It really is important to view this series in order. The information revealed builds on itself, so that you cannot fully appreciate the posts individually. Please view the entire Series from beginning to end. The links are listed in order at the end of each post. Thank you and God bless you.
Again, this is not about my opinions or interpretations. Just the facts, ma’am just the facts. All taken from very reliable documentation available to anyone who chooses to research for themselves. As always the links to the sources are provided either at the Title or as a Source citing at the of the insert.
noun – ma·re no·strum | \ ˈmär-(ˌ)ā-ˈnō-strəm \
Definition of mare nostrum:
a navigable body of water (such as a sea) that belongs to a single nation or is mutually shared by two or more nations
“sea”pool, small lake, pond,” from Old English mere “sea, ocean; lake, pool, pond, cistern,” from Proto-Germanic *mari (source also of Old Norse marr, Old Saxon meri “sea,” Middle Dutch maer, Dutch meer “lake, sea, pool,”.
Tomis was a city, most probably built around the 7th century, B.C, by Greek inhabitants of the city of Miletus (located in nowadays Anatolian area). It was first mentioned in recorded history by Memnon of Heraclea Pontis in the context of a war between the Byzantines and the settlers of the nearby city of Callatis for supremacy over this city ( the time was approximately the year 262 B.C.). The war was a consequence of the wider conflict on who controlled the grain transport across the seas of the time.
Ruins of the city have been continuously discovered starting the early 1970s, first near the Church Saints Peter and Paul in Constanța (the city which is approximately located where once Tomis was). The first pieces of walls and dwellings date back to the 6th century B.C. (during the so-called classical period). Later on, it was discovered that the city of Tomis was much more extended than previously thought, ruins of walls and cult objects like sarcophagi being found as far as Ovid Square. These later ruins date from a period between 3rd and the 1st century B.C. (during the so-called Hellenistic period).
Many of the discovered ruins are on display in the central park of Constanța.
Below is a stone found in Tomis (you can view a lot more pictures of the ruins by clicking the title above.) I pulled this particular picture because of the obvious Cross on the middle of the stone. It is within a shape that resembles a ship. The stone is surrounded by Fluer Di Le and the ship shape is surrounded by what look like waves… Like a Ship on the Sea. Is that a “Christian” Cross? Or was it a symbol even before Christ?
A port-city, it is located in the Northern Dobruja region of Romania, on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of Constanța County and the largest city in the historical region of Dobrogea . As of the 2022 census, Constanța has a population of 667,860, making it the fifth most populous city in Romania.
UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage
The Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage is a treaty that was adopted on 2 November 2001 by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.Wikipedia
|The 2001 Convention considers the preservation of underwater cultural heritage in situ, i.e. in the sea, in its natural environment, as a priority option before authorizing or undertaking any intervention on underwater cultural heritage Source|
|“Underwater cultural heritage” means all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water, periodically or continuously, for at least 100 years such as: (i) sites, structures, buildings, artefacts and human remains, together with their archaeological and natural context; (ii) vessels, aircraft, other vehicles or any part thereof, their cargo or other contents, together with their archaeological and natural context; and (iii) objects of prehistoric character.|
|Committed to improving the effectiveness of measures at international, regional and national levels for the preservation in situ (In the original position.) or, if necessary for scientific or protective purposes, the careful recovery of underwater cultural heritage,|
older than 2000 years, and modern metal ones have been discovered.
on the Romanian Black Sea coast Tomis and Callatis are under water or are clogged with
promontory – prŏm′ən-tôr″ē – noun
|so the promontory is a HIGH PLACE. Natural location for the worship of the Oldest and Greatest God of the Sea. Tomis is the High Place where worship of the Sea began.|
The location of the Tomis ancient harbor area has long time been disputed. Recently,
Pontus (mythology) – Wikipedia
She [Gaia] bore also the fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontus, without sweet union of love.
—Hesiod , Theogony (130) [ 1 ]
And Sea begat Nereus, the eldest of his children, who is true and lies not: and men call him the Old Man because he is trusty and gentle and does not forget the laws of righteousness, but thinks just and kindly thoughts. And yet again he got great Thaumas and proud Phorcys, being mated with Earth, and fair-cheeked Ceto and Eurybia who has a heart of flint within her.
—Hesiod , Theogony (231-239) [ 1
|Pontus, or Pontos (a different spelling of his name), translates to “sea”. He and Gaea created Nereus, who was known as the “Old Man of the Sea”, though Pontus could also be referred to by that name, too, as could several other gods associated with water. Source|
|Pontus – In Greek mythology, Pontus ( / ˈpɒntəs /; Greek: Πόντος, translit. Póntos, lit. “Sea“)  was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea–god, one of the Greek primordial deities. Pontus was Gaia ‘s son and has no father; according to the Greek poet Hesiod, he was born without coupling,  though according to Hyginus, Pontus is the son of Aether and Gaia.  Source|
|Pontus was Gaia’s son and was born in the void state of the Void, at a time before anything ever existed.. His wife is the second primordial deity of the sea, Thalassa. Poseidon, king of the sea, wed Pontos’ eldest granddaughter Amphitrite. Pontus like the primordial beings Gaea and Ouranos, he existed since the beginning, when everything came to be. Source|
|PONTOS (Pontus) was the primordial god ( protogenos) of the sea. He was the sea itself, not merely its resident deity, who was born from earth at the dawn of creation. Pontos and Gaia (Gaea, the Earth) were parents of the ancient deities known as the Old Men of the Sea. Source|
|Pontus was the personification of the Mediterranean Sea and considered to be the most powerful of the sea gods. He became one of the weaker or less significant gods when the Olympian gods came to power. Pontus name means “the road” and is associated with the Mediterranean since that was the Greek trade route. Source|
|Pontus ancient district of Anatolia on the southern coast of the Black Sea, from Latinized form of Greek Pontos “the Black Sea and the regions around it,” literally “the sea,” from a variant of the PIE root *pent- “to tread, go” that also produced Latin pons (genitive pontis) “bridge, passage;” see find (v.). Entries linking to Pontus find (v.) Source|
The following consists of excerpts from the full article which can be reached by clicking the title. I pulled out some of the offspring of PONTUS that I felt were very important to the topic at hand. As you view them keep your eyes open and your critical thinking in operation.
|Pontus, God of the Ancient Sea|
The sea god Pontus was one of the Protogenos, or ancient gods. Pontus is the most ancient personification of the deep sea. He was born of Chaos (Nothing) and Gaea (Earth) at the beginning of creation.
Like other gods, Pontus also had contact with Gaea. He and Gaea had several children who were the very first ruling gods of the sea. Their names are Nereus , Thaumas , Phorcys , Keto , and Eurybia . Their children will both become the parents of several gods and goddesses who had an important role in Ancient Greek civilization.
However, the wife of the God of the Sea is Thalassa . Thalassa is the Protogenos of the Sea ( Protogenos of the Sea ), as is Pontus. The difference is that Pontus represents the dark deep sea, while Thalassa represents the upper sea that is still exposed to light. Thalassa herself is the daughter of the God of Upper Air Aether ( God of Upper Air ) and the Goddess of Day Hemera ( Goddess of Day ) .
Pontus and Thalassa’s marriage relationship gave birth to sea animals that inhabit the deep blue sea. (Like SQUIDS!) All fish and other sea creatures are descendants of these two gods. They are also the parents of the telekhine monsters, the sea monsters that inhabit Keos Island and Rhodes Island.
Little is known about the children of Pontus. However, their existence is important because they are the parents of the next generation of gods, the gods who helped the Olympians win wars and keep the world in balance. For that, this is a little story about them.
|Eurybia, Goddess of Dominion of the Sea|
Eurybia was the youngest child of Pontus and Gaea. She has a beautiful face with skin the color of white sand. Her dress was white and elegant, but simple, swaying beautifully in the sea breeze. Eurybia has long dark blue hair that wavy like waves. His brilliant blue eyes were very firm. She slightly inherited Gaea’s motherly countenance.
Eurybia is a goddess, but due to her marriage to the Titan Krios, she is also considered a Titan. Eurybia is the personification of the power of the sea so she is called the Goddess of the Sea’s Force . The power of the sea that controls is the external aspects related to the sea, such as the wind and the gravitational force of the moon.
Eurybia is also the Goddess of Mastery over the Sea . The point is that she represents the aspect of human strength and ability to conquer the sea. She represents matters related to navigation including the power of sailors to conquer the fierce seas.
