GRAIN the most basic source of Nourishment

Grain, so much nutrition packed into such a small package.  It is easy to dismiss the true value of grain, it seems so insignificant. For the most part bread has been seen only as a vessel to be loaded with good things like lunch meat, or hamburgers or tuna fish… lol  Lately, after 6 thousand years of enjoying bread and grain, the world has told us over and over that carbohydrates are bad and that you might be allergic to Gluten which they say is causing all your mysterious symptoms.

But, they lie!!
The devil is still king of this world.  He hates GOD and tries to move us as far away from GOD as he can.  Over the past few decades he has convinced us that all things that were created by GOD are evil, including humans.  But, never fear “SCIENCE” is here to rescue us all.  He tells us that butter is bad, natural sugars are bad, salt is bad, milk is bad, meat is bad and GLUTEN now is public enemy number one.  Amazingly though many people are catching on.

Health Benefits of Gluten: A Source of Protein


Cereal grains play a vital role in a healthy diet. One benefit is that they’re great sources of protein, antioxidants, fiber, vitamins, magnesium, iron, folic acid, and minerals. Proteins are very large molecules composed of amino acids. Gluten is a structural protein naturally found in certain cereal grains including wheat, barley, rye and some oat cultivars, as well as any cross hybrids of these grains (such as triticale). Two of the naturally occurring proteins in flour are called glutenin and gliadin; glutenin provides strength or elasticity and gliadin provides extensibility or stretchiness. Gluten is formed when two classes of water-insoluble proteins in wheat flour (glutenin and gliadin) are hydrated with water and mixed.

Wheat is one of the most multi-purpose grains when it comes to health and nutritional value. Grains containing gluten are used as ingredients for a wide range of prepared and commercial foods which increase their protein content, dough strength, elasticity and uniform shape of products, water absorption and retention, enhanced flavor, softness and extend shelf life. Commercial gluten is available as either a dried powder or in a wet form.

Gluten is a naturally low-fat protein source and basically sodium-free. It is a protein, choice for people who don’t want to eat meat because they have high cholesterol or other health problems. It’s also suitable for people who are allergic to soya or dairy and cannot get their protein from those sources.

Gluten has many health benefits such as controlling obesity, preventing type 2 diabetes, improving metabolism, reducing chronic inflammation, preventing gallstones, preventing breast cancer, promoting gastrointestinal health in females, protecting from childhood asthma, and preventing heart disease. Eating enough fiber through foods, for example, whole-wheat bread can promote digestive health and weight control. Most people can tolerate gluten with no adverse effects. However, it can cause problems for people with certain health conditions which includes celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy, and some other diseases.

AI Overview
Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and triticale that’s important for both human health and baking:
  • Human health
    Gluten can have health benefits for people who can tolerate it, such as lowering the risk of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal cancer. It can also help with digestion by acting as a prebiotic, feeding good bacteria in the digestive system. Gluten-containing foods can also provide protein, soluble fiber, vitamins, and minerals like iron and magnesium.


I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats this bread will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. John 6:51

Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke them. Then he gave them to the disciples to distribute to the people. They all ate and were satisfied, and the disciples picked up twelve basketfuls of broken pieces that were left over.

The followers of Jesus kept the practice of the breaking of bread together.

They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer.


bread (n.)

“kind of food made from flour or the meal of some grain, kneaded into a dough, fermented, and baked,” Old English bread “bit, crumb, morsel; bread,” cognate with Old Norse brauð, Danish brød, Old Frisian brad, Middle Dutch brot, Dutch brood, German Brot.According to one theory [Watkins, etc.] from Proto-Germanic *brautham, from PIE root *bhreu- “to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn,” in reference to the leavening. But OED argues at some length for the basic sense being not “cooked food” but “piece of food,” and the Old English word deriving from a Proto-Germanic *braudsmon- “fragments, bits” (cognate with Old High German brosma “crumb,” Old English breotan “to break in pieces”) and being related to the root of break (v.). It cites Slovenian kruh “bread,” literally “a piece.”Either way, by c. 1200 it had replaced the usual Old English word for “bread,” which was hlaf (see loaf (n.)).The extended sense of “food, sustenance in general” (late 12c.) is perhaps via the Lord’s Prayer. The slang meaning “money” dates from 1940s, but compare breadwinner, and bread as “one’s livelihood” dates to 1719. Bread and circuses (1914) is from Latin, in reference to food and entertainment provided by the government to keep the populace content. “Duas tantum res anxius optat, Panem et circenses” [Juvenal, Sat. x.80].spacer
grain (n.)

early 14c., “a small, hard seed,” especially of one of the cereal plants, also as a collective singular, “seed of wheat and allied grasses used as food;” also “something resembling grain; a hard particle of other substances” (salt, sand, later gunpowder, etc.), from Old French graingrein (12c.) “seed, grain; particle, drop; berry; grain as a unit of weight,” from Latin granum “seed, a grain, small kernel,” from PIE root *gre-no- “grain.” From late 14c. as “a species of cereal plant.” In the U.S., where corn has a specialized sense, it is the general word (used of wheat, rye, oats, barley, etc.).Figuratively, “the smallest possible quantity,” from late 14c. From early 15c. in English as the smallest unit of weight (originally the weight of a plump, dry grain of wheat or barley from the middle of the ear). From late 14c as “roughness of surface; a roughness as of grains.” In reference to wood, “quality due to the character or arrangement of its fibers,” 1560s; hence, against the grain (1650), a metaphor from carpentry: cutting across the fibers of the wood is more difficult than cutting along them. 


I have been wanting to get this post out for a while, by what stirred me to finally put it up is the following video that was in my feed this past week.  I am amazed at how little people know and how much less they understand.  The whole world is DECEIVED!


Bread is Life. Bread is Alive.

Bread is life. As cliché as it sounds, it’s true. History tells us that bread has kept societies alive and functioning. Yes, and sometimes bread has failed us. We’ll get to all that.

For now, I want to stop and peer into the bowl of dough rising on my counter. There’s life in there.It’s moving, breathing, pulsing with valiant communities of yeast and bacteria.

Bread isn’t just life…Bread is alive.

Anyone who works with the modest mixture of flour, water, salt, and yeast knows this to be true. Every loaf of bread is an appreciable ecosystem in and of itself, a world that rolls the micro and the macro into one. Every bite of bread is a nod to the unseen world of yeast and bacteria mingling with whole human cultures and human ingenuity.Bread tells an important part of our story.

Many people have expressed to me their desire to bake bread, but find that the science of baking hampers their creativity in the process. There is science, sure. As with anything, it helps to understand the process. But bread is not science; nor is it art.In the deepest sense, bread is a relationship. It’s the beauty we find in participating as all the nuances come together to create something more than the sum of what we started with. And isn’t that, after all, what life’s all about?

So, I state the case again…bread is life.


Whole grains: Hearty options for a healthy diet

Find out why whole grains are better than refined grains and how to add more to your diet.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Whole-grain foods are good choices for a nutritious diet. Whole grains provide fiber, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.

Whole-grain foods help control of cholesterol levels, weight and blood pressure. These foods also help lower the risk of diabetes, heart disease and other conditions.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that at least half of all the grains you eat are whole grains. Most people in the United States don’t eat enough whole grains.

What is a grain?

Grains are the seeds of grasses grown for food. These plants also are called cereals. Examples of grains include wheat, oats and rice. Each grain, also called a kernel, is made of three parts:

  • Bran. Bran is the hard outer coating of a kernel. It has most of the kernel’s fiber. It also has vitamins and minerals.
  • Germ. The germ is the part that sprouts into a new plant. It has many vitamins, healthy fats and other natural plant nutrients.
  • Endosperm. The endosperm is the energy supply for the seed. It mostly contains starches. It has small amounts of proteins and vitamins. The endosperm has very little fiber.
What nutrients are in whole grains?

