Super Grain? or Slick Trick?

My goodness…  Mr. Bill Gates APPEARS to be such an expert in every field, we ought to just call him MR. WIZARD!  Don’t you think?   NOT!!  He is just the public face of the ruling elite and the United Nations.  THE PROMOTER.  Whatever evil thing they have in mind to accomplish they throw the money at it and put his face and name on it.

EVIL is what he is, he and his little wife, too.

The United Nations is working to destroy what is called WESTERN SOCIETY and promote the ancient PAGAN world.  FOOD certainly is a HUGE part of their PLOT.  First of all, because human beings cannot live without food and water.  But, more importantly, there is a spiritual aspect to our food/our Sustenance.

There is a Creator.  He is THE ONLY TRUE AND LIVING GOD, creator of ALL THINGS  He is the giver and sustainer of LIFE.

AI Overview
According to the Bible, God is the giver of life, both physical and eternal. The Bible also teaches that God can take away life, but does not make death or rejoice in its destruction. Some Bible passages that discuss God as the giver of life include:
  • Genesis 1:  In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
  • Psalms 36:9: “You are the giver of life. Your light lets us enjoy life”
  • Psalm 139:14: “Life – a Precious Gift from God”
  • 1 John 5:11-13: “God has given us eternal life, and this life is in his Son

Other Bible passages that discuss God as the giver of life include Wisdom 1:13-15, 2:23-24, and Mark 5:21-43. Jesus Christ also described himself as “the Way, the Truth, and the Life” and could raise himself from the dead because he is God.

LIFE is in the seed created by GOD.  If you start a search on Bible Gateway for the word “seed” you will find, 257 Bible results.  Way too many to include here.  But you should look at all of them.

ALL LIFE springs forth from SEED, which GOD created.  That is why the ruling elite have been so focused on removing the seed from all living things.  They claim a patent on ALL seed.  They want to control all life.

  1. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

  2. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

  3. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed,which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

Grains are basically seeds of the grasses from which we make bread.  

If you have not seen my last post, I suggest you view it first and then come back to this one.  Here is the link:

GRAIN the most basic source of Nourishment

Our Heavenly Father does not only provide food, HE provides EVERYTHING that we need.  He created our World, He holds it all together, He watches over us and HE sees that we get everything we need.

Deuteronomy 2:7
 (KJV)  “….These forty years the LORD your God has been with you; you have not lacked a thing.”

Philippians 4:19 (KJV)  “But my God shall supply all your needs according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus.”

Matthew 6:31, 33 (KJV)  Therefore take no thought, saying, ‘What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.

Acts 14:17 (KJV)  “…and yet He did not leave Himself without witness, in that He did good and gave you rains from heaven and fruitful seasons, satisfying your hearts with food and gladness.

Psalms 146:7-9 (NLT)  Happy is he that hath the God of Jacob for his help, whose hope is in the Lord his GodWhich made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all that therein is: which keepeth truth for ever:Which executeth judgment for the oppressed: which giveth food to the hungry. The Lord looseth the prisoners:The Lord openeth the eyes of the blind: the Lord raiseth them that are bowed down: the Lord loveth the righteousThe Lord preserveth the strangers; he relieveth the fatherless and widow: but the way of the wicked he turneth upside down. 10 The Lord shall reign for ever… “


Today we are going to look at some “grains” that the United Nations, Bill Gates and the STAKEHOLDERS are trying to push onto the Western World and WHY! Hopefully, by the end of this post you will have seen enough to  realize that there is a very sinister purpose behind this push.  

Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet, and fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof, according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, three hundred and ninety days shalt thou eat thereof.

Could a grain older than the wheel be the future of food?

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What grain did your family grow up eating?I’m from the United States, where wheat and corn are king. But if I had been born in East Asia, I probably would’ve eaten a lot more rice as a kid.

If you grew up in West Africa, you might have eaten an ancient grain called fonio.  Fonio has been feeding families in West Africa for more than 5,000 years, longer than any other cultivated grain on the continent. That makes it older than toilets, the wheel, and even writing. It’s a super small grainwith a texture that reminds me a bit of couscous when cooked in hot water. Its nutty taste is delicious on its own but is also good when ground into flour.

Fonio is just one part of a much bigger family of remarkable ancient grains: the millets.Perhaps you’ve heard of finger millet.It’s a staple in Uganda and parts of Kenya and Tanzania,and it’s beloved in India where it is called ragi.Or maybe you’ve heard of teff, a longtime favorite in Ethiopia where it’s used to make injera.

Millets have been around for centuries, but they’re currently experiencing a resurgenceboth for consumers who enjoy their taste and for farmers who appreciate how reliable they are to grow.

Fonio, in particular, is like farming on easy mode. You wait until a good rain comes, lightly till the soil to loosen it up, and then scatter the seeds on the ground.Two months later, you harvest the grain.