Eurybia married the Titan Star Krios. Their children are Astraeus (Titan of Dusk and Astrology/ Titan of Dusk and Astrology ), Perses (Titan of Destruction), and Pallas (Titan of the Arts of War/ Titan of Warcraft ). Astraeus then married the Titan Eos (Titan of Dawn ) and had four children, namely the Wind Gods called Anemoi ( Gods of Winds as in Tornados, Hurricanes, Sand Storms?) . Perses married the Titan Asteria ( Titaness of Shooting Stars, as in comets, meteors and asteroids? ) and gave birth to the Magic Goddess Hecate (Goddess of Magic as in witchcraft and deception? ) and Astra e ( nymphs of the stars ). Later, Pallas married Dewi Styx and had four children, who were called the Four Gods of Powers ( Gods of Powers ): Zelus (Spirit), Nike (Victory), Bia (Strength), Kratos (Power).
The descendants of Eurybia are gods and goddesses who represent important aspects for sailors, including the aspects that sailors need to be able to conquer the rough seas. For example, wind (represented by the Wind Gods Anemoi) is needed for sailing, then stars (represented by Astra Star Spirits) are needed to indicate sailing and navigation directions, and strength (represented by the Four Gods of Strength: Zelus, Nike, Bia). , and Kratos) symbolized the supremacy of naval power in Ancient Greece.
|Eurybia – I submit is the source for the term Europe. The source of the distortion of the world’s vision. Affecting how we see the world and ourselves. Deception.|
-opia Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com
The Rainbow – As A Symbol
way up high
There’s a land that I heard of,
once in a lullaby.
…Birds fly over the Rainbow,
why then, oh why can’t I?”
“Over the Rainbow”, from “Wizard of Oz” A Rainbow is one of the most beautiful artistic creations that Nature herself can paint for us. When we are given the opportunity to view a Rainbow we become mesmerized and enchanted by the breathtaking Beauty which appears in the untouchable distance; a Beauty which comes to us directly from the paintbrush of Divinity. All four of Nature’s Elements participate in the creation of theRainbow: Fire, Earth, Air and Water. The Rainbow is created by the first rays of the Sun (Fire) piercing through the heavenly dew (Water) which is still suspended in the sky above (Air) after a rainstorm. And the Rainbow touches the ground below (Earth) at both ends of its majestic arc.The Symbolism of the Rainbow is both rich and ancient.As a bridge:First of all, the Rainbow looks just like a bridge which links two parts of the earth. However, as the highest point of the Rainbow touches the heavens, it also represents a link, or bridge, between the Spiritual realm above with the realm of matter below.In this respect the Rainbow, as a bridge, is a pathway, a Ladder, or an intermediary by which Spirit can descend into matter and matter can ascend back to Spirit. It also represents the link through which the worlds of Spirit and matter can communicate with each other.And, as being a link between heaven and earth, or gods and mortals, it therefore represents the colorful medium through which Divine Speech, Word and Instruction is bestowed upon humanity.As a journey’s end:The leprechaun’s legendary and mystical “pot of Gold” is to be found at the end of the Rainbow. The leprechaun wears a green jacket and green is the color of the evergreen, or eternal. It is also the color of fertility and abundance. Gold is a Symbol for the untarnishable and the incorruptible. Therefore the leprechaun’s “pot of Gold” represents the pure and eternal replenishment of abundance and fertility, the Cornucopia, which abounds throughout Nature’s realm.Noah saw a Rainbow at the end of the great and turbulent Flood which signified the end of his voyage and a return to calmness and peace. In this respect the Rainbow is also a Symbol for cleansing.As A Symbol for Cleansing:As the Rainbow only appears after stormy skies, it is a Symbol for the restoration of cosmic order.As celestial rain is necessary for the skies to be cleansed and the Earth to be nourished the Rainbow Symbolizes Divinity’s cleansing and fertilizing Cycle. This Cycle ushers in the next period of Nature’s growth and rebirth.And, just as turbulent storms are necessary for Nature to cleanse and feed the Earth, so too are emotional storms necessary in our lives in order to cleanse away our burdens and feed our souls.In this respect the Rainbow also Symbolizes the peace and calmness which comes to us at the end of unsettling periods of our lives.For, after our emotional tears are finally drained from us our Road ahead becomes clear, our Rainbow is shining above it, and the Path we must follow toward our objective, our “pot of Gold”, now Becomes clear to us.Colors Of The Rainbow:A seven-colored Rainbow is created when invisible light passes through Water particles in the sky. The seven colors of the Rainbow are also brought into view when invisible light passes through a prism.This passing of invisible light through either Water particles or a prism Symbolizes the manifestation of Spirit into matter. It is the manifested “appearance” of invisible Deity in the physical realm.When we gaze upon a Rainbow we are granted a brief glance at one of the beautiful physical aspects of the Divine Unknowable.The seven colors of the Rainbow represent the seven spheres, or seven Heavens, through which Spirit descends in order to become physical matter.Primary means something which is first or original; something which cannot be created from something else; something unique and therefore “god-like”. And it is in this respect that the color indigo represents the “god-like” power which exists within the pineal gland of our “third-eye” Chakra.The Second Inverted Rainbow:From Wikipedia: Although most people will not notice it because they are not actively looking for it, a dim secondary rainbow is often present outside the primary bow. Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the raindrops, and appear at an angle of 50–53°. As a result of the second reflection, the colours of a secondary rainbow are inverted compared to the primary bow, with blue on the outside and red on the inside. The secondary rainbow is fainter than the primary because more light escapes from two reflections compared to one and because the rainbow itself is spread over a greater area of the sky. The dark area of unlit sky lying between the primary and secondary bows is called Alexander’s band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it.The 50-53 degree angle of the Rainbow is also similar to the angle, or outer slope, of the Great Pyramid which is approximately 51.85 degrees. Therefore, much of the Symbolism associated with the Great Pyramid also applies to the Rainbow. (See: “Egyptian Pyramid, Part 1” and “Egyptian Pyramid, Part 2“)The second Rainbow is both nearly invisible and its colors are inverted. Its near-invisibility offers us, and Symbolizes, a short-lived glimpse of the manifestation of Divinity into the usually invisible Spiritual realm.Its inverted colors Symbolize both the Mirror and the process of ascension and descension.As all Mirrors are a reflection, in reverse, of that which is being reflected, the visible Rainbow is a reflection and earthly manifestation of the seldom visible Spiritual Rainbow. Just as Spirit manifests into matter, so too does the Spiritual Rainbow manifest itself into the visible physical Rainbow; but in a reverse colored order.Therefore, the colors of the seldom seen, and nearly invisible, second Rainbow Symbolize the order of descent of Spirit into matter. The colors of the visible Rainbow Symbolize the order of ascent of matter back into Spirit.Closing Thoughts and Observations:The Rainbow is the result, or manifestation, of the union of Sun-light (Superconscious illumination and enlightenment) with Water (the Great Sub-Conscious and the Mysterious Unknown).As the Rainbow only appears after turbulent storms it is a Symbol of the cleansing process which heralds in new life, new creation and new Times.As the chameleon can change its body color into any of the seven colors of the Rainbow, it is associated with the Rainbow.
Rainbow-colored ribbons are used by Shamans when they “journey into the sky” by way of their trance-like astral voyages. It is during these meditative journeys that the Shaman raises his, or her, consciousness to a higher state of awareness in order to transit into the higher Spiritual realms for divinitory purposes.
And finally, from Dictionary of Symbolism by Hans Biedermann, pages 277-8, we have the following:
In ancient Greece Iris was the virginal rainbow goddess, rushing down from Mount Olympus to communicate to mortals the commands of Zeus and Hera; Iris is portrayed with WINGS and the CADUCEUS, clothed in the “iridescent” dew. (The similarly iridescent pigmented membrane of the eye is thus called the “iris”.)
Rainbow Meaning in Cultural History
In Chinese wisdom, the rainbow is a bridge illustrated by a double-headed dragon. This sky dragon is the mediator between heaven and earth. With two heads, the rainbow dragon is able to intercede on behalf of the people, by relaying their thoughts and prayers from the earth-bound head and sending them to the head pointed heavenwards. The rainbow is also a symbol of yin and yang in Chinese legend. In this sense, the Chinese recognize five colors in the rainbow, and harmonized, they represent perfect balance.
The symbolic meaning of rainbows as a celestial bridge is in old Norse traditions too. This bridge was referred to as the Bifrost. This “rainbow bridge” spanned into the world of the gods – it was called the “Tremulous Way” to Asgard. Here we see another connection of the mundane (earthly) element being transported by channel (the rainbow) into a realm of enlightenment (heaven, or realm of the gods).