The bran from any kind of whole grain is a good source of fiber. Nutrients in whole grains vary. They may include the following nutrients and others:

  • Vitamin A.
  • Vitamin B-1, also called thiamin.
  • Vitamin B-2, also called riboflavin.
  • Vitamin B-3, also called niacin.
  • Vitamin B-6, also called pyridoxine.
  • Vitamin B-9, also called folate.
  • Vitamin E.
  • Iron.
  • Magnesium.
  • Phosphorus.
  • Selenium.
Anatomy of a whole grain

Foods made from grains fall into these categories:

  • Whole grains. Whole grains have all parts of the grain. Whole-grain flour is ground from whole grains. Examples of whole-grain food include brown rice, oatmeal and whole-grain breads.
  • Refined grains. Refined grains have the germ and bran removed. These grains have a finer texture and a longer food storage life. This process takes out nearly all of the fiber and many other nutrients. Food with refined grains include white rice and most white breads, pastries, cakes, and crackers.
  • Enriched grains. The nutrients removed from refined grains may be added back. These refined grains are called enriched grains. For example, when rice is refined, it loses vitamins, minerals and fiber. Enriched white rice has these vitamins and minerals added back. Fiber usually isn’t replaced in enriched grains.
  • Fortified grains. Foods also may have nutrients added that aren’t naturally there. Or food may get a boost in the nutrients that are naturally there. Foods with these extra nutrients are called fortified foods. For example, many breads and breakfast cereals are fortified with folic acid and iron.
The terms “enriched” and “fortified” are often used to mean the same thing. The important point is that whole grain is the most nutritious choice. “Enriched” and “fortified” mean that there is some added benefit.

Benefits of whole-grain foods

The vitamins and minerals in whole grains are important for your overall health. Also, the high fiber content of whole grains may help with:

  • Lowering bad cholesterol levels.
  • Raising good cholesterol levels.
  • Lowering insulin levels.
  • Lowering blood pressure.
  • Creating a feeling of fullness that can help with weight loss or control.
Studies show high-fiber diets lower the risk of:
  • Heart and blood vessel diseases.
  • Stroke.
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Cancer of the large intestine and rectum, also called colorectal cancer.

Choosing whole grains

Make at least half the grains in your diet whole grains.

You can find whole-grain versions of rice, bread, cereal, flour and pasta at most grocery stores. Examples of whole grains and whole-grain foods include:

  • Barley.
  • Bulgur, also called cracked wheat.
  • Farro.
  • Millet.
  • Quinoa.
  • Black rice.
  • Brown rice
  • Red rice.
  • Wild rice.
  • Oatmeal.
  • Popcorn (not really)
  • Whole-wheat flour.
  • Whole-grain breakfast cereals.
  • Whole-wheat bread, pasta or crackers.


Worldwide production of grain in 2023/24, by type (in million metric tons)*

Grain production worldwide 2023/24, by type

Gen.42 – Bible, King James Version

1Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons, Why do ye look one upon another? 2And he said, Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt: get you down thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may live, and not die.

H7668  –
sheber – sheh’-ber
The same as H7667; grain (as if broken into kernels): – corn, victuals.
Total KJV occurrences: 9


Why does Gen. 42:25 refer to corn, when corn is a new crop? › information › article › id=cor…

All maiz is corn, but not all corn is maiz. Therefore, the King James Bible is not talking about our maiz or corn at all.

Question: Why does Gen. 42:25 refer to corn, when corn is a new world crop? Europeans did not know of its existence until the 16th century. Surely that must be a mistranslation by the KJV translators, because the Jews would have not known about corn.

Answer: That is a question most USA citizens would also have. The fact is that the word “corn” comes from a word, meaning “grain” and related to “kernel.” In the USA, the Native Americans helped the European settlers plant maiz (pronounced, “maze”) that we later called “corn”. Here’s some of what Webster wrote on this in his 1828 dictionary:

  1. A single seed of certain plants, as wheat, rye, barley and maiz; a grain. It is generally applied to edible seeds, which, when ripe, are hard.
  2. The seeds of certain plants in general, in bulk or quantity. In this sense, the word comprehends all the kinds of grain which constitute the food of men and horses. In Great Britain, corn is generally applied to wheat, rye, oats and barley. In the United States, it has the same general sense, but by custom, it is appropriated to maiz.

Over the years, the residents of the New World used the term corn for maiz (or maize). All maiz is corn, but not all corn is maiz. Therefore, the King James Bible is not talking about our maiz or corn at all. It is talking of different kinds of grain, specifically wheat, rye or barley.

The King James translators made no mistake 102 times in their proper translation “corn.” It is the New World citizens who have mistakenly applied our “maiz” to the Biblical “corn.”

May God richly bless you as you read and study further into His preserved words in English, the King James Bible.


The Etymology of the Word ‘Corn’ | Bon Appétit

Food words have some seriously gnarly roots, but follow them far back enough, and you can see culinary history all tangled up in a few short syllables. Welcome to Eat Your Words.

No, corn doesn’t come from the word “Nebraska–a newspaper illustrator came up with this airship in 1897 to mock a rash of “mystery airship” sightings in corn country.

Corn made America what it is today. For thousands of years before European contact and takeover, the civilizations of Central America painstakingly bred a hard little nubbin of a wild grain called teosinte into modern corn’s giant, food-packed ear. It became such a central part of the culture that the Aztecs, for one, had a whole god dedicated to corn, and it proved just as valuable for the first colonists to hit these shores: without stealing some ears that the local tribes had stashed for the winter on Cape Cod, the first wave of Pilgrims wouldn’t have lived till spring. And now, it’s the most commonly farmed plant in the whole country.

Centeōtl From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cinteotl in the Codex Borgia Aztec Corn God

In Aztec mythology, Centeōtl [senˈteoːt͡ɬ] (also known as Centeocihuatl or Cinteotl) is the maize deity. Cintli [ˈsint͡ɬi] means “dried maize still on the cob” and teōtl [ˈteoːt͡ɬ] means “deity”.[4] According to the Florentine Codex,[5] Centeotl is the son of the earth goddess,  Tlazolteotl  and solar deity Piltzintecuhtli, the planet Mercury. He was born on the day-sign 1 Xochitl.[6][7] Another myth claims him as the son of the goddess Xochiquetzal.[8] The majority of evidence gathered on Centeotl suggests that he is usually portrayed as a young man (although a debate is still ongoing), with yellow body colouration.[5] Some specialists believe that Centeotl used to be the maize goddess Chicomecōātl. Centeotl was considered one of the most important deities of the Aztec era. There are many common features that are shown in depictions of Centeotl. For example, there often seems to be maize in his headdress. Another striking trait is the black line passing down his eyebrow, through his cheek and finishing at the bottom of his jaw line. These face markings are similarly and frequently used in the late post-classic depictions of the ‘foliated’ Maya maize god.