Wheat planted in the spring will be ready to harvest after about 4 months from planting. If it’s planted in the fall it will be ready to harvest about 8 months after planting (because so much of its time is spent dormant in the winter). Wheat at 2 weeks looks like long grass. Aug 8, 2023  Source


Farmers in Senegal harvest fonio stalks to be processed.

No wonder West African farmers call it the “lazy farmer’s crop”!Fonio grows in the Sahel, a semi-arid region just south of the Sahara Desert.To thrive there, a crop must be drought-tolerant and able to grow in poor quality soil.Fonio not only handles the dry conditions with ease but even rejuvenates the soil as it grows.

As climate change continues to make growing seasons more unpredictable, crops like the millets will become more and more important. The Gates Foundation has been working with partners like CGIAR for years to make staple crops like corn and rice more climate resilient.Millets naturally have many of the qualities farmers look for in a crop, and they could play an important role in helping farmers adapt to a warming world.

They can also help us fight malnutrition. When Europeans first arrived in West Africa, they called fonio “hungry rice” because it grew so quickly that you could eat it at times when other foods weren’t available. Today, many people would probably call it a “superfood.”

Consider this:

  • Fonio is a great source of protein, fiber, iron, zinc and several key amino acids.
  • Finger millet has 10 times the calcium of wheat.
  • Teff is the only grain that is high in vitamin C.

In a world where food security is increasingly uncertain in some parts of the world,these foods could be a game changer.I’ve written a lot about how malnutrition is the first problem I would solve if I had a magic wand. Having access to a high-quality nutrition source could help more kids’ development stay on track.

Nutritious and drought-tolerant, finger millet could bolster food security in Africa.

It makes a delicious porridge, too.

So if millets have so much going for them, why aren’t they eaten everywhere?

In the case of fonio, the answer is simple: Until recently, it was hard to process on a commercial scale. The part you eat is surrounded by a hard hull, which was traditionally removed by skilled women using either a mortar and pestle or their feet to crack the shell. It’s a time- and labor- intensive process that makes it hard to turn a profit.In Senegal, only 10 percent of the fonio grown is sold at marketnearly all of it is consumed directly by farmers and their families.

Traditionally, harvesting fonio is hard work. Skilled women use their feet to remove the hard hull surrounding the part you eat.

It’s time intensive as well, taking up to seven hours to clean, wash, dry and pre-cook the grain.

Luckily, that’s changing. Terra Ingredients —an American company that is helping to bring the grain across the Atlantic—recently partnered with a Senegalese company called CAA to build a commercial processing facility right in Dakar. I got to visit it during my trip, and it was inspiring to see how they’re enabling local farmers to earn a better living.

national capital, Senegal

Dakar, city, capital of Senegal, and one of the chief seaports on the western African coast. It is located midway between the mouths of the Gambia and Sénégal rivers on the southeastern side of the Cape Verde Peninsula, close to Africa’s most westerly point. Dakar’s harbour is one of the best inwestern Africa, protected by the limestone cliffs of the cape and by a system of breakwaters. The city’s name comes from dakhar, a Wolof name for the tamarind tree and the name of a coastal Lebu village that was located south of what is now the first pier.

Dakar was founded in 1857 when the French built a fort on the site of the modern Place de l’Indépendance to safeguard the interests of merchants who had been settling there for 20 years and of the residents of Gorée, a waterless island in the lee of the peninsula that once was an outpost for slave and other trading. By 1862 a short breakwater had been built on Dakar Point and a town laid out on the low limestone platform behind the sandy beach. Another generation elapsed, however, before Dakar gained its supremacy over Gorée and Rufisque, the latter being a settlement located 13 miles (21 km) east along the peninsula which had become an important export centre for the peanut (groundnut) trade. The opening in 1886 of Western Africa’s first railway, from Saint-Louis to Dakar, was a great impetus to Dakar’s development, and the railroad also stimulated the cultivation of peanuts in the vicinity of its track. In 1902 Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the federal capital of French West Africa.


ST. LOUIS – Check out the following related posts:

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Initiatives are also underway to improve the market presence of crops like teff, the millet used to make injera, which is gaining international popularity as a gluten-free option.It’s even on the rise within Ethiopia. Thanks to the increased availability of teff flour and ready-made injera, the country has seen a nearly 50 percent increase in teff mills, injera-making enterprises, and retail outlets. Food scientists are also developing new processes and products for finger millet. It’s now eaten in schools across Kenya as part of the ugali porridge served during lunch.

