procession does not overturn and can be put on display better (see photos from the year 80 AD). The Menorah depicted on the Arch of the Titus clearly shows in parts the style of the Roman Empire (for example, the ornaments on the pedestal and the part between pedestal and the seven arms). Therefore, it is not recommended to regard the form of the Menorah of the Roman Arch of Titus as binding. In other words, in constructing the Menorah, we need to be guided only by the Word of God and not on the ideas of the Romans who killed our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, we must always differentiate between the biblical and the Roman or Hellenistic Menorah.

Many Menorah styles around the world

various menorah illustrations with 22 almond blossoms

Innumerable forms have been created over the centuries, but no one knows how the Menorahs looked exactly at the time of Moses and at the time of the first and second temples in Jerusalem (examples from all centuries: Historical Menoras). And nobody knows exactly how the 22 almond blossoms were positioned on the 7 arms.

This reminds us of the biblical saying of 1Cor 13:12: „For now we see only a reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.“ Today we see only in parts, but with our Father we will see the Menorah in its full beauty.

The picture on the right shows some suspected variants from the 18th century (Source of the original image: see 1754 “Davidis Millii Miscellanea sacra Jesaiæ“).

The Menorah representation from the periodic system of the elements

By the way, the periodic table of the elements also has the form of a menorah, because if the elements with similar chemical properties are placed as close to each other as possible, a form is automatically created that is reminiscent of the 7-branched lampstand of God. This indirectly reveals who is the creator of all chemical elements and who created everything visible. The Bible describes in detail who is the one through whom the world was made (John 3:1; 1Cor 8:6; Col 1:16-17; Heb 1:2) and it is all chemistry.
For more information:

Col 1:16-17: “For by [or: in] him [Jesus] all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible [the chemical elements] and invisible [the spiritual world], whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities – all things were created through him and for him. 17 And he is before all things, and in him all things  [all chemistry and biology on earth] hold together.

Source of illustrations: Menorah (Link), Menorah 2 (Link), Tabernacle (Link), Arch of Titus in Rome (Link).


The menorah, a seven-branched candelabrum, is one of the most widely recognized symbols of Judaism. It is also known as the Jewish candelabrum or simply the candelabrum. The menorah has been used as a symbol of Judaism since ancient times and is the emblem of the State of Israel. The menorah is based on the biblical account of the seven-branched golden candelabrum that was used in the Tabernacle, the portable sanctuary erected by the Israelites in the wilderness during their Exodus from Egypt. According to the biblical description, the menorah had seven branches, each of which was to be topped with a lamp. The lamps were to be lit every evening and were to remain lit throughout the night. The menorah has been used as a symbol of Judaism since ancient times. It was first mentioned in the book of Exodus, when Moses was instructed by God to create a seven-branched candelabrum for the Tabernacle. The menorah became a symbol of the Jewish people‘s dedication to God and their commitment to observing the commandments. In the first century CE, the menorah was adopted as a symbol of the new religion of Judaism. It was used on coins and other objects to represent the Jewish people and their beliefs. The menorah remains an important symbol of Judaism and is used on the flag of Israel.

As they traveled through the desert and eventually to the Temple, the Israelites lit the menorah. This ancient symbol is linked to Shabbat in both the land of Israel and the country of Judah. It appears to be unusually botanical: there were six branches that formed its sides. This summer’s JTS Israel mission will feature the first station, A Taste of Torah. The Hareuveni family is best known for founding the scientific study of nature in biblical texts. It was not from imagination that the instructions for building a golden menorah were developed, but rather from a real plant native to Israel.

What Is The Origin Of The Menorah?

Photo by: blogspot

Is The Menorah A Tree?

Photo by: whatwillmatter

No, the menorah is not a tree. The menorah is a seven-branched candelabra that is used to light the candles during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah.