This idea of bridges linked with the cultural meaning of rainbows employs another important symbol: That of the arch, and archways in general. Arches are symbolic of gateways, openings, and portals. When in context of the supernatural occurrence of the rainbow, it’s a reference to a portal into heavenly realms (godly, goddess elements, heightened awareness).
Whether we’re talking about bridges, arches or their symbolic representative, the rainbow…we’re also talking about choice. Why? Because in each case, there is one end, and another end. One side of the bridge, and the other side. Therefore, these symbols – including the rainbow – are iconic of crossing over, transformation and initiation.
Rainbow Meanings and the Pot of Gold Legend
In Celtic wisdom, the rainbow is called kambonemos, and it means “curve of the sky”. Celtic Druids were pretty switched on about curves and arches. In their vibrant way of thinking, curves are emblems of crescent moons and the divine feminine presence. As a link to lunar/feminine energy, we’re linking up with the symbolism dealing with provision, magic, fertility, and prosperity.
Consider it: Arches, crescents, moons, rainbows… they are all reminiscent of the prominent swell in a mother’s belly, full with child. In Celtic lore, making love under a rainbow is said to insure successful pregnancy.
Ever wondered where the “pot o’ gold” at the end of the rainbow came from?
It’s a kickback from the ancient Celts. Because their meaning of rainbows is feminine -and the pot (or, back in their day, the “cauldron”) is a highly feminine symbol. Not to get too graphic, but in general…openings are feminine symbols, where as protrusions are male (you figure it out). The “gold” is symbolic of offspring. Think of it…back in their day, the primary gift, and assurance of their entire legacy is the promise of a child – the continuation of the bloodline, and ongoing of their kind. Pretty cool, eh?
Where the Celts associated the meaning of rainbows with the promise of new life provided by the divine feminine, in Christianity, the rainbow is also a symbol of promise. We see evidence of this in Genesis, 9:13 – “I have set my (rain)bow in the clouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth.” Biblical scholars interpret this in various ways, but popularly, the rainbow is a symbol of God’s reconciliation with the wild and willful ways of mankind. Similarly, we see the same event in the Epic of Gilgamesh of the 7th century, BC in which a rainbow appeared as a sign of promise of the future after a great flood had devastated the earth.
Arche – Titaness/Goddess of the Secondary Rainbow
Messenger of the Titans
Arke is the child of Lord Thaumas and Oceanid Electra. Arke is the second child, the younger sister of Dewi Pelangi Iris ( Goddess of Rainbow ). Arke has the form of a beautiful woman with fair skin and short black hair. When she smiles, she conveys the impression that she is cunning. Her eye color kept changing, red, purple, yellow, and so on. Arke was wearing a simple white dress that was the color of the clouds. Like Iris, Arke also had a pair of wings shaped like a bird’s wing with colorful and glittering feathers.
As the younger sister of the Rainbow Goddess, Arke is always compared to her older sister. Arke itself personification of the secondary rainbow, the rainbow that is usually behind the main rainbow. This secondary rainbow is rarely seen in the eyes, like Arke who always loses prestige to Iris. That’s why Arke is known as the Goddess of Secondary Rainbow , but sometimes Arke is considered a Titan because she sided with the Titans during the Titanomachy.
This irritated Ark. Everything she did still couldn’t beat Iris. Then, when war broke out between the Olympus and the Titans, Arke joined the war. Iris joins the Olympus nation, while Arke joins the Titan nation. Iris’ function was as messenger of the gods, their main line of communication. Meanwhile, Arke becomes the messenger of the Titans. Because of her allegiance to the Titans, Arke is often known as a Titan instead of a goddess.
However, the war ended with the defeat of the Titans. Zeus punished all who sided with Kronos , including Arke. Zeus plucked Arke’s wings and imprisoned Arke in Tartarus with the other Titans.
Later, Zeus gave the Arke wings to the Goddess Thetis as a wedding gift to the hero Peleus. After Thetis gave birth to her son, Achilles, Thetis presented her son with Arke wings.
The arch: a powerful and timeless symbol – My Moroccan Rug
Oct 14, 2021
Arches are structures of deep resonance. They embody and symbolize strength and support. The arch is basically a male motif. In mythology, it represents the door between time and space through which one passes to enter another world. The arch signifies the opening to new perspectives, the fact of seeing on the other side.
The arch signifies the opening to new perspectives, the fact of seeing on the other side. It is used in some cultures as a symbol of renewal. Crossing an arch is a rite of passage where one abandons the old to discover the new.
The arch symbolizes the skies of Olympus and the heavenly gods like Zeus and Jupiter.
|Thalassa – Greek Gods / Primordial|
|Thalassa was a primordial deity in Greek mythology, goddess of the sea. She was the daughter of Aether and Hemera (day). She was married to the Titan god of the sea Pontus, with whom she had ten children; nine of them were called Telchines and were considered the original inhabitants of the island of Rhodes, while the tenth was a daughter, Halia. Being a personification of the sea, she was also considered to be the mother of the goddess Aphrodite, when Uranus was castrated by his son Cronus, and his genitals were thrown into the sea.
Thalassa is a primordial sea goddess, daughter of Aether and Hemera. With sea god Pontus, she was the mother of the nine Telchines and Halia. Sometimes, she was thought of as the mother of Aphrodite with Uranus or with Zeus. Source
Telekhine were the original inhabitants of Keos Island and Rhodes Island. They were the founders of the art of blacksmithing, and even taught the Hundred-Handed Monsters and the Oldest Cyclops to become blacksmiths. In addition, the telekhines were also proficient in magic.
The telekhines are believed to be the ones who made Kronos’ Stone Scythe, although in fact they are only responsible for the routine maintenance of the weapon. The telekhines also modified the power of Poseidon’s Trident so that it could sink mountains to create islands in the Aegean Sea.
However, the telekhines went too far. They practice forbidden things by making deadly chemical weapons. They mixed the water of the Styx River with sulfur to produce a chemical that killed many animals and plants on the islands of Keos and Rhodes. Therefore, Zeus was angry and punished them. The telekhines were driven deep into the seabed and some were banished to Tartarus.
I have always wondered what is so special about Rhodes Scholars. I learned some of it from studying the Druids who created colleges/universities. But, HERE we find the root.
|RHODE – Goddess of the Island of Rhodes|
RHODE was the goddess-nymph and eponym of the Aegean island of Rhodes. She was a daughter of Poseidon and the wife of Helios the Sun–the island’s patron god.
Rhode was identified by the Rhodians with the goddess Athena, and her seven sons with the Kouretes
Rhodos was a naiad, of whom the following legend is related. When the gods distributed among themselves the various countries of the earth, the island of Rhodes was yet covered by the waves of the sea. Helios was absent at the time; and as no one drew a lot for him, he was not to have any share in the distribution of the earth. But at that moment the island of Rhodes rose out of the sea, and with the consent of Zeus he took possession of it, and by the nymph of the isle he then became the father of seven sons, the Heliadae.3 Source
In Greek mythology, Rhode[pronunciation?] (Ῥόδη) also known as Rhodos (Ancient Greek: Ῥόδος) was the sea nymph or goddess of the island of Rhodes.
Though she does not appear among the lists of nereids in the Iliad XVIII or Bibliotheke 1.2.7, such an ancient island nymph in other contexts might gain any of various Olympian parentages: she was thought of as a daughter of Poseidon with any of several primordial sea-goddesses— with whom she might be identified herself— notably Halia or Amphitrite. Pindar even urges his hearers to “Praise the sea maid, daughter of Aphrodite, bride of Helios, this isle of Rhodes.“ “All three names— Halia, Aphrodite, Amphitrite, and furthermore also Kapheira— must have been applied to one and the same great goddess“, Karl Kerenyi observes.
In Rhodes, to which she gave her name, she was the consort of Helios, as Pindar says, and a co-protector of the island, which was the sole center of her cult. Her name was applied to the rose, which appeared on Rhodian coinage. (This is very important, Rosicrucians/The Red Rose and The White Rose of the War of the Roses in England.)
Roses were used to convey messages without words. The Latin expression ” sub rosa ” which means ” under the rose “, means to tell something in secret. In ancient Rome, a wild rose was often placed on the door of a room where sensitive and restricted business was discussed. Romans hung roses above meeting tables. Here it was understood that anything said at this table, beneath the hanging roses, was forbidden to be repeated elsewhere. Romans would hang roses from the ceilings of banquet halls, and it was understood that anything said under the influence of wine was to remain confidential. The white rose stands for innocence and purity; also silence, secrecy, and reverence.