Move over quinoa, Ethiopia’s teff poised to be next big super grain

This article is more than 10 years old
Rich in calcium, iron and protein, gluten-free teff offers Ethiopia the promise of new and lucrative markets in the west

Wikipedia › wiki › Teff
The name teff is thought to originate from the Amharic word ጠፍፋ teffa, which means “lost”

Teff  – that is basic to Ethiopian cuisine, the grain is central to many religious and cultural ceremonies
Teff  – is a fine grain—about the size of a poppy seed—that comes in a variety of colors, from white and red to dark brown. It is an ancient grain from Ethiopia and Eritrea, and comprises the staple grain of their cuisines.  While it grows predominantly in these African countries, with fertile fields and ecologically-sensitive farming methods, Idaho also produces some of the best quality Teff in the world 


Yet, many people still just don’t know about the magic millets. Despite their potential, all of the millets I’ve mentioned are what experts callneglected and underutilized crops,” a term that refers to crops that have fallen into disuse and been historically ignored by agricultural R&D.

That’s changing, too, in part due to the efforts of one person: Chef Pierre Thiam .He’s a Senegalese chef who has made it his mission to create more opportunity for African farmers and spread the word about what he calls “lost crops.” (He’s even hosting a conference focused on them in Dakar later this year.) I was lucky enough to get a lesson in cooking fonio from him at the Gates Foundation’s Goalkeepers event in 2022—the mango salad we made was delicious.

I had a great time learning how to cook fonio with Chef Pierre at Goalkeepers in 2022.

Chef Pierre understands that one grain—or even a whole magic family of grainsisn’t the answer to the world’s food security problems. We need to build strong, diverse food systems that pull from lots of different sources. But if you want to understand how to help farmers adapt to climate change and make crops more resilient, ancient grains like the millets are a great place to start.They’ve survived for centuries, so they’re clearly doing something right!


Grain Industry Insights in Africa

Volume of Grain Production

When it comes to grain production, Ethiopia led the charts with 30.179 M tons, followed closely by Nigeria with 29.647 M tons. Egypt held the third position with 22.385 M tons, while South Africa and Tanzania produced 19.153 M tons and 11.311 M tons, respectively. These figures suggest that while some African countries have robust production capacities, others are still largely dependent on imports to meet their grain demands.

Most Popular Types of Grain

Maize (corn), wheat, and rice are among the most popular grains cultivated and consumed on the African continent.Maize, adaptable to various climates, is widely grown across sub-Saharan Africa. Wheat is prevalent in North African countries, where bread and other wheat-based foods are dietary staples. Rice consumption is also significant, particularly in West African nations, given its ease of integration into traditional dishes.The volumes of these grains, however, fluctuate annually due to factors like climate variability and market forces.

Drivers of Market Growth and Limitations

Economic development, population growth, and urbanization are key drivers of market growth in Africa’s grain industry.As more people move to cities, the demand for processed and convenient food items, many of which are grain-based, rises. However, growth is not without its limitations. Poor infrastructure, fluctuating climatic conditions, and limited access to technology hinder production capabilities. Policies aiming at improving agricultural practices, investment in storage and transport infrastructure, and the development of more climate-resistant crop varieties can potentially mitigate some of these challenges.

Dependency on Grain Imports

Africa’s reliance on grain imports is significant.In 2022, Algeria was the largest grain importer with 18.916 M tons, followed by Egypt (15.737 M tons), Morocco (8.779 M tons), Libya (3.484 M tons), and Tunisia (3.443 M tons). These import volumes highlight a substantial dependence on foreign grain supplies, due in part to insufficient domestic production to meet the demand.

Regarding the financial aspect of imports, in 2022, Egypt spent the most on grain imports, reaching a total of 6.308 billion USD. Algeria’s import value amounted to 4.606 billion USD, Morocco’s to 3.638 billion USD, Nigeria’s to 2.276 billion USD, and Tunisia’s to 1.469 billion USD.

Challenges of Import Reliance

Reliance on imports can pose multiple challenges, such as vulnerability to global market fluctuations and trade policies of exporting countries. Trade restrictions, supply chain disruptions, and logistics issues are tangible problems that can jeopardize food security in import-dependent African countries. Furthermore, currency fluctuations can significantly impact the affordability of grain imports. Additionally, reliance on a diversified set of countries for grain imports can be both a strength and a liability, as it exposes nations to varying geopolitical risks that can affect supply chains.


The grain industry in Africa is marked by contrasting scenarios of production capacities and import dependencies. While countries like Ethiopia and Nigeria showcase substantial production volumes, others continue to rely heavily on imports to feed their populations. The complex interplay of factors contributing to market growth and limitations underscores the need for strategic policy development aimed at enhancing self-sufficiency and mitigating the potential risks associated with import reliance. Efforts to build robust agricultural systems in Africa are essential to ensure the long-term sustainability and security of the continent’s grain supply.

Source: IndexBox Market Intelligence Platform  


African grain fonio is the seed of the universe, says Senegalese chef

Hosted by Evan Kleiman  FOOD & DRINK

Fonio, a tiny grain the size of couscous, is from the millet family and considered the oldest cultivated grain in Africa.
Photo by Adam Bartos.