In the Tonalpohualli (a 260-day sacred calendar used by many ancient Mesoamerican cultures), Centeotl is the Lord of the Day for days with number seven and he is the fourth Lord of the Night. In Aztec mythology, maize (which was called Cintli in Nahuatl, the Aztec spoken language) was brought to this world by Quetzalcoatl and it is associated with the group of stars known commonly today as the Pleiades.[12]

At the beginning of the year (most likely around February), Aztec workers would plant the young maize. These young maize plants potentially were used as symbolism for a pretty goddess, most likely Chicomecōātl, Princess of the Unripe Maize.  When the seeds were planted, a ritual dance occurred in order to thank Mother Earth and more specifically Centeotl. These dances became increasingly more prominent as the warmth of the sun brought about great prosperity for the Aztecs in the form of sprouting maize canes. This festival has been compared to the more Western maypole festival due to the similarity of their celebrations (dancing for spring, feasting, etc.).  A major custom in Mexico during this festival period was for female Aztecs, regardless of marital status to loosen their ponchos and let down their hair. They would proceed to dance bare-breasted in the maize fields in order to thank Centeotl for his work. Then each female would pick five ears of corn from the field and bring it back in a grand procession while singing and dancing. Women in these processions were the promises of food and life in the Aztec world. Traditionally, massive fights would break out as people tried to soak one another in flower pollen or scented maize flour.  (Just like in La Palma Carnival) Also, flower petals were thrown in ceremonial fashion over people who were carrying the ears of corn.[13]

Corn was rather essential to Aztec life and thus the importance of Centeotl cannot be overlooked. It can be seen from countless historical sources that a lot of the maize that was cultivated by the Aztecs was used in sacrifices to gods. Usually, at least five newly ripened maize cobs were picked by the older Aztec women. These were then carried on the female’s backs after being carefully wrapped up, somewhat like a mother would wrap up a newborn child. Once the cobs reached their destination, usually outside a house, they were placed in a special corn basket and would stay there until the following year. This was meant to represent the resting of the maize spirits until the next harvesting period came around.[13]

These five cobs were also symbols for a seemingly separate goddess.[10] This highly worshipped goddess was known as Lady Chicomecoatl, Seven Serpents.[10] She was the earth spirit and the lady of fertility and life, seen as a kind of mother figure in the Aztec world and was the partner of Centeotl.[13]

ChicomecóatlAztec goddess – Also known as: Xilonen

Nahuatl: “Seven Snakes”


Relief with Maize Goddess (Chicomecóatl), unknown Aztec artist, 1440-1521 CE, Stone, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, United States[8]

Chicomecōātl, or “Seven Serpent”, was an important Aztec agricultural goddess who served as a symbol of both human and plant reproduction.[9] Her most common iconographic features includes corn, which is often being held in her hands, and an amacalli, or “paper house” which is worn as a headdress. It is not uncommon for Chicomecōātl to be seen carrying a chicahuaztli, or “rattle-stick”. Rattle-sticks were percussion instruments used in exclusively agricultural rituals to penetrate the earth and call for rain, thus fertilizing the soil for a more bountiful harvest.[10] While rattle-sticks were only used in ceremonies, a frame of the Codex Borgia plate 9 depicts a man and woman beneath a blanket with a chicahuaztli between them.[11] This is one of the many examples of serpentine imagery that represents fertility in a way interchangeable between humans and plants. In the stone relief carving of Chicomecōātl from the Brooklyn Museum, the goddess can be seen holding a chicahuaztli shaped like a serpent in her right hand. The snake’s tail is believed to be either a ray of sunlight or a phallic symbol. Regardless of what it may represent, both possibilities represent the fertilization and penetration of farmland.[8] Small statues of Chicomecōātl are the most common divine artworks from the Aztec Empire as they were mass-produced as fertility idols and probably collected as household items.[12][13] In some depictions, Chicomecōātl wears a snake belt, similar to fellow fertility goddess Cōālīcue.[14]

Chicomecóatl, Also called: Xilonen (“Young Maize-Ear Doll”)    Aztec goddess of sustenance and, hence, of corn (maize), one of the most ancient and important goddesses in the Valley of Mexico. The number seven in her name is associated with luck and generative power. She was often portrayed as the consort of the corn god, Centéotl. Chicomecóatl is depicted in Aztec documents with her body and face painted red, wearing a distinctive rectangular headdress or pleated fan of red paper. She is similarly represented in sculpture, often holding a double ear of corn in each hand.


But what made us call it “corn”? The more technical name for the big green stalk, maize, came to English from the Spanish maiz, a barely altered version of the Taino (the language native to Hispaniola, the island of Haiti and the Dominican Republic) word for the plant, mahiz.

“Corn” itself, though, has much deeper roots, going back to the misty prehistory of Proto-Indo-European. Both “grain” and “corn” come from the same very old PIE word, though there are two options for which that might be: either ger-, meaning “worn down,” or gher-, meaning “matured.” That stem wound up through Latin, on the one hand, which kept the G and gave us today’s “grain,” and through the Germanic languages, which, in their no-nonsense way, turned the G into a hard K, and gave us “corn.”

That conflation, of “grain” and “corn,” gets at another whole facet of corn’s past, too. Back in the day, English speakers could use “corn” to refer to any grain they felt like, though it usually meant the predominant crop in a given region. In England, wheat was “corn,” while oats were “corn” in Scotland and Ireland, and even rice was “the only corn that grows in the island” of Batavia (a.k.a. the Indonesian island of Java), as described in a 1767 travelogue.

What we call just plain “corn” today started out as “Indian corn,” but we dropped the qualifier by the early 1800s. Today Americans, Canadians, and Australians are still the only Anglophones who call the stuff on the cob “corn,” and a trip down a British Tesco aisle will yield more references to “maize” than you’d ever find stateside (unless you’re at a grade school Thanksgiving pageant).


Is Corn a Fruit, Vegetable or Grain?

EatingWell › article › is-corn-a-vegeta…
Jun 15, 2022

Spoiler: Corn is a combination of all three—a fruit, a grain and a vegetable.

Botanically speaking, corn is a fruit since it’s produced from the flower or the ovary of the corn plant.

According to the USDA, though, corn can be considered a vegetable or a grain, depending on a couple of factors. The answer lies within the variety of corn and the time of harvest.

When corn ears of the sweet corn variety are reaped at their young and immature state, they have liquid-filled kernels that are soft and tender. In this case, these sweet corn kernels are considered a starchy vegetable. These are the typical corn varieties that you see in grocery stores and farmers’ markets, where they are sold as corn on the cob but are also available as canned and frozen corn kernels.

The longer the harvest is delayed, the kernels mature as they become hard and dry. Popcorn is a corn variety harvested at this mature state and is classified as a grain. Corn at this mature stage can also be milled into cornmeal and used for foods like tortillas or cornbread.

Is corn a grain, a starch or a vegetable?

Corn can be eaten as a grain or a starchy vegetable. “When advising our patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, we teach that corn should be considered a carbohydrate,” Wicker Velez says.

“In Latin culture, corn is regarded as a grain. It is harvested once it’s fully mature and dried and ground into flour to make tortillas,” she says. “In contrast, Americans of European ancestry are more likely to harvest corn when the kernel is soft and juicy and serve it as a vegetable, steamed, fried or roasted.”

Hominy is a food made from dried kernels of field corn soaked in an alkaline solution then thoroughly rinsed. Hominy can be ground into grits (a popular item in Southern U.S. cuisine) or masa for Latin American dishes.

It is a human invention, a plant that does not exist naturally in the wild. It can only survive if planted and protected by humansScientists believe people living in central Mexico developed corn at least 7000 years ago. It was started from a wild grass called teosinte.

teosinte noun

te·​o·​sin·​te ˌtā-ō-ˈsin-tē 
any of several tall annual or perennial grasses (genus Zea) of Mexico and Central America that have small dark triangular seeds and include two species (Z. mays parviglumis and Z. m. mexicana synonym Z. mexicana) which are closely related to and often considered ancestral to corn
Word History
Etymology: Mexican Spanish, from Nahuatl teōcintli, from teōtl god + cintli dried ears of maize
First Known Use: circa 1877, in the meaning defined above
Time Traveler: The first known use of teosinte was circa 1877
CORN AI Overview
Raw yellow sweet corn contains glucose and fructose, but the amount varies depending on the type of corn:
  •  Glucose
    100 grams of raw yellow sweet corn contains 3.43 grams of glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar that’s not sweet.
  • Fructose
    100 grams of raw yellow sweet corn contains 1.94 grams of fructose. Fructose is also known as “fruit sugar” because it’s naturally found in fruits and berries. It’s very sweet and gives table sugar its sweet taste

Corn. Corn, also known as maize, is one of the sweetest tasting grains.  SOURCE.