The first inhabitants of Rhodes were identified by Hellenes as the Telchines. Helios made the island rise from the sea and with Rhode, fathered seven sons there, the Heliadae: Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macareus,Actis, Tenages, Triopas, and Candalus) and one daughter, Electryone. Electryone died a virgin and the sons became legendary astronomers and rulers of the island, accounting for the cities among which it was divided. Rhode was worshipped on Rhodes in her own name, as well as Halia, the embodiment of the “salt sea” or as the “white goddess”, Leucothea.
Leucothea – From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Greek mythology, Leucothea (/ljuːˈkoʊθiə/; Greek: Λευκοθέα, translit. Leukothéa, lit. “white goddess”), sometimes also called Leucothoe (Greek: Λευκοθόη, translit. Leukothóē), was one of the aspects under which an ancient sea goddess was recognized, in this case as a transformed nymph.
In the version sited at Rhodes, a much earlier mythic level is reflected in the genealogy: There, a nymph or goddess named Halia (“salty”)[a] plunged into the sea and became Leucothea. Her parents were the titans Thalassa and Pontus (or Uranus). She was a local nymph and one of the aboriginal Telchines of the island. Halia became Poseidon‘s wife and bore him Rhodos and six sons; their sons were maddened by Aphrodite in retaliation for an impious affront, assaulted their own mother Halia, and were confined in caves beneath the island by their father Poseidon; Halia cast herself into the sea, and became Leucothea. The people of Rhodes traced their mythic descent from the nymph Rhodos and the Sun god Helios.
The Colossus of Rhodes
One of the “Seven Wonders of the World” and the ancient forerunner of the Statue of Liberty, the Colossus of Rhodes remains an inspiring mystery.
After Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BC and while his rivalrous successors struggled against one another for power and lands, Antigonus I Monophthalmus (“The One-Eyed”) sent his son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes (“The Besieger”), to attack Rhodes in 305-304 BC, hoping to force the island to break its ties with Ptolemaic Egypt. When the siege failed, due to Rhodes’ strong defenses and the Egyptians’ clandestine provisioning of the island, Ptolemy I became known as Soter (Savior), a name given to him by the Rhodians.
To defeat the Rhodians, Poliorcetes had employed a full array of weaponry and equipment, including an enormous rolling siege tower, called a Helepolis (“City Destroying”) that was 40m high and 20m wide. The sides of this multi-storied machine were iron-plated. Openings in the plating allowed the firing of catapults and dart-throwers. Nevertheless, unintimidated, the Rhodians resisted and ultimately either forced the Helepolis’ withdrawal or caused it to become bogged down in ground covertly softened.
Giving up after a year-long siege, Poliorcetes departed Rhodes, abandoning his machines and many of his weapons – which the Rhodians promptly sold to finance the construction of a giant victory monument-cum-offering to their primary divine patron, Helios.
Chares of Lindos, a pupil of Lysippus, created the Colossus of Rhodes, taking twelve years to complete it at a cost of 300 gold talents – equivalent today to several million dollars. Historical sources give various heights for the Colossus (60-80 cubits). The average of these sources puts it at the same height (about 34m) as New York’s Statue of Liberty (not including her upraised arm). The ancient text, “On the Seven Wonders of the World,” ostensibly provides further details concerning the Colossus, but its author (“Philo of Byzantium”) – regardless of his eloquence (Chares “…made a god to equal the god, and…by his daring…had given the world a second sun to match the first…”) – has been shown to be later in date (3rd-4th c. AD) and unreliable as a source.
How Chares crafted the Colossus, therefore, with cast or hammered sections of bronze, remains a mystery. Iron braces were likely employed for internal reinforcement, but still the statue proved short-lived, ultimately collapsing during an earthquake in 226 BC. Noting its size, hollowness and construction, Pliny wrote: “Few men can clasp the thumb in their arms, and its fingers are larger than most statues. Where the limbs are broken asunder, vast caverns are seen yawning in the interior. Within it, too, are to be seen large masses of rock, by the weight of which the artist steadied it…”
Where the Colossus stood also remains a question. Medieval artists depict it astride the entrance to Rhodes’ port, one foot on the terminus of each breakwater. Technical considerations would have made this location impossible, but a distinctive circle of stones and finely-carved marble blocks reused in the 15th c. St. Nicholas Tower at the mouth of Mandraki harbor may indicate the base and position of the statue there. Alternatively, the Rhodian acropolis has also been proposed as a possible location.
The actual appearance of the Colossus poses further questions. A Rhodian relief, according to Andrew Stewart, suggests a figure resembling the Getty’s bronze Victorious Youth (300-100 BC). Furthermore, a special series of silver Rhodian didrachms depict the head of Helios with a rayed crown, which may have represented and paid homage to the newly erected Colossus. After the Colossus collapsed, the Rhodians followed oracular advice from Delphi and chose not to rebuild their monument. The fallen remains themselves became a tourist attraction; in the 7th c. AD, they were sold by the island’s Muslim overlords to a merchant from Edessa. Today, a debate rages in debt-torn Greece whether a new Colossus of Rhodes should be erected.
PONTUS is also a PLACE.
pon’-tus (Pontos): Was an important province in the northeastern part of Asia Minor, lying along the south shore of the Black Sea. The name was geographical, not ethnical, in origin, and was first used to designate that part of Cappadocia which bordered on the “Pontus,” as the Euxine was often termed. Pontus proper extended from the Halys River on the West to the borders of Colchis on the East, its interior boundaries meeting those of Galatia, Cappadocia and Armenia. The chief rivers besides the Halys were the Iris, Lycus and Thermodon. The configuration of the country included a beautiful but narrow, riparian margin, backed by a noble range of mountains parallel to the coast, while these in turn were broken by the streams that forced their way from the interior plains down to the sea; the valleys, narrower or wider, were fertile and productive, as were the wide plains of the interior such as the Chiliokomon and Phanaroea. The mountain slopes were originally clothed with heavy forests of beech, pine and oak of different species, and when the country was well afforested, the rainfall must have been better adequate than now to the needs of a luxuriant vegetation.
The first points in the earliest history of Pontus emerge from obscurity, much as the mountain peaks of its own noble ranges lift their heads above a fog bank. Thus, we catch glimpses of Assyrian culture at Sinope and Amisus, probably as far back as the 3rd millennium B.C. The period of Hittite domination in Asia Minor followed hard after, and there is increasing reason to suppose that the Hittites occupied certain leading city sites in Pontus, constructed the artificial mounds or tumuli (mound builders) that frequently meet the eyes of modern travelers, hewed out the rock tombs, and stamped their character upon the early conditions. The home of the Amazons, those warrior priestesses of the Hittites, was located on the banks of the Thermodon, and the mountains rising behind Terme are still called the “Amazon Range”; and the old legends live still in stories about the superior prowess of the modern women living there.
As the Hittite power shrunk in extent and force, by the year 1000 B.C. bands of hardy Greek adventurers appeared from the West sailing along the Euxine main in quest of lands to exploit and conquer and colonize. Cape Jason, which divides the modern mission fields of Trebizond and Marsovan, preserves the memory of the Argonants and the Golden Fleece. Miletus, “greatest of the Ionic towns,” sent out its colonists, swarm after swarm, up through the Bosphorus, and along the southern shore of the Black Sea. They occupied Sinope, the northern-most point of the peninsula with the best harbor and the most commanding situation. Sinope was in Paphlagonia, but politically as well as commercially enjoyed intimate relations with the Pontic cities. Settlers from Sinope, reinforced by others from Athens direct, pressed on and founded Amisus, the modern Samsoun, always an important commercial city. Another colony from Sinope founded Trebizond, near which Xenophon and the Ten Thousand reached the sea again after they had sounded the power of Persia and found it hollow at Cunaxa. Among the cities of the interior, picturesque Amasia in the gorge of the Iris River witnessed the birth of Strabo in the 1st century B.C., and to the geographer Strabo, more than to any other man, is due our knowledge of Pontus in its early days. Zille, “built upon the mound of Semiramis,” contained the sanctuary of Anaitis, where sacrifices were performed with more pomp than in any other place. Comana, near the modern Tokat, was a city famous for the worship of the great god Ma. Greek culture by degrees took root along the coast; it mixed with, and in turn was modified by, the character of the older native inhabitants.
Map of the Pontic Kingdom before the reign of Mithridates VI (darkest purple), after his conquests (purple), and his conquests in the first Mithridatic wars (pink); little adds (ancient shorelines & some greek colonies under Mithridate’s rule) in accordance with V. Yanko-Hombach, A.S. Gilbert, N. Panin, P. M. Dolukhanov: The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement, Springer, Netherlands, 2007, and with Appianus, Plutarchus & Strabo.