Considered the oldest cultivated grain in Africa, fonio grows in poor soil and is drought-resistant. A member of the millet family, chef Pierre Thiam explains that the supergrain thrives in an arid environment and regenerates the soil with a short growing period of two months. It is “a nutritional powerhouse” that is gluten-free, Thiam says, and fonio is versatile, cooks quickly, and can be adapted to many types of cuisine.

He describes the tedious work his mother experienced to dehull fonio with a mortar and pestle. Eventually, a mechanization process was developed in Senegal that cleans 2 tons of fonio an hour as opposed to manually a ton a day.

Culturally significant, Thiam explains that in Mali the world for fonio is “po,”which is also the name for Sirius, the north star.“Fonio to them is the seed of the universe.”

“In an ideal world, fonio would be sourced in West Africa,” says Thiam. “The beneficiaries would be the small farms that are growing fonio. That’s their heritage grain.” With quinoa as a cautionary tale, where its cultivation extended beyond its origins in Latin America, Thiam wants to ensure that the supply is following the demand and stresses the importance of keeping that work in African hands.

Thiam is the executive chef and co-founder of Teranga in New York City and executive chef of Nok in Lagos, Nigeria. His company Yolélé advocates for smallholder farmers in the Sahelby opening new markets for crops grown in Africa. Thiam’s book is The Fonio Cookbook: An Ancient Grain Rediscovered.”

I am leaving these recipes on this post because I find it very amusing that this SUPER FOOD so easily adapted to any quisine, in a recipe book from an AFRICAN MASTER CHEF…  and this is the best they can do???  BASICALLY POURIDGE, THE POOR MANS DINNER?  What a joke.

Basic Fonio

Steaming, the most common of the traditional methods of preparing fonio, is a foolproof way to avoid overcooking the grains, but cooking it on the stovetop is an easy alternative if you don’t have a double boiler. Adding oil is optional but if you do, the grains will have a richer, fluffier texture and will keep separated. 

Raw fonio can be stored for up to 2 years in a sealed container or resealable plastic bag at room temperature or in the refrigerator. Cooked fonio can be kept refrigerated in a covered plastic or glass container for 2 or 3 days. 

Lalo, a powder made with dried baobab leaves, is used as a seasoning and a thickener in Senegal, although here you can also use finely chopped okra as a substitute. 

Traditional Steamer Method One


  • 1 cup raw fonio, rinsed and drained well
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 tablespoon vegetable, peanut, or olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon baobab leaf powder (lalo) mixed with 1⁄4 cup water, or
2 tablespoons finely chopped okra
  • 3 1⁄2 cups water plus 1⁄2 cup for sprinkling


  1. Line the perforated steamer top of a double boiler with cheesecloth. Fill the bottom with 3 cups water and bring to a simmer.
  2. Place the fonio in the top of the double boiler, cover, and steam for about 15 minutes, until the fonio is light and fluffy.
  3. Remove from heat. Fold in the oil and the baobab powder mixture or the okra. Fluff the fonio with a fork and mix in the salt.
  4. Sprinkle the fonio evenly with the remaining 1/2 cup water, cover, and return to the heat for another 10 minutes or until the fonio grains are tender and fluffy. Fluff again with a fork and serve.

Traditional Steamer Method Two


  • 1 cup raw fonio, rinsed and drained well
  • 3 1⁄2 (about) cups water
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 tablespoon peanut, vegetable, or olive oil (optional)


  1. Line a steamer basket with cheesecloth and place it in a large saucepan. Pour in about 3 cups water to fill the pan up but not touching the bottom of the basket. Bring the water to a simmer.
  2. Place the fonio in the basket, cover, and steam for about 15 minutes, until the fonio is light and fluffy.
  3. Remove from the heat and fluff with a fork. Mix the salt with the remaining 1/2 cup water and sprinkle evenly over the fonio. Cover, return to the heat, and steam until the grains are tender, another 8 to 10 minutes.
  4. Fluff again with a fork. Mix in the oil (if using). Serve.

Stovetop Method 


  • 2 cups water
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 cup raw fonio, rinsed and drained well
  • 1 tablespoon peanut, vegetable, or olive oil (optional)


  1. Combine the water and salt in a saucepan and bring to a boil. Add the fonio and stir once. Reduce the heat to a simmer and cover tightly. Cook for about 5 minutes, until the water is absorbed.
  2. Turn off the heat and keep the pot covered for another 2 minutes. Fluff with a fork. Mix in the oil (if using), and serve.

Fonio needs to be dehulled before cooking, a labor-intensive process that has been mechanized to accelerate production. Photo by Adam Bartos.