The menorah served as the focal point of worship for the Tabernacle and Eretz Yisrael, which were established in the early days of the Israelite religion. The Torah was a symbol of Jewish spirituality and the Jewish people’s unique mission – to live by the Torah. The menorah was a symbol of God’s presence, with a tree representing spiritual awareness. In the Book of Genesis, Abraham knew that the Garden of Eden provided the seed for Adam and Eve. Menorahs are Israel’s national symbol and represent the country’s unique identity as an Israeli entity. According to Rabbi Shmuley Boteach, it enables the Jewish people to withstand persecution, self-doubt, and fear.

A menorah is the physical embodiment of the concepts of knowledge and life. Light always comes back to us, no matter what we’re going through, and this reminds us that it always comes back to us. The image is a symbol of hope and perseverance because it reminds us that we can always find a way out of situations.

Hanukkah. It is believed that Tu B’Shevat is the day that tree sap begins to rise, which is the New Year for trees.

Why Is The Menorah Shaped Like That?

Photo by: wp

The menorah has been described as symbolizing the burning bush as seen by Moses on Mount Sinai. In this encounter, God told Moses to take off his shoes, for he was standing on holy ground. The seven branches of the menorah represent the seven days of creation, and the center stem represents God, who is the light of the world. The menorah also symbolizes the six days of work and the seventh day of rest.


This is the type of candelabra used for Jewish worship, with seven or nine lights on it.

The Menorah serves as the central mitzvah of Hanukkah. It has been more than a century since the advent of the candle and oil menorah, but there has been an explosion of modern, exciting designs for these items. In recent years, electric menorahs have been gaining popularity as a fire-safe alternative. This is the Hebrew word for “tah ado-nai e-lo-hei-nu.” To whom it belongs, and how much I must wish ha-OLAM: She-a-sa ni-sim la-avo-tei-nu ba-ya-mim ha-heim bi-zman ha-zeh. The first phrase should be followed by the second. We praise You, our Lord, King of the Universe who has sanctified us through His commandments and has instructed us to kindle the Chanukah flame.


On other Wikimedia projects:  chandler , on Wiktionary

Chandler (derived from candle ) is an English surname that comes from a trade
(the word chandler designates one who makes or sells candles, it can also be soap). This name is worn by many people.

The reason that “Chandler” applies to one who makes or sells  Candles OR Soap is because both products are made from ANIMAL FAT.

What does the saying selling soap mean? – Profound-Answers
What does the saying selling soap mean? Informal to deceive or cheat. 8 tr; foll by: on to persuade to accept or approve (of) to sell a buyer on a purchase. 9 ♦ sell down the river. Informal to betray. Why can we sell brotherhood like you sell soap? The product chooses you.

Soap opera – Wikipedia
soap opera, or soap for short, is a typically long-running radio or television serial, frequently characterized by melodrama, ensemble casts, and sentimentality. The term “soap opera” originated from radio dramas originally being sponsored by soap manufacturers. The term was preceded by “horse opera”, a derogatory term for low-budget Westerns. BBC Radio’s The Archers, first broadcast in 1950 …

Who Invented Soap? The history of how soap was invented – MagnifyMinds
The history of soap. The first recorded mention of soap was in ancient Babylon, where a Sumerian tablet from 2800 BC mentioned a soap-like substance used for washing. Soap was also mentioned in the Bible, where it was referred to as “sudarium”, meaning “the sweat of the face”. In ancient Egypt, soap was made from animal fats and plant ashes.

THE SUDARIUMThe word “sudarium” doesn’t appear in the translations of the Bible into English, although it appears in the dictionaries of this language. It is a Latin word, used for a cloth to dry perspiration in the face, and is translated into “napkin” or “handkerchief” in most of the English Bibles.