Blood Sugar | Blood Glucose | Diabetes

MedlinePlus (.gov) › Health Topics
Mar 6, 2024 — Blood glucose, or blood sugar, is the main sugar found in your blood. It is your body’s primary source of energy.   It comes from the food you eat. Your body breaks down most of that food into glucose and releases it into your bloodstream. When your blood glucose goes up, it signals your pancreas to release insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to be used for energy
C6H12O6 is the molecular formula for glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, that is made from 6 carbons atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms.
Glucose is overall the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. Wikipedia

fructose (n.)

sugar found in fruit, 1857, coined in English from Latin fructus “fruit” (see fruit) + chemical suffix -ose (2).The chemical formula for fructose is C6H12O6. Fructose is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide, also known as fruit sugar. also a reducing sugar. It’s a 6-carbon polyhydroxy ketone that’s levorotatory, meaning it rotates plane-polarized light to the left.  This was the sole reason that it was classified as a laevorotatory compound. On the other hand, glucose rotates the plane-polarised light in the right direction, and is thus categorised as a dextrorotatory compound. SourceFructose is also known as an isomer, along with glucose and galactose, because of the different arrangement of functional groups around its asymmetric carbon.

fructose  noun   fruc·​tose ˈfrək-ˌtōs  ˈfrük-, ˈfru̇k-  -ˌtōz 

2the very sweet levorotatory d-form of fructose that occurs especially in fruit juices and honey

 called also fruit sugarlevulose

Metabolic effects of dietary fructose

Fructose, a naturally occurring hexose, is a component of many fruits, vegetables, and sweeteners. Because of the introduction of high fructose corn sweeteners in 1967, the amount of free fructose in the diet of Americans has increased substantially in the last 20 years. Fructose is sweeter, more soluble, and less glucogenic than glucose or sucrose, so it has been recommended as a replacement for these sugars in the diets of diabetic and obese people. Although an acute dose of fructose causes smaller increases in glucose and insulin than a comparable dose of glucose, there are a number of changes after dietary adaptation that may reduce its desirability as a sugar replacement in certain segments of the population. Fructose is absorbed primarily in the jejunum and metabolized in the liver. When consumed in excess of dietary glucose, it may be malabsorbed. Fructose is more lipogenic than glucose or starches, and usually causes greater elevations in triglycerides and sometimes in cholesterol than other carbohydrates. Dietary fructose has resulted in increases in blood pressure, uric acid, and lactic acid. People who are hypertensive, hyperinsulinemic, hypertriglyceridemic, non-insulin-dependent diabetic, or postmenopausal are more susceptible to these adverse effects of dietary fructose than healthy young subjects. Although consumption of fructose as a component of fruits and vegetables is an unavoidable consequence of eating a healthy diet, added fructose seems to provide little advantage over other caloric sweetners and compares unfavorably to complex carbohydrates in susceptible segments of the population.


Why can’t humans digest corn?

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

Corn has a way of staying intact from plate to poop. The bright yellow kernels found in our favorite summer dishes can show up — seemingly undigested — in the bathroom hours later. How does corn survive the digestive system? And maybe more importantly, should you even eat a food that’s hard to digest?

It turns out that your digestive system is doing more work than you think, so don’t skip the maize just yet. The yellow kernels in your poo are really just the corn kernel’s outer coating, according to Andrea Watson, a ruminant nutritionist at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Corn kernels are seeds carrying precious genetic material. The key to the seed’s survival is the waxy, yellow outer coating that protects the genetic material from weather, pests and transport.

Why Can’t Humans Digest Corn? The Science … – Course Hero

Corn kernels are seeds carrying precious genetic material. This material includes proteins and amino acids that make up DNA, which is the instructions for building new corn plants. The key to the seed’s survival is the waxy, yellow outer coating that protects the genetic material from weather, pests and transport.

So, they kernels are not carrying materials precious to your body…but precious to the continuation of corn production.  

The fact that it’s hard to break down is actually ideal for the plant. The outer coating owes its resilience to a tough fiber called cellulose, which humans don’t have the proper enzymes or gut bacteria to digest.

Even ruminant animals, such as cattle, which are much better equipped to digest cellulose, can’t always fully digest corn, (and yet we feed our livestock a diet made up primarily of corn and corn products. hmm)  Watson told Live Science. While cattle don’t eat the same sweet and soft corn that we do (they eat a tougher, more mature corn that can be stored long term), they, too, have whole kernels show up in their dung. (Well, no wonder they have so much GAS!!) Researchers have done the dirty work of picking out those expelled kernels and analyzing their nutritional content. “It turns out [the kernels] have been digested quite a bit,” Watson said.

The good news is that cellulose makes up only about 10% of corn, Watson said. So, the other 90% is useful nutrition. Corn is also a good source of dietary fiber, starch and antioxidants known as carotenoids, which give vegetables such as corn and carrots their stunning colors. However, there are fewer carotenoids in corn than in a typical serving of leafy greens, according to a 2019 Tufts University report.

There’s a way to make corn more digestible and disappear from your poop altogether: processing. “The more you process it, the easier it is to digest,” Watson said. That’s true for humans and animals alike. Grinding, wet milling, cooking — every processing step breaks down those hard to digest fiber molecules a little further, she said.  (However, we know that PROCESSING FOODS removes a lot of their nutritional benefits.)


The devil has so many people eating CORN, which is not from GOD and not created to be metabolized by your body.  Sadly, even the “natural grains” and other foods we consume today are not in their natural form.  They have been modified/perverted for the financial benefit of the ruling elite and for control of the masses.  Bread does not look, taste or behave like it used too,  Meats do not either, nor do dairy products or any of the fruit and vegetables we eat. Now, most of the young people today don’t have a clue, but those of us who have been around for a while can certainly experience the difference.  This nothing new.  Throughout history the ruling class has struggle to find ways to keep the lower classes, the working poor, under control.  FOOD and WATER are two areas where they concentrate their efforts because without those thing we cannot live.   


Profile photo for Jay Hulbert

Aside from the fact that corn is a grain, it’s as close to “man-made” as any crop is. For many years we didn’t know what the wild progenitor of corn is. Turned out it was this:

A weedy grass called teosinte. Instead of the big ears full of grain we see on corn today, it’s ears look like this:

How did this get turned into this?

The answer is many, many generations of intensive selection by man. In other words, plant breeding. (In other words DNA Tampering aka Genetic Modification) But this wasn’t done by scientists in white lab coats. It was done over thousands of years by native Americans. By the time Europeans showed up in the Americas corn had already been bred into it’s basic types, including dent or field corn, sweet corn and popcorn and it was being intensively cultivated in North, South and Central America.

We don’t know who those early plant breeders were, but they sure did good work!

By the way, see this page. I assume what led you to this question was corn being one of the more popular (and obvious) examples of a contrast between it and it’s crop wild relative. If you look up and compare the pictures of the crop and its relative, you’ll see that most are very different.

Profile photo for Matt Riggsby

Or, at least, everything grown commercially. Every fruit and vegetable you can buy at the grocery store is the product of a process of domestication and selective breeding which has been going on for hundreds if not thousands of years. The wild ancestor of the carrot, for example, can’t be eaten raw and isn’t orange. The wild ancestor of corn is a small fraction of the size. All citrus fruit are hybrids of hybrids. And a variety of cabbage-like vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and a few others) are actually strains of the same species. But even in cases of less radical changes to wild originals, everything you eat has been bred for some combination of improved flavor, better texture, more reliable growing, increased production, and easier shipping. About the only food you can get as it exists in nature is wild-caught fish, and even that’s a bit iffy because some are raised in fish farms and released for finishing before they’re caught.