Noted Senegalese chef Pierre Thiam calls fonio, “a nutrition powerhouse,” that is versatile, cooks fast, and can be adapted to many types of cuisines. Photo courtesy of Yolélé.

From harvest to table, chef Pierre Thiam celebrates the African heritage crop in “The Fonio Cookbook: An Ancient Grain Rediscovered.”Photo courtesy of Lake Isle Press, Inc.


There is no denying the massive culinary impact and influence that West Africa has had across the globe. Here we’ll dig into some of the modern masterpieces of West African cuisine as well as explore some of the history that influenced its creation.

16 Nations of Deliciousness 

West African cuisine combines various ingredients, recipes, and cultures from it’s 16 regional countries. Throughout centuries of history, West Africa’s interactions with outside cultures, from the Middle East to Europe, have influenced their own culinary habits and traditions, as well as the cuisines of others.

During the Conquest of Africa (the invasion, occupation, division, and colonization of Africa by European powers), colonial traders began exporting and importing ingredients from West Africa to the rest of the world. Ingredients such as black-eyed peas, rice, sorghum, millet, palm, okra, rice, and kola nuts (one of the original ingredients in Coca-Cola) were all exported from West Africa.From the Americas, yams, cassava, corn, peanuts, chili peppers, plantains, and tomatoes were imported to West Africa.

Image Credit: Flickr user Emeka B ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

During colonization, West African borders were recreated with little regard to existing territories. This forced amalgamation of African people shifted the food culture. Over that time, the region changed from having these very sharply self-identified cooking styles of individual groups to a larger West African culinary conglomerate. Unlike other colonized countries and regions, however, West Africa did not adopt the cooking styles of their colonizers. Instead, West Africans prepared these new ingredients in the way that suited their palates.

Iconic Dishes of West Africa 

Now that we have identified the ingredients that were introduced to West Africa and the indigenous ingredients that came together to make up the bulk of West African cuisine, let’s explore the region’s iconic dishes.

Jollof Riceis heralded as the king of all West African meals. The basics of jollof involve rice simmered with tomato, broth, and spices (usually spicy peppers as well) with additions of meat, seafood, and vegetables. Each country has their own unique spin on this dish, with intense rivalries between neighboring countries as to whose jollof rice reigns supreme.

Thieboudienneis thought to be the grandfather of jollof rice. This is Senegal’s national dish, a one-pot wonder of rice, tomato sauce, fish, and vegetables.

Image Credit: Flickr user Samenargentine ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )

FuFuis an essential food throughout West Africa. Fufu (translated to mean ‘mash or mix’)is made from boiled and mashed starches like cassava, yam, plantains, or corn (or a combination of those starchy vegetables). The mash is further pounded until it resembles bread dough. The dough is then served as a side dish for dipping, sopping, and scooping.

Image Credit: Flickr user IFPRI ( CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 )

Maafe, also known as groundnut or peanut stew, is a West African tradition. Maafe is exceptionally flavorful and savory with oodles of herbs, spices, vegetables, and braised protein (either mutton, beef, chicken, or seafood). If you would like to try a vegetarian version of maafe, check out this recipe for Creamy Peanut Stew with Black Eyed Peas and Collards.

Image Credit: Flickr user paul goyette ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )

Chicken Yassais a braised chicken dish heavily seasoned with scotch bonnet peppers, garlic, onions, and ginger. Sometimes the chicken will be chargrilled before braising, to impart smoky flavor. The spicy dish can also be found made with fish and is usually served with rice.

Image Credit: Flickr user
 Sinsistema ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )

Ewa Agoyinis a famous street food throughout West Africa. Black eyed peas are simmered soft and mashed, then topped with a spicy tomato sauce. Ewa agoyin is often served with breador fufu for dipping.

Image Credit: Flickr user secretlondon123 ( CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Feature Image: Flickr user spaztacular ( CC BY 2.0 )

UMM UMMM UMMM doesn’t that all look just so delicious?  ARE THEY KIDDING??  Can you picture yourself eating that slop for the rest


Fonio aka Acha

The name Achan:

Meaning: Unclear but perhaps Serpent
Etymology: From the noun עכנא (‘achana), serpent.

Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla Nahuatl


Borrowed from Spanish hacha, from French hache, from Frankish [Term?].

Noun acha

  1. axe

From Old Galician-Portugueseacha,from Old Frenchhache(battle-axe), from Frankish.

Noun acha – (plural achas)

  1. battle-axe(axe for use in battle)


Fonio (Acha)
excerpts only, you can view the full article by clicking the link above.

It is important this way to the Dogon, a people of Mali. To them, the whole universe emerged from a fonio seed—the smallest object in the Dogon experiencea sort of atomic cosmology. (Information from J. Harlan.)