Strong’s Greek: 4676. σουδάριον (soudarion) – Bible Hub
soudarion: a handkerchief, a head cloth (for the dead) Original Word: σουδάριον, ου, τό Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: soudarion Phonetic Spelling: (soo-dar’-ee-on) Definition: a handkerchief, a head cloth (for the dead) Usage: a handkerchief, napkin. NAS Exhaustive Concordance Word Origin of Latin origin Definition


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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sudarium (Latin) was a “sweat cloth”, used for wiping the face clean. Small cloths of various sorts, for which sudarium is a general term, played a role in Ancient Roman formal manners and court ceremonial, and many such uses transferred to Christian liturgical usage and art. In Jewish usage, it is the cloth-like habit worn by Jewish men after wedding, wrapped around the head, and usually worn with a central hat.[1]

Sudarium often refers to two relics of the Passion of Jesus, the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Veil of Veronica. Another sudarium is found in Altmünster, Germany, and was supposedly given to Saint Bilihildis; it is locally venerated since the 15th century.[2]

In the Roman Catholic and other Western churches, the term sudarium has been used for several ornamental textile objects:

  • The sudarium or maniple (manipulus, also mappula, mantile, fano, manuale, sestace, Greek epigonation, earlier encheirion), a cloth of fine quality to wipe away perspiration, or an ornamental handkerchief which was seldom put into actual use, but was generally carried in the hand as an ornament as was commonly done by people of rank in ordinary life, now formalized as a vestment, in liturgical use from the 12th century reserved for the bishop; the subcinctorium is a related ornamental vestment reserved for the pope.
  • The predecessor of the humeral veil
  • The predecessor of the vimpa, a veil or shawl worn over the shoulders of servers who carry the mitre and crosier in liturgical functions when they are not being used by the bishop
  • The cloth suspended from the crozier at the place where the bishop would grasp it, still depicted in ecclesiastical heraldry and used by Cistercian abbots. Also called pannisellus
  • The veil used by the subdeacon to hold the paten; a pall(a) or mappula, the forerunner of the chalice veil, the ends of which he threw over his right shoulder

The term Sudra (סודרא) for a headdress (habit) in Judaism is a loan from the Latin term.


  1. ^ Babylonian Talmud (Moed Katan 15a, and Eruvin 84b), where the Aramaic word used for “habit” is “sudera” (Latin: sudarium) and which was usually worn by Jews with a central cap known in Aramaic as “kumtha.” In Kiddushin 29b, there it mentions the Rabbi who refused to wear a “sudera” (habit) on his head until he was married, meaning, his head was only covered by a cap. Cf. Smith, J. Payne (1903). A Compendious Syriac Dictionary (in Syriac). Oxford: University of Oxford., p. 364, s.v. sudarium.
  2. ^ Flug, Brigitte (2006). Äussere Bindung und innere Ordnung: das Altmünsterkloster in Mainz in seiner Geschichte und Verfassung von den Anfängen bis zum Ende des 14. Jahrhunderts : mit Urkundenbuch. Franz Steiner. p. 46. ISBN 9783515082419.

Sudra (headdress) – Wikipedia
Sudra (Classical Syriac: ܣܘܕܪܐ, romanized: swdrʾ listen Jewish Babylonian Aramaic square script: סודרא‎, Hebrew: סוּדָר, romanized: sẇdar) is a rectangular piece of cloth sometimes worn as a scarf or headdress as part of ancient Jewish tradition. Over time it held many different functions and today is sometimes understood to be of great cultural or religious significance …

What is Sudra? – Definition from Yogapedia
Sudra is the name traditionally given to the class of people in Indian society who work in service and menial jobs. The Sudra comprise the fourth of the four social groups in the Indian caste system, which divides people into hereditary groups with specific limitations and privileges, depending on where the person is on the social strata.

Sudra |
Sudra. ETHNONYMS: Shoodra, Shudra, S ̣ ū dra. The Sudras are the lowest-ranking of the four varnas into which Indian society was traditionally divided; but they are definitely higher in rank than the Untouchables or Panchamas, a category so demeaned in status that it is not even referred to in the classical varna model. Sudras are essentially rural laborers: the classical lawgiver Manu  A racial justification for this state of affairs is implied in the earliest Sanskrit writings, which suggested that whereas the three higher varnas were originally the Indo-Aryan invaders, the Sudras were Dāsas, darker-skinned Aborigines (who probably spoke Dravidian languages). If there is any historic truth to this idea, then the Sudras may be viewed as the modern descendants of those who created the Indus (or Harappan) civilization.