 I am focusing on CORN and Bananas because they are artificial foods that contain very high levels of sugar, and the type of sugar that is most destructive to our bodies.  Haven’t you wondered why suddenly such a large portion of the population are obese and/or diabetic and struggling with the accompanying effects such as heart disease, high blood pressure, tooth decay, bone loss, blindness, inflammation,  nerve damage, poor circulation, and infections. ?
Cooking bananas (also called plantains) and ripe bananas both are widely consumed across the world. If you want to know the key players in the market, read 15 Biggest Banana Producers in the World. Go bananas!    SOURCE


While there are hundreds of types of bananas, all different in size, color, texture, and flavor, they all have evolved from their wild ancestors under human domestication. The bananas we know today are descendants of two wild progenitor species — Musa acuminata, which had a meaty but unappealing flesh, and Musa balbisiana, which had too many seeds for it to be enjoyable, per Plant Gene. While the sweet, seedless, yellow banana is believed to have appeared from random mutation, without human intervention, it wouldn’t have transformed from a wild foodstuff into a staple. Moreover, the modern banana can’t reproduce without human help because its appealing lack of seeds directly results from cloning.

Unfortunately, that’s exactly why the banana you’re likely familiar with could become extinct. The Cavendish banana, which is currently the most widely grown banana variety in the world, is threatened by a new strain of the same fungal disease that wiped out the Gros Michel banana (the Cavendish of the early 20th century). And because most Cavendish bananas are genetically identical clones, there is a high risk of the disease spreading rapidly and decimating banana crops worldwide. Therefore, it’s possible that we could see a shift towards other banana cultivars that are more resistant to disease or even some new hybrid varieties. But for now, let’s savor and appreciate the humble Cavendish banana while we still can.

Read More:


As I was researching my article on AntiChrist Charles, I found it interesting that the following fact was specifically mentioned in a piece on Prince Charles receiving sculpture from BRAZIL calling him the SAVIOR OF THE WORLD.

He (Prince Charles in 2002) visited an ecological centre on the Ilha do Bananal (Bananal Island), the world’s largest fluvial island, to explain research on climate change and to inaugurate a turtle sanctuary that is funded by a £50,000 donation from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.


cereal (n.)

1832, “grass yielding edible grain and cultivated for food,” originally an adjective (1818) “having to do with edible grain,” from French céréale (16c., “of Ceres;” 18c. in grain sense), from Latin Cerealis “of grain,” originally “of Ceres,” from Ceres, Italic goddess of agriculture, from PIE *ker-es-, from root *ker- (2) “to grow.” The application to breakfast food cereal made from grain is American English, 1899. After the Industrial Revolution.
also from 1832

List of Roman agricultural deities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In ancient Roman religionagricultural deities were thought to care for every aspect of growing, harvesting, and storing crops. Preeminent among these are such major deities as Ceres and Saturn, but a large number of the many Roman deities known by name either supported farming or were devoted solely to a specific agricultural function.

From 272 to 264 BC, four temples were dedicated separately to the agricultural deities Consus, TellusPales, and Vortumnus. The establishment of four such temples within a period of eight years indicates a high degree of concern for stabilizing and developing the productivity of Italy following the Pyrrhic War.[1]

Pyrrhic (adj.)

of or pertaining to King Pyrrhus of Epirus,” 1885, usually in the phrase Pyrrhic victory “success obtained at too great a cost,” in reference to Pyrrhus’s rout of Roman armies at Asculum, in Apulia, 279 B.C.E., which came at such cost to his own troops that he was unable to follow up and attack Rome itself, and is said to have remarked, “one more such victory and we are lost.” The name is Greek and means “reddish” or “red-haired,” from pyrrhos “flame-colored,” from pyr “fire” (from PIE root *paewr- “fire”).  

pyrrhic (n.)

“dance in armor” (1590s), also a type of metrical foot of two short syllables (1620s), from Latin pyrrhicha, from Greek pyrrikhē orkhēsis, the war-dance of ancient Greece, in quick and light measure, accompanied by the flute, traditionally named for its inventor, Pyrrikhos. The name means “reddish, red-haired,” from pyrrhos “flame-colored,” from pyr “fire” (from PIE root *paewr- “fire”). As an adjective, “of or pertaining to the pyrrhic,” from 1749.


*paəwr-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning “fire.”It forms all or part of: antipyreticburroempyrealempyreanfirepyracanthpyrepyreticpyrexiapyrite;
pyro-pyrolusitepyromaniapyrrhicsbirro.It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit pu, Hittite pahhur “fire;” Armenian hur “fire, torch;” Czech pyr “hot ashes;” Greek pyr, Umbrian pir “fire;” Old English fyr, German Feuer “fire.”

Varro, De re rustica

At the beginning of his treatise on farmingVarro[2] gives a list of twelve deities who are vital to agriculture. These make up a conceptual or theological grouping, and are not known to have received cult collectively. They are:

Vergil, Georgics

In his Georgics, a collection of poetry on agrarian themes, Vergil gives a list influenced by literary Hellenization and Augustan ideology:[3]

Allegorical scene with Roman deities from the Augustan Altar of Peace

The poet proposes that the divus Julius Caesar be added as a thirteenth.


Ceres’ helper gods

Twelve specialized gods known only by name are invoked for the “cereal rite” (sacrum cereale) in honor of Ceres and Tellus.[7] The twelve are all male, with names formed from the agent suffix -tor. Although their gender indicates that they are not aspects of the two goddesses who were the main recipients of the sacrum, their names are “mere appellatives” for verbal functions.[8] The rite was held just before the Feriae SementivaeW.H. Roscher lists these deities among the indigitamenta, lists of names kept by the pontiffs for invoking specific divine functions.[9]

Other indigitamenta

The names of other specialized agricultural gods are preserved in scattered sources.[11]

  • Rusina is a goddess of the fields (from Latin rus, ruris; cf. English “rural” and “rustic”).[12]
  • Rusor is invoked with Altor by the pontiffs in a sacrifice to the earth deities Tellus and Tellumo. In interpreting the god’s function, Varro derives Rusor from rursus, “again,” because of the cyclical nature of agriculture.[13] As a matter of linguistics, the name is likely to derive from either the root ru-, as in Rumina, the breastfeeding goddess (perhaps from ruma, “teat”),[14] or rus, ruris as the male counterpart of Rusina.[15] Altor is an agent god from the verb alo, alere, altus, “to grow, nurture, nourish”. According to Varro, he received res divina because “all things which are born are nourished from the earth”.[16]
  • Sator (from the same root as Insitor above), the “sower” god.[17]
  • Seia, goddess who protects the seed once sown in the earth; also as Fructesea, compounded with fructus, “produce, fruit”[18]
  • Segesta, goddess who promotes the growth of the seedling.
  • Hostilina, goddess who makes grain grow evenly.[19]
  • Lactans[20] or Lacturnus,[21] god who infuses crops with “milk” (sap or juice).
  • Volutina, goddess who induces “envelopes” (involumenta) or leaf sheaths to form.[22]
  • Nodutus, god who causes the “knot” (Latin nodus[23]) or node to form.
  • Patelana (Patelena, Patella), goddess who opens up (pateo, patere) the grain, possibly in reference to the emergence of the flag leaf.[12]
  • Runcina (as in Subruncinator above), the weeder goddess, or a goddess of mowing.[12]
  • Messia, the female equivalent of Messor the reaper, and associated with Tutelina.
  • Noduterensis (compare Nodutus)[24] or Terensis, the god of threshing
  • Tutelina (also Tutulina or Tutilina), a goddess who watches over the stored grain.[25]
  • Sterquilinus (also as Sterces, Stercutus, Sterculus, Sterculinus), who manures the fields.