Indeed, they consider the grain exotic, and in some places they reserve it particularly for chiefs, royalty, and special occasions. It also formed part of the traditional bride price. Moreover, it is still held in such esteem that some communities continue to use it in ancestor worship. 2

Fonio is characterized by the very small size of its seeds.The tiny white grains have many uses in cooking: porridge, gruel, and couscous, for example. They are also the prime ingredient in several choice dishes for religious and traditional ceremonies. (Brent Simpson)

It is a relative of crabgrass,a European crop introduced to the United States in the 1800s as a possible food and now a much-reviled invader of lawns. However, white fonio is grown for forage in parts of the United States—apparently without causing problems.

White fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most widely used. It can be found in farmers’ fields from Senegal to Chad.It is grown particularly on the upland plateau of central Nigeria (where it is generally known as “acha”)as well as in neighboring regions.

The other species, black fonio (Digitaria iburua), is restricted to the Jos-Bauchi Plateau of Nigeria as well as to northern regions of Togo and Benin.3 Its restricted distribution should not be taken as a measure of relative inferiority: black fonio may eventually have as much or even greater potential than its now better-known relative.
As noted, there are actually two species of fonio.Both are erect, free-tillering annuals.White fonio (Digitaria exilis) is usually 30-75 cm tall. Its finger-shaped panicle has 2-5 slender racemes up to 15 cm ong. Black fonio (Digitaria iburua) is taller and may reach 1.4 m. It has 2-11 subdigitate racemes up to 13 cm long.

Although both species belong to the same genus, crossbreeding them seems unlikely to yield fertile hybrids, as they come from different parts of the same genus. 17

The grains of both species range from “extraordinarily” white to fawn yellow or purplish. Black fonio’s spikelets are reddish or dark brown. Both species are more-or-less nonshattering.

Suggested Citation:”3 Fonio (Acha).”

For a crop that is so little known to science, fonio is surprisingly widely grown. It is employed across a huge sweep of West Africa, from the Atlantic coast almost to the boundary with Central Africa.

Fonio grain is digested efficiently by cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, and other ruminant livestock. It is a valuable feed for monogastric animals, notably pigs and poultry, because of its high methionine content.7 The straw and chaff are also fed to animals. Both make excellent fodder and are often sold in markets for this purpose. Indeed, the crop is sometimes grown solely for hay.

The straw is commonly chopped and mixed with clay for building houses or walls.It is also burned to provide heat for cooking or ash for potash

Traditionally, the grain is threshed by beating or trampling, and it is dehulled in a mortar. This is difficult and time-consuming.

As a challenge to geneticists, fonio has a special fascination. It has no obvious wild ancestor.That it appears to be a hexaploid (2n=6x=54)may help account for this. Does it, in fact, contain three diploid genomes of different origin?What are its likely ancestors, and might they be used to increase its seed size and yield?



Dogon people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dogon people

Dogon men in their ceremonial attire
Total population
1,591,787 (2012–2013)
Regions with significant populations
Mali 1,751,965 (8.7%)[1]
Dogon languagesBangimeFrench
African traditional religionIslamChristianity

The Dogon are an ethnic group indigenous to the central plateau region of Mali, in West Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara, and in Burkina Faso. The population numbers between 400,000 and 800,000.[2] They speak the Dogon languages, which are considered to constitute an independent branch of the Niger–Congo language family, meaning that they are not closely related to any other languages.[3]

The Dogon are best known for their religious traditions, their mask dances, wooden sculpture, and their architecture. Since the twentieth century, there have been significant changes in the social organisation, material culture and beliefs of the Dogon, in part because Dogon country is one of Mali’s major tourist attractions.[4]

A Dogon hunter with a flintlock musket, 2010.

Geography and history

Dogon dwellings along the Bandiagara Escarpment.

The principal Dogon area is bisected by the Bandiagara Escarpment, a sandstone cliff of up to 500 metres (1,600 ft) high, stretching about 150 km (90 miles). To the southeast of the cliff, the sandy Séno-Gondo Plains are found, and northwest of the cliff are the Bandiagara Highlands. Historically, Dogon villages were established in the Bandiagara area a thousand years ago because the people collectively refused to convert to Islam and retreated from areas controlled by Muslims.[5]

Dogon insecurity in the face of these historical pressures caused them to locate their villages in defensible positions along the walls of the escarpment. The other factor influencing their choice of settlement location was access to water. The Niger River is nearby and in the sandstone rock, a rivulet runs at the foot of the cliff at the lowest point of the area during the wet season.