What does sudra mean? | Best 3 Definitions of Sudra – YourDictionary
Define sudraSudra as a noun means A member of the lowest of the four major castes of traditional Indian society, comprising artisans, laborers, and menial occupations.

  • Whilst the Arya was thus a dvi-ja, or twice-born, the Sudra remained unregenerate during his lifetime, his consolation being the hope that, on the faithful performance of his duties in this life, he might hereafter be born again into a higher grade of life.


 I did not see anything that meant soap in all of the research I did.  So SOAP and/or Sudarium are not mentioned in the Bible.
SoapSoap has been made since ancient times but has been particularly popular for cleansing the body since the mid-eighteenth century when modern manufacturing processes were discovered. Soap is an anionic surfactant. Soap is made from fat and oil mixed with an alkali, forming glycerine and the sodium salt of the fatty acid.
Modern soap was not produced industrially until the 19th century. In the ancient world people would use olive oil as part of their bathing. source
Sep 7, 2021Supposedly extremely effective against impurities and blackheads. The advantage of facial cleansing with olive oil is that it is guaranteed to be completely free of dubious ingredients. In addition, the use of the microfiber cloth gently removes dead skin cells, making dry skin a thing of the past. Tester Becker was quickly convinced: “At the …

Spiritual Sense of ‘Fat’ – New Christian Bible Study


To be fat and flourishing, as in Psalm 92:15, signifies to be in the goods and in the truths of doctrine. Fat and blood signify interior goods and truths, and hence the Israelites, prior to the Lord’s incarnation, were prohibited from eating thereof, because they were only in externals. Fat signifies the celestial principle. Fat signifies celestial life, and blood signifies celestial spiritual life, in Leviticus 3:16. Fat is predicated of good, and plenteous, of truths, as in Isaiah 30:23. Fat things, full of marrow, signify goodnesses. Fat and splendid things, as in Revelation 18:15, signify affections of celestial and spiritual goods and truths.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 350Arcana Coelestia 354)

Viewed 20k times
In Lev. 3:16 it says,

“And the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire for a sweet savour: all the fat is the LORD’S.”

The blood understandably is the Lord’s(Lev. 17:14/Deut. 12:23).

But why is the “fat” the Lord’s?

asked Mar 24, 2016 at 0:56

2 Answers

Leviticus 3 gives the details of the peace offering as it pertained to God, but not as it pertained to the priests. Leviticus 7 adds:

And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron’s and his sons’. And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for an heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings. He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part.

Either the whole beast was burnt and the ashes taken outside the camp, or the fat parts and innards were burnt, the ashes dumped by the altar, and the remainder given to, and eaten by, the priests and their families.

This is why I celebrate the Communion with bread and wine (Matthew 26:26-29; Luke 22:17-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26). For me, the wine is the Father’s portion: symbolising the life of the sacrifice as the necessary cost of forgiveness; but, the bread is mine: symbolising the body of the sacrifice, i.e. Jesus as the Word of God, by which I am sustained.

Additional Comments

There is an expression “sweet aroma” that might be associated with the burning of the fat. But, as far as I can see, all offerings that are burnt on the altar are referred to as giving off a sweet aroma, which I take to be a reference to the pleasure God gets from the genuine desire of His people to deal with sin in the way He prescribed.

There is, however, in Psalm 66 a specific reference that directly connects “the sweet aroma” to “the fat”, alone.

I will offer You burnt sacrifices of fat animals,
With the sweet aroma of rams;
I will offer bulls with goats.
— Psalm 66:15 (NKJV)


The blood and fat were the Lord’s, as were the innards, because those parts were not consumable by the priests.

The sacrificial system was not just about slaughtering animals. It was also about sustaining the people responsible for administering the system, who had been given no possession in the land.