When the Persians established their supremacy in Asia Minor with the overthrow of Lydia, 546 B.C., Pontus was loosely joined to the great empire and was ruled by Persian satraps. Ariobarzanes, Mithradates and Pharnaces are the recurring names in this dynasty of satraps which acquired independence about 363 and maintained it during the Macedonian period. The man that first made Pontus famous in history was Mithradates VI, surnamed Eupator. Mithradates was a typical oriental despot, gifted, unscrupulous, commanding. Born at Sinope 136 B.C. and king at Amasia at the age of twelve, Mithradates was regarded by the Romans as “the most formidable enemy the Republic ever had to contend with.” By conquest or alliance he widely extended his power, his chief ally being his son-in-law Dikran, or Tigranes, of Armenia, and then prepared for the impending struggle with Rome. The republic had acquired Pergamus in 133 B.C. and assumed control of Western Asia Minor. There were three Roman armies in different parts of the peninsula when war broke out, 88 B.C. Mithradates attacked them separately and over-threw them all. He then planned and executed a general massacre of all the Romans in Asia Minor, and 80,000 persons were cut down. Sulla by patient effort restored the fortunes of Rome, and the first war ended in a drawn game; each party had taken the measure of its antagonist, but neither had been able to oust the other. The second war began in the year 74, with Lucullus as the Roman general. Lucullus took Amisus by siege, chased Mithradates to Cabira, modern Niksar, scattered his army and drove the oriental sultan out of his country. Subsequently on his return to Rome, Lucullus carried from Kerasoun the first cherries known to the western world. In the third war the hero on the Roman side was the masterful Pompey, appointed in 66 B.C. As a result of this war, Mithradates was completely vanquished. His dominions were finally and permanently incorporated in the territories of the Roman republic. The aged king, breathing out wrath and forming impossible plans against his lifelong enemies, died in exile in the Crimea from poison administered by his own hand.
Most of Pontus was for administrative purposes united by the Romans with the province of Bithynia, though the eastern part subsisted as a separate kingdom under Polemon and his house, 36 B.C. to 63 A.D., and the southwestern portion was incorporated with the province of Galatia. It was during the Roman period that Christianity entered this province. There were Jews dwelling in Pontus, devout representatives of whom were in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9). Paul’s associates, Aquila and Priscilla, were originally from here (Acts 18:2). The sojourners of the Dispersion are included in the address of the first Epistle of Peter together with the people of four other provinces in Asia Minor (1 Peter 1:1). Local traditions connect the apostles Andrew and Thaddeus with evangelistic labors in this region. They are said to have followed the great artery of travel leading from Caesarea Mazaca to Sinope. Pliny, governor of Bithynia and Pontus 111-113 A.D., found Christians under his authority in great numbers (see BITHYNIA), and Professor Ramsay argues that Pliny’s famous letters, Numbers 96 and 97, written to the emperor Traian on the subject of the treatment of Christians under his government (see PERSECUTION), were composed in view of conditions in Amisus (Church in Roman Empire, 224, 225).
The Roman empire in the East was gradually merged into the Byzantine, which is still known to the local inhabitants as the empire of “Roum,” i.e. Rome. Pontus shared the vicissitudes of this rather unfortunate government until, in 1204, a branch of the Byzantine imperial family established in Pontus a separate small state with its capital at Trebizond. Here the house of the Grand Comneni, sheltered between the sea and the mountain ranges, maintained its tinsel sovereignty to and beyond the fall of Constantinople. In 1461 Trebizond was taken by Mohammed the Conqueror, since which date Pontus, with its conglomerate population of Turks, Armenians, Greeks and fragments of other races, has been a part of the Ottoman empire.
Labels: Black Sea, Euxeinos, god, Greek, Hospitable, Pontus, Poseidon, primeval, primordial, Protogenoi, Roman, sea, Telchines, Thalassa
Below we find that the name Pontius is derived from the name of the ancient god PONTUS.
Meaning, origin and history of the name Pontius
Pontius Pilate – Wikipedia
Pontius Pilate – Bible, Meaning & Death – Biography
Pontius Definition and Meaning – Bible Dictionary
Pontius – Wikipedia
They would like you to disassociate the Vatican from the SEA. They call it the Holy See and give an extemporary definition. But, it is the same word, from the same root, with the same meaning. The Vatican is the place holder for THE SEA/ PONTUS/ the personification of the SEA.
The word “see” comes from the Latin word sedes, meaning ‘seat’, which refers to the episcopal throne (cathedra). The term “Apostolic See” can refer to any see founded by one of the Twelve Apostles, but, when used with the definite article, it is used in the Catholic Church to refer specifically to the see of the Bishop of Rome, whom that Church sees as the successor of Saint Peter. While Saint Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the city of Rome.[note 1]
In the Roman Catholic Church, only the see of the pope bears the right to be addressed symbolically as “holy”. However, there was one exception to this rule, represented by the Bishopric of Mainz. During the Holy Roman Empire, the former Archbishopric of Mainz (which was also of electoral and primatial rank) had the privilege to bear the title of “the Holy See of Mainz” (Latin: Sancta Sedes Moguntina).
sea | Etymology, origin and meaning of sea by etymonline
late 14c., “one to whom divine revelations are made, prophet, person who sees or foretells future events,” agent noun from see (v.). Originally rendering Latin videns, Greek bleptor (rendering Hebrew roeh) in Bible translations (such as I Kings ix.9). The rare literal sense of “one who sees or can see, a beholder, witness, watcher” is attested from early 15c.
The head priest of the Roman state religion was the Pontifex Maximus, or the greatest of the college of pontifices.
The main duty of the pontifices was to provide the pax deorum, or the ‘peace with the gods’. Interpreting omens, sometimes through augures, controlling and keeping the official calendar, and the oversight of funerals all fell under the domain of the Pontifex Maximus.
Augur – Wikipedia
He was responsible for an enormous collection of omens (annales maximi); that would be recorded and collected on a nearly constant basis. These heavenly signs would be written down along with accompanying events, and used to determine the divine favor of the gods. Doing so allowed following generations of priests and magistrates to understand the historic will of the gods and interpret future events against past patterns.
Today, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope, is still called the Pontifex Maximus. It’s a political or governing office that has been in existence and in perpetual use for nearly 3,000 years.
The college existed under the monarchy, when its members were probably three in number; they may be considered as having been legal advisers of the rex in all matters of religion. Under the republic they emerge into prominence under a pontifex maximus, or supreme priest, who took over the king’s duties as chief administrator of religious law. During the republican period the number of pontifices increased until by the time of Julius Caesar there were 16. Included in the collegium were also the rex sacrorum, the flamines, three assistant pontifices (minores), and the Vestal Virgins, who were all chosen by the pontifex maximus. Vacancies in the body of pontifices were originally filled by co-optation; but from the second Punic War onward the pontifex maximus was chosen by a peculiar form of popular election, and in the last age of the republic this was true for all the members. They all held office for life.
The immense authority of the collegium centred in the pontifex maximus, the other pontifices forming his consilium, or advising body. His functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but the real power lay in the administration of the jus divinum, the chief departments of which may briefly be described as follows: (1) the regulation of all expiatory ceremonials needed as the result of pestilence, lightning, etc.; (2) the consecration of all temples and other sacred places and objects dedicated to the gods by the state through its magistrates; (3) the regulation of the calendar both astronomically and in detailed application to the public life of the state; (4) the administration of the law relating to burials and burying places and the worship of the Manes, or dead ancestors; (5) the superintendence of all marriages by confarreatio (i.e., originally, of all legal patrician marriages); and (6) the administration of the law of adoption and of testamentary succession. They had also the care of the state archives and of the lists of magistrates and kept records of their own decisions (commentarii) and the chief events (annales).
It is obvious that a priesthood with such functions and holding office for life must have been a great power in the state, and for the first three centuries of the republic it is probable that the pontifex maximus was in fact its most powerful member. The office might be combined with a magistracy, and, though its powers were declaratory rather than executive, it may be described as quasi-magisterial. Under the later republic it was coveted chiefly for the great dignity of the position; Julius Caesar held it for the last 20 years of his life, and Augustus took it after the death of Lepidus in 12 BC, after which it became inseparable from the office of the reigning emperor.
The Crown of the Cæsars Passes to the Papacy
The year A.D. 330 was to alter the culture and history of Europe forever. Having dominated the mighty Roman Empire for more than four centuries, the center of Roman power was moved from Rome to the Bosphorus as Emperor Constantine I transferred the seat of government to Con-stantinople, a name he devised in order to perpetuate his own place in history.