Who was Ceres?

The answer has its roots, literally, in the development of plants and agriculture, which took place about 10,000 years ago as the climate warmed after the last Ice Age.  People started to cultivate plants that would feed them throughout the year and give them more security of supply.  They could be less reliant on hunting and gathering wild plants and berries.  This happened in many different places in the world at more or less the same time.  In the grasslands between Syria and Iraq, known as the Fertile Crescent, ancient peoples started to select suitable grasses to grow like barley and wheat.  They picked strong plants with the biggest ears and seed heads that would produce a bountiful crop. Footnote 1

Farmers came to believe that their prosperity was dependent on the spirits that presided over the growth of crops and the weather, elements which were often capricious and unpredictable:  They believed that these spirits needed to be placated, honoured and worshipped to ensure seasonal growth and good harvests.

From ancient Sumer, Anatolia and Egypt comes archaeological evidence that cultures were developing alongside improvements in agriculture. From 2,500 BC, the Egyptians depict growing and harvesting wheat, making bread and offering it to the priest. Egypt became a major supplier of wheat to Rome in Ancient times. Footnote 2

The farming of wheat and the supply of it became the mainstay of the Roman economy, underpinning the success of the Roman Army and burgeoning of the Roman Empire.

In Rome, the goddess Ceres became the divine embodiment of agriculture and the development of cereal crops, particularly spelt wheat. She oversaw ploughing into the earth (the province of the Roman Earth goddess Tellus) as well as sowing and the nurturing of seed. She released the creative and regenerative power of the earth. She was also guardian of marriage. As an earth goddess Ceres received a sacrifice to purify the house after a funeral and was also associated with the underworld and boundaries between the living and the dead.

Ceres was the daughter of Saturn and Ops. She was one of Rome’s most important goddesses. She married her brother Jupiter and their daughter was called Proserpina.

Ceres became identified with the Greek earth goddess, Demeter, at the time a devastating famine was raging in the land in 499 or 496 BC. The dictator, Aulus Postumius Albus consulted the Sibylline Books of Destiny (a collection of prophecies in rhyme written in Greek), looking for help. Footnote 3

The Sibylline Books of Destiny contained the ecstatic utterances of the Cybele, and were a constant source and inspiration of Greek and Etruscan religion as well as Roman.  Footnote 4

The Sibylline Books recommended that the worship of Demeter,  Iacchus  (Dionysus/Bacchus) and Kore (Persephone, daughter of Demeter)Greek deities associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries – should be identified with the Roman gods Ceres, Liber and Libera and that they should be propitiated. Postumius then vowed to these gods that if the crops would improve, he would build temples to them and establish annual sacrifices in their honour.  The Gods rewarded him and the crops and trade flourished. Consequently, a temple was built to Ceres, Liber and Libera on the Aventine Hill in Rome, which was dedicated by the consul Spurius Cassius in 493 BC. Footnote 3

Liber was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility and freedom (we use the words liberation, libation).  Liber came to be identified with Iacchus/Dionysus/Bacchus. Libera was Liber’s female counterpart.

Murals in the Villa of the Mysteries excavated in Pompeii depict the rituals of the cult of Dionysus, of which Pompeii was the centre. The god was often depicted wearing an ivy wreath and his worshippers, the Bacchae, were said to chew ivy as an aid to attaining frenzy.

The myth of Demeter/Ceres and Persephone/ Proserpina 

The most important sanctuary of Demeter and her daughter Kore (Persephone) was in the city of Eleusis in Attica, between Athens and Megara in Greece.

The Eleusinian Mysteries were the most famous of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece. According to the myth told by Homer, Demeter went to Eleusis in search of her daughter Kore (Persephone), who had been abducted in Sicily by Hades (Pluto), god of the underworld, when he emerged from the volcano, Mount Etna. He had been shot by cupid’s arrow at the request of Venus.

Demeter (Ceres) searches the world for her daughter, Persephone (Proserpina), without success, and, as she becomes more distraught and distracted at her loss, the crops stop growing and famine spreads.  Hades releases Persephone following interventions from his brother Jupiter, but not before Persephone has eaten pomegranate seeds in the underworld. Pomegranate was known as the fruit of the dead, and symbolised both birth and death. Once Persephone has eaten the pomegranate, she cannot remain in the world of the living indefinitely and is compelled to return to the underworld each year for several months.

This myth explains the cycle of the seasons.

When Persephone/Proserpina comes out of the underworld in the Spring, her mother Ceres is overjoyed and fills the earth with growing things. Ceres and Proserpina spend summer together and the crops flourish.  By the Autumn, Ceres enables crops to ripen ready for the harvest. In the winter, Proserpina returns to Hades in the underworld, and the plants on Earth die back, until she returns to the Earth in Spring and Ceres is ecstatic again.  Footnote 5

Temple to Ceres

Ceres, Liber and Libera were known as the Aventine triad and the Temple of Ceres, on the Aventine Hill in Rome, may have had three cellas (shrines) for its three deities.

Ceres had her own flamen, the flamen Cerialia In ancient Rome, a flamen was a priest devoted exclusively to the worship of one deity; the name derives from a root meaning ‘he who burns offerings’.  And today we use the word flame. The Temple of Ceres had priestesses, always brought from southern Italy, and the prayers were said in Greek. This female link harks back to the origins of the myth of Demeter when Persephone (Proserpina) was abducted by Hades whilst playing with nymphs in a lake near Mount Etna in Sicily. The Temple of Ceres was also headquarters of the plebeian aediles (Aediles Cereris) (aedes, temple edifice, or public building), men who supervised the temple, public buildings and the Festival of Cerialia, the festival connected with Ceres.

The Temple of Ceres was very rich and decorated with many works of art, featuring the Greek artists Gorgasus and Damophilus. When the temple was rebuilt, their paintings and reliefs were removed and framed to adorn the new building.  Footnote 3

Roman Citizens were divided into two classes, patricians and plebeians (plebs). Patricians were the upper class elite – wealthy landowners, while the Plebeians were the commoners or lower class.

During the Republic, The Temple of Ceres became a centre of plebeian activities. This followed the start, in 493 BC, of the ‘Struggle of the Orders’ a centuries long conflict, in which the plebeians eventually won the freedom to share power equally with the patricians, with the establishment of plebeian tribunes, legal recognition of their institutions, and the power to make laws in an assembly organised by tribes. Footnote 6  The Temple of Ceres became a repository for archives, including copies of senatus consulta and, later, copies of plebiscitia. Footnote 3 Some experts think of Ceres as goddess of the plebeians, but this isn’t substantiated in ancient texts. The Romans believed that the tribunes of the plebs were under the protection of Ceres. The Ceres cult was associated with the notion of libertas, the fundamental principle of the Roman state. Footnote 6

The Temple of Ceres became a centre of food distribution to the poor and possessed the right of asylum.

The Temple and the goddess were linked with laws governing land division and private property rights. According to Livy 10.23.13, in 292 BC money from fines collected from violators of pasturage laws was used by the aediles to hold games for Ceres and offer golden bowls at her temple, and he cites several examples of the use of fines money to benefit the temple. Pliny NH18.12 writes that the 5th century law code included a provision that anyone who cut down another’s crops or used them for pasturage was to be hanged and offered as a sacrifice to Ceres. Pliny regards this as a more severe sentence than that for murder. Footnote 6

The Temple of Ceres was struck by lightning in 206 BC and again in 84 BC and was destroyed in a fire of 31 BC.  It was rebuilt by Augustus and dedicated in AD 17 by Tiberius. It was still standing in the fourth century, and its ruins probably lie beneath the present Church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in the Forum Boarium.