Look at how the fat encompasses the entrails of certain organs. To the ancient people the organs represented the personality and character of a person. When God wanted the fat surrounding the entrails it was because he was telling the hebrews that the heart, feeling and character of man belonged to him and only him and through him will he change your character to match his own. That’s the real meaning.
David McClistar
July 14, 2014

Slain LambGod got the fat that covered the entrails, the kidneys, and the lobe of the liver. The fact that it is the same for each procedure is not coincidental. It was specifically demanded by God and thus established a pattern for sacrifice.These represented the innermost parts of a living creature, the parts where life itself was centered, and the “sweet” parts. And those were the parts that God wanted given to Him. God wanted the inward parts, the “deepest” parts, the parts that represented life.

It is not hard to see the lesson for us. God does not want merely external deeds from us, performed out of ritual with no engagement of the mind or heart. God wants our inner parts, He wants my heart, my mind, and my spirit to be given to Him. It is only when I have given my inner self to God that He is pleased with the sacrifice I make of my life for


“the fat of the land”   –GENESIS 45:18

And take your father and your households, and come unto me: and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land.

— Genesis 45:18

Scriptural Translation

What does this quote really mean?

Use the table below to get a word-for-word translation of the original Hebrew scripture behind the words of this quote.

Quote words  Original Hebrew Meaning/ Definition  More
fat חֵ֥לֶב Fat, whether literally or figuratively; hence,
the richest or choice part
of the land. הָאָֽרֶץ׃ The earth (at large, or partitively a land) H776


Who Invented Soap? – About Soap Inventors

Legend says that soap was first discovered on Sappo Hill in Rome when a group of Roman women were washing their clothes in the River Tiber at the base of a hill, below which animal fats from the sacrifices ran down into the river and created soapy clay mixture. They soon found that using this same cleansing substance the clothes were coming clear easier. Since that time we know soap as soap.

However, the ancient Babylonians were the ones who invented soap and evidence for this are Babylonian clay containers dated at 2800 B.C. Inscriptions on the containers present the earliest known written soap recipe and they state that the product was made from fats combined with wood ash and water. These early references to soap and soap making were for the use of soap to wash wool and cotton in preparation for weaving into cloth, soap was not necessarily used to wash the body.

The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) reveals that ancient Egyptians combined both animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to produce a soap-like substance. They used this mixture for treating sores, skin diseases as well as washing.

According to the Pliny the Elder, the Phoenicians made soap from goat’s tallow(fat) and wood ashes in 600 BC.

The ancient Greeks were said to have combined lye and ashes as a cleanser for pots and the statues of their gods.

Early Romans used urine to make soap like substance in the first century A.D. Later, they combined goat’s tallow and the ashes of the beech tree to make both hard and soft soap products. The discovery of an entire soap factory in the ruins of Pompeii, one of the cities destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D suggest that the industry was established and that soap was widely known in the Roman Empire. During the early century of the Common Era, although the Romans are well known for their public baths, generally soap was not used for personal cleaning; it was used by physicians in the treatment of disease. Soap for personal cleaning and hygiene became popular during the later centuries of the Roman era.

The Celts, who used animal fats and plant ashes to make their soap, named the product saipo, from which the word soap is derived.

10 Surprising Innovations by the Celts –
The origins of the word “soap” are derived from the Celtic word “saipo,” coming from the Latin word “sebum,” meaning fat or tallow. Their best quality “saipo,” as it was called, came from beechwood ash and goat fat.

The Arabs produced the soap from vegetable oil as olive oil or some aromatic oils such as thyme oil. Sodium Lye NaOH formula was used for the first time and it hasn’t changed from the current soap sold in the market. Arabian soap was perfumed and colored, and they made both liquid and hard soaps.

One thing all these people have in common is ritual sacrifice to Pagan Gods.  All of these people practiced HUMAN SACRIFICE.  The invention of soap came from PAGANs.  The fats they used to invent soap came from sacrificed creatures.  Remember, the only thing that matters is the ROOT.  Where the thing began.  Everything else is a lie, a cover up, a deception.