This event of great historic significance set the Papacy on course for ultimate political power. As the Roman Catholic historian and apologist Henry Edward Manning wrote,
But from the hour when Constantine, in the language of the Roman law, “Deo jubente,” by the command of God, translated the seat of power to Constantinople, from that moment there never reigned in Rome a temporal prince to whom the Bishops of Rome owed a permanent allegiance. (The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ, Second edition, London: Burns & Lambert, pp. 11, 12)
After ten years of fearful persecution under Emperors Diocletian, Max-imian and Galerius, the relief and joy of Christians knew no bounds. Emperor Galerius had, in 311, eased the plight of the Christians by enacting the Edict of Toleration. However it was Constantine who provided full freedom and civil rights to Christians by enacting the Edict of Milan in 313. Yet one form of persecution was soon to be replaced by another. This emperor, raised in pagan philosophy, deemed it his prerogative to ensure that by force of the state, Christians walk the pathway which he felt proper. Christians had merely exchanged pagan persecution for a Christian form. In time the church itself adopted the philosophy of the emperor and those formerly persecuted became, themselves, the persecutors.
Persecution by Christians was first instituted against pagans. That intolerance which faithful Christians had endured for three centuries was now directed at pagans. This was an omen of times ahead and a serious degradation of true Christian faith which eschews coercion.
By the manifesto of Constantine and Licinius there had been substituted by the classical idea of the commonwealth the notion of two more or less distinct orders, the one political, the other ecclesiastical. With that of [Emperor] Theodosius [I], the relationship between these orders was finally determined by the complete subordination of the temporal to the spiritual power. (Charles Norris Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1940, p. 328)
Cochrane points out that—
The formal liquidation of paganism under Theodosius [who died in 398] and his successors has been characterised as “perhaps the only example of the total extirpation of any ancient, and popular superstition” and thus deserving of consideration as “a singular event in the history of the human mind.” (Ibid., p. 329)
Emperor Theodosius I’s legislation against paganism began in 391. It forbade all forms of pagan religious practices. In 392 all pagan temples and their treasures and idols were appropriated by the state.
Thus was Europe’s descent into intolerance, cruelty and control of the human conscience inflicted by a union of state and church. Forgotten was Christ’s edict, underlining their separation, when He accorded the church and the state separate arenas of influence:
Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s. (Matthew 22:21)
It was a small matter to move from persecution of pagans to persecution of devout Christians who opposed the increasing decline in faith and practice and the destruction of Bible doctrine among the Christian elite in Rome.
The first Christians to endure a state-backed ecclesiastical persecution were the Donatists of North Africa. They objected to a church backed by the state. In a real sense these Christians, centered in Carthage, were the forerunners of those foresightful Americans who included the doctrine of the separation of church and state into the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.
Despite the gallant and courageous opposition of the Donatists, their martyrdom and fidelity, the die was cast—Europe was doomed to centuries of church-inspired, state-implemented persecution of dissenters.
With the transfer of the capital of the Roman Empire to the far eastern reaches of the Balkan Peninsula there arose a steady increase in the political power of the Papacy. Heretofore, despite its growing defects and deviations from the pure faith of its founder, Jesus Christ, the Christian Church, previously partially purified through generation after generation of state-instigated intolerance and vile persecution, had confined itself largely to matters ecclesiastical.
But now, as the Bishops of Rome found the capital of the empire far removed from the eternal city, they commenced to flex their secular arm, enforcing their convictions upon others of different persuasion. In general the empire assented and often implemented the whims of the church, seeing such support as essential to the unity of the empire.
The title Pontifex Maximus was held by the head administrator of the Roman pagan religion. Eventually the Caesars envied this title of high honor and power; and first Julius Caesar and then Augustus Caesar made the title and office their own, as did later emperors. Thus developed a religio-political power well suited to the aims and ambitions of Roman bishops.
When, in 375, Emperor Gratian declined to accept this august title, believing its pagan origins unsuited to a Christian monarch, the Bishop of Rome, Pope Damasus I, appropriated the title Pontifex Maximus to himself. Thus the religio-political title of the Caesars passed without objection to the Papacy, together with its implied union of church and state.
But two mighty impediments to the growing ambitions of both popes and prelates remained. The first of these was the political and military might of the Emperors of the Roman Empire, a might the Papacy could not match. Thus the empire remained pre-eminent in the arenas of politics and military strength. Those attributes of state, as some popes recognized, could be used to the church’s advantage in the enforcement of its ecclesiastical will. Rome accomplished this usurpation during the era of the Holy Roman Empire, which ruled from 800 to 1806.
Following the transfer of the capital of the empire to Constantin-ople, the decline in the power of the empire well suited the ultimate destiny of the Papacy. That decline was gradual but it is generally agreed by historians that—
When the insignificant Romulus Augustulus was deposed (476), there was no longer even a titular emperor. (Paul Hutchinson & Winnifred E. Garrison, 20 Centuries of Christianity: A Concise History. First edition, p. 93, 1959, Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., New York)
Now the road for escalating Papal political power was cleared of impediment. With the acceptance of the title of Universal Bishop, when offered sixty-two years later by Justinian, the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, the course of Europe under Roman Catholic dominance was set.
Robert Neville, in his book, The World of the Vatican, has truly asserted, “In certain respects the Pope himself appears to be the lineal descendent of the Caesars” (Harper and Row, New York, page 10). Neville points out that terms such as Pontifex Maximus, the Roman Church, and Diocese stem from the emperors. He could have added others such as Cardinals, but the greatest evidence for Neville’s conclusion is the convergence of prophecy and history in this matter.
The second impediment to European dominance, which successive Bishops of Rome envied, was in a more difficult area and took a little longer to overcome. The Bishops of Constantinople contested, often with great vigor, the primacy among Bishops coveted by their counterparts in Rome. So exasperated was the Roman Bishop with the persistent claims of the Bishop of Constantinople to the right to acceptance as the Universal Bishop, that Pope Gregory I, who occupied the Roman See from 590—604, forgetting his own ambitions akin to those of his fellow Bishop John in the east, exploded,
I say confidently therefore, that whosoever calls himself Universal Bishop, or even desires in his pride to be called such is the forerunner of antichrist.” (Samuel J. Cassells, Christ and Antichrist, p. 12 —extracted from i. 6 Epi 8.30)
This accusation was the first of many declarations of competing Popes who designated each other as the antichrist. It was a cherished Papal designation of their enemies and the pretenders to the Papal See. On one occasion there were three “antichrists,” each so designated by the other two competing popes. Cardinal Baldassarre Cossa, the original Pope John XXIII, Cardinal Angelo Corrario, known as Pope Gregory XII and Cardinal Pedro de Luna, a Spaniard who adopted the title of Pope Benedict XIII, each declared the other two to be antichrists and, consequently, duly excommunicated them on the grounds that they were heretics and schismatics. In the early fifteenth century, in the eyes of many contemporaries the only credibility had by each of these claimants to the title of Universal Bishop lay in their valid declarations condemning each other.
But, indeed, fifty-eight years prior to Gregory I’s invective aimed at the Bishop of Constantinople, the issue had been decided by the Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, Justinian, residing in Constantin-ople. Perhaps fearing too much influence at the center of his government, he officially declared the Bishop of Rome as the Universal Pontiff in 533.
There may have been yet another, more subtle reason, for Justinian’s decision. The pope who should have benefited from this imposed arbitration, John II, was quite impotent to obtain the least mileage out of the title, since Rome was overrun at that time by the invading Ostrogoths. John II died two years later (535) and his successor, Agapetus I died on April 22, 536, the year following his election. Agapetus’ successor, Sylverius, fared no better, also dying the year after his election. It would seem that Papal appointment was an omen of death.
Still the Ostrogoths maintained their strong control of Rome, and any preeminence accorded the Bishop of Rome by Emperor Justinian was merely titular, conveying no enforceable ecclesiastical authority whatsoever.
It was surely with some trepidation that Vigilius assumed the role of “Universal Bishop,” considering the short tenure of his immediate predecessors. Nevertheless history testifies that he “had schemed to become pope.” (Joseph Brusher S.J., Popes Through the Ages, D. Van Nostrand Company Inc., 1959, Foreword by Cardinal James Francis McIntyre, Archbishop of Los Angeles). Joseph Brusher, Jesuit professor of History at the University of Santa Clara, records that Vigilius, although he held the Papal seat for eighteen years, “was not popular in Rome,” and that “he reaped more trouble than satisfaction from his ambitious sowing.” (Ibid.)