Polybius held the view that Roman religion was spectacular and staged, and that the celebrations and public ceremonies were vital to control the masses (Jon W. Iddeng) Footnote 7. Festivals confirmed the world order and everyone’s place in it, and they unified people under Roman rule. The key celebrants were often the political leaders.

Roman religion was polytheistic, with sacrifice and festivals, of which there were many, dedicated to the various gods in their respective temples. But religion was also a very individual private practice, using ritual and without dogmas or creeds.

The Temple of Ceres featured prominently in the Festival of Cerialia.  It was one of several temples in the Forum Boarium, an area located beside the banks of the river Tiber, close to the Circus Maximus and the Aventine Hill. The Forum Boarium was home to the biggest meat and fish market in ancient Rome and was connected to Hercules, whose mythology goes back to pre-Roman history.  He is the god of travellers, especially commercial travel by men, and a sacrifice was made to the God before a commercial journey was undertaken to secure the God’s protection. After a successful commercial enterprise a decuma of the profits was offered to the god, whose temple was situated in the middle of the Roman harbour. Women were excluded from the rituals in the Temple of Hercules. On the other hand, men were excluded from the cult of the Graeca Sacra of Ceres, as with other festivals and celebrations connected to female deities in the Forum Boarium. Footnote 8

Hercules and Ceres were honoured together on 21st December with a sacrificea pregnant sow, bread and Mulsum, a sweet wine infused with honey.  Footnote 8

Festival of Cerialia

Ceres was celebrated at the Festival of Cerialia, from 12th to 19th April just after the Megalensia, the celebration of Cybele, the Great Mother. The Cerialia was established before 202 BC and became an annual event in the charge of the plebeian aediles. It was celebrated in the Forum Boarium and Circus Maximus in Rome.

Festivals were vivid and colourful events with their own traditions and character, but there would also be some elements in common. Priests or priestesses performed the sacred cult rituals in the temple, often in secret, keeping records of the ritual programme, the sacred objects and texts. Blood sacrifices (thysia sacrificium) were central to most festivals: pig, sheep, goat and oxen being the most popular animals sacrificed. Iddeng says: ‘It seems that Christian emperors and authorities went right to the heart of pagan celebration when sacrifices were forbidden. And prayer to the divine powers was intertwined with the sacrifice – to benefit the community, the people, and those ruling over them. And then feasting. Meat from the sacrifice at Festivals was distributed not only to the priests, but sometimes also to the assembled citizens – but to men only!  Imagine ritual images of the goddess Ceres, Liber and Libera ‘being paraded in the streets and showered with garlands or flowers’ (John W Iddeng). Imagine a staged performance – a ‘happening’ with music, dances and drama.  Footnote 7

The Festival of Cerealia was organised by the plebeian adediles and opened with a horse-race in the Circus Maximus near the Temple.  It also included circus games (ludi cirenses) and theatrical religious events (ludi scaenici). There were games in the Circus Maximus in Rome on the final day of the Festival (Ludi Ceriales). The importance of the Ludi Cereales, among the duties of the plebeian aediles, is confirmed by Cicero, who called the games ‘most holy’ (Sanctissimi), insisting that they must be celebrated ‘with the greatest care and solemnity’.  Ovid speaks of the chaste and solemn games of Ceres, compared with the goddess Flora’s which were bawdy and lewd!

Ludi means “The light” and is of African origin.   Source

lud-, ludi-, lus-
(Latin: play, make sport of, jest; sportive; pastime)

Ludi   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chariot races, as depicted on this 2nd-century relief, were among the ludi presented at Roman religious festivals

Ludi (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the Roman people (populus Romanus). Ludi were held in conjunction with, or sometimes as the major feature of, Roman religious festivals, and were also presented as part of the cult of state.

The earliest ludi were horse races in the circus (ludi circenses).[1] Animal exhibitions with mock hunts (venationes) and theatrical performances (ludi scaenici) also became part of the festivals.[2]

Days on which ludi were held were public holidays, and no business could be conducted—”remarkably,” it has been noted, “considering that in the Imperial era more than 135 days might be spent at these entertainments” during the year.[3] Although their entertainment value may have overshadowed religious sentiment at any given moment, even in late antiquity the ludi were understood as part of the worship of the traditional gods, and the Church Fathers thus advised Christians not to participate in the festivities.[4]

The singular form ludus, “game, sport” or “play” has several meanings in Latin.[5] The plural is used for “games” in a sense analogous to the Greek festivals of games, such as the Panhellenic Games.[6] The late-antique scholar Isidore of Seville, however, classifies the forms of ludus  as gymnicus (“athletic”), circensis (“held in the circus,” mainly the chariot races),  gladiatorius  (“gladiatorial”) and scaenicus (“theatrical”).[7] The relation of gladiatorial games to the ludi is complex; see Gladiator.

GAMES AND SPORT were created by the Romans and Greeks as a way to worship their gods and goddesses.  This was religious but central to the government’s ability to CONTROL THE MASSES.  To keep them ignorant and docile, content with their amusements, unable to think about what they were doing or why, distracted from what was really important and focused on anything but the ONE TRUE GOD and their Real Purpose on this Earth!

amusement (n.)

1640s, “diversion of attention,” especially in military actions, from French amusement, noun of action from amuser (see amuse).

And because all bold and irreverent Speeches touching matters of high nature, and all malicious and false Reports tending to Sedition, or to the Amusement of Our People, are punishable … (etc.) [Charles II, Proclamation of Oct. 26, 1688]

Meaning “a pastime, play, game, anything which pleasantly diverts the attention” (from duty, work, from TRUTH, from GOD, etc.) is from 1670s, originally depreciative; the meaning “pleasurable diversion” is attested from 1690s. Amusement hall is by 1862; amusement park is attested by 1897.

also from 1640s
amuse (v.)

late 15c., “to divert the attention, beguile, delude,” from Old French amuser “fool, tease, hoax, entrap; make fun of,” literally “cause to muse” (as a distraction), from a “at, to” (from Latin ad, but here probably a causal prefix) + muser “ponder, stare fixedly” (see muse (v.)).

The original English senses are obsolete; the meaning “divert from serious business, tickle the fancy of” is recorded from 1630s, but through 18c. the primary meaning was “deceive, cheat” by first occupying the attention. 

muse (v.)

“to reflect, ponder, meditate; to be absorbed in thought,” mid-14c., from Old French muser (12c.) “to ponder, dream, wonder; loiter, waste time,” which is of uncertain origin; the explanation in Diez and Skeat is literally “to stand with one’s nose in the air” (or, possibly, “to sniff about” like a dog who has lost the scent), from muse “muzzle,” from Gallo-Roman *musa “snout,” itself a word of unknown origin. The modern word probably has been influenced in sense by muse (n.). Related: Musedmusing.TO MUZZLE THE SNOUT… HMMM does that bring any image to mind??

Muse (n.)

late 14c., “one of the nine Muses of classical mythology,” daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, protectors of the arts; from Old French Muse and directly from Latin Musa, from Greek Mousa, “the Muse,” also “music, song,” ultimately from PIE root *men- (1) “to think.” Meaning “inspiring goddess of a particular poet” (with a lower-case m-) is from late 14c.The traditional names and specialties of the nine Muses are: Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history)Erato (love poetry, lyric art), Euterpe (music, especially flute), Melpomene (tragedy)Polymnia (hymns), Terpsichore (dance)Thalia (comedy),
Urania (astronomy). also from late 14c.
Those who worship and follow the MUSES are Dreamers.   As the Dreamers in the in the Commonwealth Games Opening Ceremony.  