Our history: P&G put the ‘soap’ in ‘soap opera’The Enquirer

Count soap operas among Procter & Gamble’s many successes. P&G was one of the first companies to sponsor daytime serial dramas on the radio in the 1930s to advertise their products to housewives.

NEW YORK — A company best known for selling soap is hoping to start a new discussion about race in this country with a thought-provoking new ad.  (No, they are still working hard to start a race war.  Stirring up hostilities and resentments on both sides. It has not been very successful so far, but they are relentless in their efforts.)

The commercial is called “The Talk,” released by Procter & Gamble (P&G).

“There are some people who think you don’t deserve the same privileges because of what you look like. It’s not fair,” the ad says.

“Remember you can do anything they can … the difference is you got to work twice as hard and be twice as smart,” it continues.

The two-minute ad — released online last month — showing black mothers sharing “their” truths about bias and racial stereotypes growing up in America.

The ad includes an exchange between a mother and daughter:

Mom: “Now, when you get pulled over …”

Daughter: “Ma, I’m a good driver don’t worry.”

Mom: “Baby, this is not about you getting a ticket. This is about you not coming home.”

The Talk by My Black is Beautiful on YouTube

Marc Pritchard is P&G’s chief brand officer and he spoke with CBS News about the messaging behind the commercial.

“This commercial ‘The Talk’ is a powerful film that is really part of a broader platform (agenda) that we have called ‘My Black is Beautiful,'” he told us.

Marc Pritchard CBS NEWS

“The Talk” “enables people to do is to have conversations about bias — and when you have conversations and promote dialogue that promotes understanding,” Pritchard explained.

The conversation has sparked debate on social media.

One tweet reads:

“Thank you @ProcterGamble for such a thought provoking commercial.”

But another tweet called it a “racist ad” and “insulting and in poor taste.”

P&G says the commercial is set to debut on television next week. The company said they will producer similar ads focused on other issues like gender equality.


‘They’re selling soap, man’: Biden speaks on mixed-race couples at Tulsa Race Massacre memorial event

While Biden prefaced that his comment on diversity in advertising has “no scientific basis,” the president implored those over the age of 50 to think about “how often did you ever see advertisements on television with black and white couples?”

“I challenge you: Find today, when you turn on the stations, sit on one station for two hours. And I don’t know how many commercials you’ll see, eight to five, two to three out of five have mixed-race couples in them. That’s not by accident. They’re selling soap, man,” Biden said to a laughing crowd in Tulsa, Oklahoma. “Not a joke,” he added.

Biden also referenced the late pollster Patrick Caddell in his speech, pointing to his philosophy that watching advertising can help anyone understand the state of American culture.


Watch advertising — because they want to sell what they have,” Biden said, referring to the corporations.

Jason Johnson, a journalism professor at Morgan State University and MSNBC political contributor, called Biden’s comments about interracial couples on television a “tired trope” on Tuesday.

“Please don’t tell me that a Geico commercial with an interracial couple means we’re turning the corner, because it doesn’t, and it diminishes what’s actually happening in this country,” Johnson told Deadline: White House host Nicolle Wallace. 
(Just do they want us to believe is happening in this country??  Cause I will tell you what is happening.  Those who hold all the gold want chaos.  They want any old excuse to lock us all up or kill us.  They have all the gold, they want to keep it. The working class people, all of us serfs, because that is all that is left, just want to get back to a normal life.  They have already succeeded in destroying and erasing the middle class and upper middle class.  Now they just want complete control over the rest of us.)

It is not the first time Biden has made a reference to interracial couples as a sign that the United States is changing culturally. In February, he made a similar comparison during a CNN town hall with anchor Anderson Cooper.

I’m going to say something’s going to get me in trouble … and that is that, think about it, if you want to know where the American public is, look at the money being spent in advertising,” the president said. “Did you ever, five years ago, think every second or third ad out of five or six you’d turn on would be biracial couples?”