Yet, rather than following the fates of the two preceding popes by dying the year following his inauguration, Pope Vigilius in 538, the second year of his reign, benefited from the defeat of the Ostrogoths and their consequent expulsion from Italy. Thus in that pivotal year, 538, Vigilius became the first Roman Pontiff enabled to exercise as well as to hold the powerful titles of Pontifex Maximus and Universal Bishop. Here commenced the astonishing history spanning a period of one thousand two hundred and sixty years of Papal dominance over most of Europe. This dominance was dented, but certainly not destroyed, even after the dramatic events of the Protestant Reformation.
It took the intervention of Napoleon Bonaparte to finally crush Papal political power when he directed his military chief in Italy, General Berthier, to declare a republic in Rome on February 15, 1798 and take Pope Pius VI captive to France, where he died the following year. Thus the long religio-political Papal dominance of Europe was extinguished one thousand two hundred and sixty years after it began.
The Roman Church, without dispute, had by 538 inherited the seat of the Caesars, as Adolf Harnack recorded in his book What is Christianity?,
It [the Papacy] is a political creation, and as imposing as a World-Empire, because of the continuation of the Roman Empire. The Pope, who calls himself “King” and “Pontifex Maximus” is Caesar’s successor. (New York, Putnam, 1901, second edition, page 270).
The same historian concluded that—
The Roman Church in its way privily pushed itself into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation. (Ibid.)
Alexander Clarence Flick in his historical work, The Rise of the Mediaeval Church, concluded that,
The mighty Catholic Church was little more than the Roman Empire baptised. Rome was transformed as well as converted. The very capital of the old Empire became the capital of the Christian Empire. The office of the Pontifex Maximus was continued in that of the Pope. . . . Even the Roman language has remained the official language of the Roman Catholic Church down through the ages. (New York: Burt Franklin, 1959 pp 148, 149).
With the Christian Church’s gradual transition from a persecuted, pure apostolic faith in the early decades after Christ’s death until its blossoming as a religio-political empire scarcely more than half a millennium later, the very fabric of the Christian church had suffered such a metamorphosis that no rightful evaluation could accord the same status or the same faith to the church of a.d. 31, as to that of 538. An entirely new religion had emerged. The persecuted had become the persecutors, the ruled were now the rulers, the humble were now the arrogant, and eyes that had turned ever to Christ now turned to the Bishop of Rome. The simple meeting places were replaced by resplendent cathedrals. The poverty and simplicity of the church had become the affluence and opulence of the ecclesiastical body, while the church now grew in numbers not by conviction and conversion, but by birth ensured by infant baptism, and even by forced baptisms of those who did not consent.
In 538 it could be stated with veracity that the Papacy had accepted the scepter of the Roman Empire covered by a thin veneer of Christianity. The sum total of this transformation was the Dark Ages.
Old Roman Catholicism and the Holy Roman Empire
The history of Old Roman Catholicism is deeply rooted in and intertwined with the history of the Holy Roman Empire. Old Roman Catholicism descends from the ancient Roman Catholic Diocese of Utrecht in Holland, founded in the year 695 by Saint Willibrord. Imperial Old Roman Catholicism is traditional Roman Catholicism historically affiliated with the See of Utrecht and the Holy Roman Empire. In the early 8th century, Charles “the Hammer” Martel, Duke of the Franks and grandfather of Charlemagne, was in the process of uniting the Frankish and Germanic tribes to stand against the Muslim forces that had entered Gaul from Spain. As he conquered the Frisians, he sent Saint Willibrord, Bishop of Utrecht, to convert the people.
The Holy Roman Empire was the dominant political system for most of central Europe and Italy for nearly 900 years (from 962 until 1806). The HRE was considered a restoration and Christian continuation of the ancient original Roman Empire. In fact, the HRE can be traced back 100 years earlier, when the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day in the year 800 by Pope Leo III. Because Holy Roman Emperors were Germanic, their traditional titles also included that of “King in Germany” or “King of Germany.”
The Holy Roman Empire was intended to represent the unity of all Western Christian states within a single unified structure as the secular counterpart, working in conjunction with the Catholic Church. German princes who were elected as Emperor by the German Prince-Electors took the style of “King of the Romans” and “Emperor Elect” until they could be crowned Emperor by the Pope. Eventually the requirement for direct papal coronation was removed.
While most states of the Holy Roman Empire were Germanic, the Empire extended down into the Italian peninsula. The HRE effectively spread outside of its own primary territory through Germanic princes inheriting other crowns. For example, the Crown of Great Britain went to the Holy Roman Empire House of Orange and then to the Holy Roman Empire House of Hanover under the name of “Windsor,” a House that still rules Britain to this day.
In 1024, Utrecht was established as a State of the Holy Roman Empire as a Prince-Bishopric and had spiritual and secular authority. In 1145, Utrecht was granted autonomy by Pope Eugene III. Autonomy was confirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 and by Pope Leo X in 1520, for whom it became known as the “Leonine Privilege.” In 1528, temporal authorities of the Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht were transferred to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with permission of Pope Clement VII. The former Utrecht holdings became part of the dominion of the Imperial and Royal House of Habsburg. In 1559, the See of Utrecht was raised to the status of an Archdiocese. The Holy Roman Empire continued until its illegal dissolution, forced by the Napoleonic Empire in 1806. Old Roman Catholicism today remains a living relic of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Imperial Patriarchate of St. Stephen, Old Holy Roman Church of the English Rite (Anglican Rite Roman Catholic Church) continues today as the English Rite successor of Imperial Old Roman Catholicism and as the imperial and ecclesiastical successor to the Vice-Kingship of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire. The complete patrimony of the Patriarchate includes not only Florence and Imperial Italy, but also the Rhineland Electorates of Trier and Mainz, as well as Westphalia and the Electorate of Würzburg.
We have established that the ROMAN EMPIRE NEVER WORSHIPED THE GOD OF THE BIBLE. The Ultimate God of the Roman Empire is PONTUS. THE SEA!
The Roman Empire is a Pantheistic Empire. They worship MANY gods who are not GOD. They are Fallen Angels who have been present from the beginning and working to steal what belongs to the CREATOR. They have ALWAYS desired to be worshiped in his stead, that is why the FELL.
This new version of the Roman Empire, does not even hide their Paganism. They are establishing the PANTHEON of gods. They have convinced the WORLD that they do not need Jesus Christ. They can worship their own gods. They are determined to wipe the world clean of “Christianity”.
What the World fails to recognize is that FAITH in CHRIST is not a religion. It is not about picking the god that you like best. FAITH is JESUS CHRIST is the ONLY SALVATION. There is ONE CREATOR. HE is the only GOD who determines your fate. He is the only GOD with whom you need to establish and maintain relationship. The door to that relationship was CLOSED by SIN. The only way to OPEN IT is through FAITH in the shed blood of JESUS CHRIST as your redemption. Whether you like that or not. That is the PLAN of the CREATOR to bring you back to HIM. Soon the door will close forever. Anyone who has not received HIS Salvation will suffer the same fate that awaits all the PANTHEON of gods and godesses, the FALLEN who are condemned to eternal suffering in HELL. YES, there is a HELL, and YES humans will join the Fallen Angels there. It is NOT the CREATOR who sends you there, if you end up in HELL, it is because that was YOUR CHOICE. Because GOD, Our Heavenly FATHER, is ALL ABOUT CHOICE!!spacer
As the entire Earth sits upon the SEA, The Holy Roman Empire considers ALL of the EARTH to be subject to their Reign. The Roman Empire never died. It just went underground. Out of the sight of the people, like the second Rainbow. Ruling from behind the scenes. NOW, they are ready to once again RISE to RULE OPENLY. Ruling from behind the scenes. NOW, they are ready to once again RISE to RULE OPENLY over ALL the INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH.
Strong’s Greek: 3625. οἰκουμένη (oikoumené) — the inhabited earth
Meaning Of Greek Word Oikumene – Theology – Bible Truth Discussion Forum
We have established that the gods and godesses that ruled the earth are the Fallen Angels. They were in the SEA, the AIR, the FIRE and the EARTH. Why? Because when GOD cast them out of HEAVEN, they were stuck here in the realm of EARTH. EARTH was created by GOD/The Creator. Outside of the REALM of EARTH, there is ONLY HEAVEN/Eternity where GOD lives. There are no “Planets made of rock flying around in space”. There is only our COSMOS. Let us take a look at the cosmos. Below is what was KNOWN of the Cosmos from the beginning.