One of the cult rituals on the last day of the Cerialia was to let foxes loose in the Circus Maximus with burning torches tied to their tails – perhaps to symbolise protecting crops from disease and vermin or the warmth and vigour needed for their growth.

Ceres was also worshipped during the Sementivae Festival (also known as Paganalia)the Roman Festival of Sowing, which also honoured the Goddess Tellus, known as Mother Earth. It took place around 24-26 January. Ceres and Tellus were propitiated with traditional cakes made from spelt wheat which gave fine flour, and the sacrifice of a pregnant sow on the second day of the festival.

The Paganalia may be the same festival as the Sementivae. (The name Paganalia comes from pagus, a Latin word for a rural district or township. The name Sementivae comes from sementis, a Latin word for sowing or plowing.) Although Varro distinguishes between the two, some authorities think that they are the same festival. One notion is that city dwellers called it by one name and rural folk by the other. Either way, it appears to have been a festival for the protection of the seed that had been sown. It was held on two days in January a week apart. On the first day, a pregnant sow was sacrificed to Tellus, the mother earth. On the second day, spelt cakes were offered to Ceres, the goddess of agriculture. (Ovid explains that Ceres gives the seed its vital power, and Tellus gives it a place to grow.) All the minor deities who presided over the several operations of tillage were also invoked to be propitious: Vervactor, the god of breaking up fallow land; Reparator, of renewing its powers; Obarator, of plowing; Occator, of harrowing; Imporcitor, of drawing furrows; Insitor, of grafting; Sarritor, of hoeing; Subruncinator, of weeding; Messor, of harvesting; Convector, of gathering in; Conditor, of storing up; Promitor, of bringing out for use.
pagan (n.)

c. 1400, perhaps mid-14c., “person of non-Christian or non-Jewish faith,” from Late Latin paganus “pagan,” in classical Latin “villager, rustic; civilian, non-combatant” noun use of adjective meaning “of the country, of a village,” from pagus “country people; province, rural district,” originally “district limited by markers,” thus related to pangere “to fix, fasten” (from PIE root *pag- “to fasten”). As an adjective from early 15c.The religious sense often was said in 19c. [e.g. Trench] to derive from conservative rural adherence to the old gods after the Christianization of Roman towns and cities; but the Latin word in this sense predates that period in Church history, and it is more likely derived from the use of paganus in Roman military jargon for “civilian, incompetent soldier,” which Christians (Tertullian, c. 202; Augustine) picked up with the military imagery of the early Church (such as milites “soldier of Christ,” etc.).The English word was used later in a narrower sense of “one not a Christian, Jew, or Muslim.” As “person of heathenish character or habits,” by 1841. Applied to modern pantheists and nature-worshippers from 1908.

Pagan and heathen are primarily the same in meaning; but pagan is sometimes distinctively applied to those nations that, although worshiping false gods, are more cultivated, as the Greeks and Romans, and heathen to uncivilized idolaters, as the tribes of Africa. A Mohammedan is not counted a pagan much less a heathen. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

In addition, Ceres was also worshipped, alongside Dea Dia, during the Ambarvaliaan agricultural fertility rite held on 29th May.  A bull, a sow and a sheep were sacrificed after the animals were led in procession twice around the fields, which gave the festival its name, ambio, meaning ‘I go around’ and arvum, field. Today we use the words amble and ambulatory.  Footnote 11

A fast in honour of Ceres (ieiunium Cereris) was held on 4th October, a tradition which began in 191 BC in the same year the Temple of Magna Mater was dedicated.

Legend tells how Ceres replaced acorns, an early food source, with grain. To acknowledge the former significance of the acorn, oak vegetation was worn at festivals in honour of Ceres and by reapers as they harvested. Oak wreaths were also worn by those taking part in the Mysteries of Eleusis at the temple of Demeter.

The poppy, symbol of sleep, death and the soothing of pain, as it yields opium, was connected with Ceres because it grows in wheat fields. Wheat and poppies growing together stand for life and death.

Temple of Ceres on Pliny’s estate

The Temple of Ceres on the Aventine hill in Rome was the most famous shrine to the goddess, but there were other temples to Ceres scattered about the countryside, as in this example from Pliny.

‘I am told by the haruspices that I must rebuild the temple of Ceres which stands on my property; it needs enlarging and improving, for it is certainly very old and too small considering how crowded it is on its special anniversary, when great crowds gather there from the whole district on 13 September and many ceremonies are performed and vows made and discharged. But there is no shelter nearby from the rain or sun, so I think it will be an act of generosity and piety alike to build as fine a temple as I can and add porticoes – the temple for the goddess and the porticoes for the public.’

PLINY    From Pliny’s Letters, quoted by Miranda Aldhouse Green. Footnote 9

Pliny the Younger was born in the AD 60s at Como in northern Italy, close to the estate he later inherited from his uncle.  The letter explains Pliny’s fulfilment of his civic and religious duty, as well as giving an insight into pilgrimage and ritual in the Italian countryside.

Images of Ceres

Some late Republican images of Ceres recall her search for Proserpina.  Ceres bears a torch, sometimes two, and she rides on a chariot drawn by snakes. Sometimes she holds a caduceus, a symbol of Pax (Peace).  Later reliefs show her emerging from the earth, her arms entwined by snakes, her outstretched arms bearing poppies and wheat, her head crowned with fruits and berries. Footnote 10

An unmounted gemstone from Snettisham in Norfolk depicts Ceres clutching ears of corn, holding a tray of fruit and accompanied by an ant (often associated with Ceres). Ceres was a popular choice for gemstones and may be linked to the sculptures usually described as Mother Goddesses.  Footnote 11.


Some imperial coin images depict important female members of the Imperial family as Ceres, or with some of her attributes.  Ceres became a popular figure on many coin issues in the 40s BC, very likely reflecting public concern for libertas Roman coins with Ceres portrayed on the reverse are prolifically reported on the Portable Antiquities Scheme Register in Britain. Footnote 12.

Evidence for the worship of Ceres on Hadrian’s Wall at Carvoran

The Ceres text, RIB 1791:

‘The Virgin in her heavenly place rides upon the Lion; bearer of corn, inventor of law, founder of cities, by whose gifts it is man’s good lot to know the gods: therefore she is the Mother of the Gods, Peace, Virtue, Ceres, the Syrian Goddess, weighing life and laws in her balance. Syria has sent the constellation seen in the heavens to Libya to be worshipped: thence have we all learned. Thus has understood, led by the godhead, Marcus Caecilius Donatianus, serving as tribune in the post of prefect by the Emperor’s gift.’

This altar is dedicated by Marcus Caecilius Donatianus, serving as tribune in the role of prefect, very possibly of the First cohort of Syrian Archers (Cohors 1 Hamiorum sagittariorum), which were stationed at Magna (Carvoran).  The stone mentions Dea Syria, linked with Mater Divum (Mother of the Gods, Cybele), Pax (Peace), Virtus (Virtue) and Ceres, as well as Virgo Caelestis, the goddess of Carthage.

With its poetic dedication, this is one of Carvoran’s gems and among the finest inscriptions found on Hadrian’s Wall.  Carvoran had a long association with the Syrian archers from Hamma, and there are four, possibly six, dedications at Carvoran from their commanding officers, a reminder of these skilled soldiers serving thousands of miles away from their homeland close to the Fertile Crescent, where one strand of agriculture began.

This blog has been written as part of our Roman Holiday Project.


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April 23rd, 2024.

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I am a living witness to the Existence of the One True Creator GOD and Father of all who CHOOSE to love and serve HIM.  

DON’T BE FOOLISH!!  Turn to HIM TODAY, while it is still called TODAY.  NOW is the TIME.  TODAY is the DAY OF SALVATION!!



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