Homer’s world vision is almost certainly meant to be symbolic rather than realistic – no ships are sailing on the all-encircling sea, which is intended to emphasise the unity of the Oikoumenè …
In Homer the cosmos is conceived as a round flat earth, surrounded by the Ocean (Okeanos), and overlooked by a metal hemispherical sky. SourceThe Homeric cosmos is divided into a diurnal and nocturnal world: a human habitation and one which lies beyond the suns orbit and contains the heroes and the dead. Source
Greek Homer (ca. 750) In the view of the Greek poet Homer, Nature was sentient, filled with portents, and intermixed with the supernatural (gods). Natural law and order depended on the whims of the gods, consisted of regularity underlain by fickleness, had no general explanations, and was controlled by the deterministic forces of the fates. Source
That is what life was like under the reign of terror when the Fallen Ruled our Cosmos. That is what the mess we were in until Jesus Christ came to deliver us. A world ruled by demons who did as they pleased with humanity.
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 3 (At this point, water was everywhere.) And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. 5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7 A (Here God created some kind of barrier that created a division between the waters.) And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. 8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. 11 (Here we see that GOD moved all the water aside to create dry land, surrounded by water.) And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: 15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. (Here we see that God created the stars as lights and placed them ALL within the firmament. He placed them there for US!)
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. 19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. (Here we see that, even though there was already light in the world, because he created it on the first day when he seperated night from day. He has already created stars, but here, he creates the SUN to RULE the day and the Moon to RULE the night. He calls the lights, they are not rocks flying around in outer space. You cannot land on them. They are LIGHTS in the FIRMAMENT!)
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. 21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. 23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. (Here we see that INDEED, creatures came forth out of the WATER/SEA at God’s command. Already fully developed, with their seed already within them. He commaneded them IMMEDIATELY to reproduce AFTER THEIR KIND.)
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 26 (Here we see that what we know as land animals did not come from the water. They came forth out of the land, also at God’s command, also fully developed) And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. 28 (Here we see that God created man and woman. He created them using the earth, but they were unique, seperate from all other living things because HE MADE HUMANS in HIS IMGAE.) And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. 29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. 31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (We also see that GOD gave humans language. IMMEDIATELY, and as God put Adam over all the earth Adam named every living creature.)
19 And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
We have established that our COSMOS, is an enclosed realm. Created for man, corrupted by the Fallen. It is a world that began with WATER. All the LAND is floating on Water. There is WATER above us. WATER/SEA is what comprises Most of our World. PONTUS is the god of the ROMANS, he is the Fallen Angel that has dominion of the SEA. The PONTIF, is the High Priest of PONTUS. He is the bridge between humans and PONTUS, an all of the prodgeny of PONTUS. The lesser gods, godesses, demons and spirits of the sea.
THE SEA = Oikoumene
An embattled emperor offered guidance to his successors in the shape of a ‘mirror for princes’.
On 25 March 919 the Byzantine fleet sailed into the port of Constantinople. As the admiral of the Empire’s navy, Romanos Lekapenos was invited to the city as protector of its young ruler, Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (‘born in the purple’). The admiral’s thinking was clear on how to resolve the current political crisis in the capital: he planned to seize the imperial throne from Constantine and the Macedonian dynasty. Once in the palace, he swiftly captured the levers of the Byzantine state. He had himself crowned emperor by Constantine and the Patriarch and subsequently elevated his own son to junior emperor status. Constantine, the rightful heir, was left physically unharmed in a relatively bloodless transition of political power.
Romanos’ daughter, Helena, was married to the young Constantine in 919, further evidence of the usurper’s intent to topple the Macedonians. Constantine could do little but submit to his father-in-law’s demands as Romanos consolidated his power. Seemingly resolved to his own fate or, more likely, as a result of his introverted temperament, Constantine had forsaken any active resistance to regain his throne. Instead, he devoted considerable time and energy to pursuing intellectual and artistic endeavours, including efforts to improve the ways in which the Byzantine state was ruled, perhaps as a response to the circumstances in which he found himself.
Constantine was an important figure in 10th-century Byzantine intellectual life. Bolstered with the knowledge stored in monastic and imperial libraries, he was able to organise and publish a number of scholarly texts. Through his own writings and his power as a royal sponsor, Constantine’s work covered a broad set of topics that spanned complex ceremonial procedures, imperial biography, military strategy, diplomacy and even agriculture. A particularly significant text to which he contributed is the De Administrando Imperio (DAI), which was developed between 948 and 952. Although the archetype of the DAI is lost, four manuscripts have survived. The DAI’s original title, if it had one, is unknown. In 1611, John Meursius, the manuscript’s first publisher, stamped its text with the title by which it is still known today.
To compile the DAI, Constantine oversaw a team of scholars and writers who gathered and documented information of keen interest to Byzantine rulers. In the DAI’s introduction, Constantine himself states the text’s goal: his son and eventual successor to the throne, Romanos II, was ‘to be instructed in what it behooves thee before all else to know, and lay hold skillfully upon the helm of rule’.
The DAI is a loose compilation of historical information, which includes the foundation myths of various Balkan nations, while ostensibly offering diplomatic advice for future Byzantine rulers: an example of the ‘mirror for princes’ genre. With a long tradition in Byzantine political writing, a ‘mirror for princes’ provided medieval rulers with a set of princely and divine virtues by which they should live and rule.
The DAI embodies the imperial ideology, espousing the role of an emperor that was characterised by Byzantine thinking prevalent in the empire’s middle period (843-1204). In it, the Byzantine emperor is the ultimate caretaker, ‘bound to take thought for the safety of all, and to steer and to guide the laden ship of the world’. This reference to the ‘ship of the world’ is the Byzantine state. It was the emperor’s mission to rule over the oikoumene, or ‘civilised world’, as God had entrusted the empire to the Romans under Constantinople.
The Byzantines were the new Chosen People and the Empire was eulogised in the DAI with biblical imagery: ‘Come hither and behold a land flowing with milk and honey.’ Yet it is the idea of order (taxis) that characterised the Byzantine spirit, calling essentially for a harmonious hierarchy of society and its institutions, framing Byzantine society as a reflection of heaven. In another of Constantine VII’s works, Book of Ceremonies, this divine order is described as a beautiful physical form: ‘For just as when a body is not harmoniously fashioned but has its limbs set in a contorted and ill coordinated way, one would describe this as disorder, so too when the imperial administration is not led and governed by order … so that the reins of power will be managed with order and beauty.’ States that did not conform to this strict taxis were looked on as ‘barbaric’, demonstrating a ‘disorderly’ state of affairs that the Byzantines abhorred.
Constantine’s intellectual work helped to revitalise the empire’s foreign relations in the 10th century and beyond. As the new Chosen People and legitimate heirs of Constantine the Great’s Roman Empire, the Byzantines sought to project power in former Roman territories with renewed energy and assertiveness. Following Constantine’s return to the throne and his death in 959, the three emperors who followed him were able military leaders, who fielded armies and went on to incorporate large swathes of territory into the Empire.
By 1025, Byzantium had reached its zenith, in influence, power and territory. These achievements might not have been undertaken – let alone attained – without the impetus of Constantine’s ideological program of the mid-10th century. As a medieval ruler, Constantine may have tapped into a universal principle of governing that embraced ideology as a way to embolden the aspirations of the state on the world stage. This notion is not a strategy exclusive to medieval rulers. ‘We’re an empire now, and when we act, we create our own reality’: this statement from a senior advisor to US President George Bush would not have surprised Constantine VII.
Louis Minakakis is a recent History graduate of the City University of New York.
www.churchsonefoundation.com › the-future-for-ecumenism
Relations between church and state
The ideology that had prevailed since Constantine (4th century) and Justinian I (6th century)—according to which there was to be only one universal Christian society, the oikoumenē, led jointly by the empire and the church—was still the ideology of the Byzantine emperors. The authority of the patriarch of Constantinople was motivated in a formal fashion by the fact that he was the bishop of the “New Rome,” where the emperor and the senate also resided (canon 28 of the Council of Chalcedon, 451). He held the title of “ecumenical patriarch,” which pointed to his political role in the empire. Technically, he occupied the second rank—after the bishop of Rome—in a hierarchy of five major primates, which also included the patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. In practice, however, the latter three were deprived of all authority by the Arab conquest of the Middle East in the 7th century, and only the emerging Slavic churches attempted to challenge, at times, the position of Constantinople as the unique centre of Eastern Christendom.
The relations between state and church in Byzantium are often described by the term caesaropapism, which implies that the emperor was acting as the head of the church. The official texts, however, describe the emperor and the patriarch as a dyarchy (government with dual authority) and compare their functions to that of the soul and the body in a single organism.