Among the Dogon, several oral traditions have been recorded as to their origin. One relates to their coming from Mande, located to the southwest of the Bandiagara escarpment near Bamako. According to this oral tradition, the first Dogon settlement was established in the extreme southwest of the escarpment at Kani-Na.[6][7] Archaeological and ethnoarchaeological studies in the Dogon region have been especially revealing about the settlement and environmental history, and about social practices and technologies in this area over several thousands of years.[8][9][10]

Over time, the Dogon moved north along the escarpment, arriving in the Sanga region in the 15th century.[11] Other oral histories place the origin of the Dogon to the west beyond the river Niger, or tell of the Dogon coming from the east. It is likely that the Dogon of today are descendants of several groups of diverse origin who migrated to escape Islamization.[12]

It is often difficult to distinguish between pre-Muslim practices and later practices. But Islamic law classified the Dogon and many other ethnicities of the region (MossiGurmaBoboBusa and the Yoruba) as being within the non-canon dar al-harb and consequently fair game for slave raids organized by merchants.[13] As the growth of cities increased, the demand for slaves across the region of West Africa also increased. The historical pattern included the murder of indigenous males by raiders and enslavement of women and children.[14]

For almost 1000 years,[15] the Dogon people, an ancient ethnic group of Mali[16] had faced religious and ethnic persecution—through jihads by dominant Muslim communities.[15] These jihadic expeditions formed themselves to force the Dogon to abandon their traditional religious beliefs for Islam. Such jihads caused the Dogon to abandon their original villages and moved up to the cliffs of Bandiagara for better defense and to escape persecution—often building their dwellings in little nooks and crannies.[15][17]


Dogon art consists primarily of sculptures. Dogon art revolves around religious values, ideals, and freedoms (Laude, 19). Dogon sculptures are not made to be seen publicly, and are commonly hidden from the public eye within the houses of families, sanctuaries, or kept with the Hogon (Laude, 20). The importance of secrecy is due to the symbolic meaning behind the pieces and the process by which they are made.

Themes found throughout Dogon sculpture consist of figures with raised arms, superimposed bearded figures, horsemen, stools with caryatids, women with children, figures covering their faces, women grinding pearl millet, women bearing vessels on their heads, donkeys bearing cups, musicians, dogs, quadruped-shaped troughs or benches, figures bending from the waist, mirror-images, aproned figures, and standing figures (Laude, 46–52).

Signs of other contacts and origins are evident in Dogon art. The Dogon people were not the first inhabitants of the cliffs of Bandiagara. Influence from Tellem art is evident in Dogon art because of its rectilinear designs (Laude, 24).

Culture and religion

The Dogon people with whom French anthropologists Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen worked during the 1930s and 1940s had a system of signs which ran into the thousands, including “their own systems of astronomy and calendrical measurements, methods of calculation and extensive anatomical and physiological knowledge, as well as a systematic pharmacopoeia.[20] The religion embraced many aspects of nature which are found in other traditional African religions.

The key spiritual figures in the religion were the Nummo/Nommo twins. According to Ogotemmêli’s description of them, the Nummo, whom he also referred to as “Water”, had green skin covered in green hair, and were formed like humans from the loins up, but serpent-like below. Their eyes were red, their tongues forked, and their arms flexible and unjointed.[21]

Ogotemmêli classified the Nummo as hermaphrodites. Their images or figures appeared on the female side of the Dogon sanctuary.[22] They were primarily symbolized by the Sun, which was a female symbol in the religion. In the Dogon language, the Sun’s name (nay) had the same root as “mother” (na) and “cow” ().[23] They were symbolized by the colour red, a female symbol.

The problem of “twin births” versus “single births”, or androgyny versus single-sexed beings, was said to contribute to a disorder at the beginning of time. This theme was fundamental to the Dogon religion. “The jackal was alone from birth,” said Ogotemmêli, “and because of this he did more things than can be told.[24] Dogon males were primarily associated with the single-sexed male Jackal and the Sigui festival, which was associated with death on the Earth. It was held once every sixty years and allegedly celebrated the white dwarf star, Sirius B.[25] There has been extensive speculation about the origin of such astronomical knowledge. The colour white was a symbol of males. The ritual language, “Sigi so” or “language of the Sigui”,which was taught to male dignitaries of the Society of the Masks (“awa”), was considered a poor language. It contained only about a quarter of the full vocabulary of “Dogo so”, the Dogon language. The “Sigi so” was used to tell the story of creation of the universe, of human life, and the advent of death on the Earth, during both funeral ceremonies and the rites of the “end of mourning” (“dama”).[26]

Because of the birth of the single-sexed male Jackal, who was born without a soul, all humans eventually had to be turned into single-sexed beings. This was to prevent a being like the Jackal from ever being born on Earth again. “The Nummo foresaw that the original rule of twin births was bound to disappear, and that errors might result comparable to those of the jackal, whose birth was single. Because of his solitary state, the first son of God acted as he did.[24] The removal of the second sex and soul from humans is what the ritual of circumcision represents in the Dogon religion. “The dual soul is a danger; a man should be male, and a woman female. Circumcision and excision are once again the remedy.”[27]

The Dogon religion was centered on this loss of twinness or androgyny. Griaule describes it in this passage:

Most of the conversations with Ogotemmêli had indeed turned largely on twins and on the need for duality and the doubling of individual lives. The Eight original Ancestors were really eight pairs But after this generation, human beings were usually born single. Dogon religion and Dogon philosophy both expressed a haunting sense of the original loss of twin-ness. The heavenly Powers themselves were dual, and in their Earthly manifestations they constantly intervened in pairs ...[28]

The birth of human twins was celebrated in the Dogon culture in Griaule’s day because it recalled the “fabulous past, when all beings came into existence in twos, symbols of the balance between humans and the divine”. According to Griaule, the celebration of twin-births was a cult that extended all over Africa.[28] Today, a significant minority of the Dogon practice Islam. Another minority practices Christianity.

Those who remain in their ethnic religion generally believe in the significance of the stars and the creator god, Amma, who created Earth and molded it into the shape of a woman,[29] imbuing it with a divine feminine principle.

If you have never seen the following post, please view it in full.  It goes into great detail about pagan beliefs in “Twins” and how that plays into COVID 19 and HUNTING.


also see the following post:

The Force behind the madness



The Hogon is the spiritual and political leader of the village. He is elected from among the oldest men of the dominant lineage of the village.

After his election, he has to follow a six-month initiation period, during which he is not allowed to shave or wash. He wears white clothes and nobody is allowed to touch him. A virgin who has not yet had her period takes care of him, cleans his house, and prepares his meals. She returns to her home at night.

After initiation, the Hogon wears a red fez. He has an armband with a sacred pearl that symbolises his function. The Hogon has to live alone in his house. The Dogon believe the sacred snake Lébé comes during the night to clean him and to transfer wisdom.


There are two endogamous castes in Dogon society: the smiths and the leather-workers. Members of these castes are physically separate from the rest of the village and live either at the village edge or outside of it entirely. While the castes are correlated to profession, membership is determined by birth. The smiths have important ritual powers and are characteristically poor. The leather-workers engage in significant trade with other ethnic groups and accumulate wealth. Unlike norms for the rest of society, parallel-cousin marriage is allowed within castes. Caste boys do not get circumcised.[32]


Cave paintings depicting circumcisions.

In Dogon thought, males and females are born with both sexual components. The clitoris is considered male, while the foreskin is considered female.[24] (Originally, for the Dogon, man was endowed with a dual soul. Circumcision is believed to eliminate the superfluous one.[33]) Rites of circumcision enable each sex to assume its proper physical identity.

Boys are circumcised in age groups of three years, counting for example all boys between 9 and 12 years old. This marks the end of their youth, and they are initiated. The blacksmith performs the circumcision. Afterwards, the boys stay for a few days in a hut separated from the rest of the village people, until the wounds have healed. The circumcision is celebrated and the initiated boys go around and receive presents. They make music on a special instrument that is made of a rod of wood and calabashes that makes the sound of a rattle.

The newly circumcised youths, now considered young men, walk around naked for a month after the procedure so that their achievement in age can be admired by the tribe. This practice has been passed down for generations and is always followed, even during winter.

Once a boy is circumcised, he transitions into young adulthood and moves out of his father’s house. All of the men in his age-set live together in a duñe until they marry and have children.[34]

The Dogon are among several African ethnic groups that practice female genital mutilation, including a type I circumcision, meaning that the clitoris is removed.[35]

The village of Songho has a circumcision cave ornamented with red and white rock paintings of animals and plants. Nearby is a cave where music instruments are stored.

Dogon mask societies

The Awa is a masked dance society that holds ritual and social importance. It has a strict code of etiquette, obligations, interdicts, and a secret language (sigi sǫ). All initiated Dogon men participate in Awa, with the exception of some caste members. Women are forbidden from joining and prohibited from learning sigi sǫ. The ‘Awa’ is characterized by the intricate masks worn by members during rituals. There are two major events at which the Awa perform: the ‘sigi’ ritual and ‘dama’ funeral rituals.[36]

‘Sigi’ is a society-wide ritual to honor and recognize the first ancestors. Thought to have originated as a method to unite and keep peace among Dogon villages, the ‘sigi’ involves all members of the Dogon people. Starting in the northeastern part of Dogon territory, each village takes turns celebrating and hosting elaborate feasts, ceremonies, and festivities. During this time, new masks are carved and dedicated to their ancestors. Each village celebrates for around a year before the ‘sigi’ moves to the next village. A new ‘sigi’ is started every 60 years.

Dogon funeral rituals come in two parts. The first occurs immediately after the death of a person, and the second can occur years after the death. Due to the expense, the second traditional funeral rituals, or “damas”, are becoming very rare. Damas that are still performed today are not usually performed for their original intent, but instead are performed for tourists interested in the Dogon way of life. The Dogon use this entertainment to earn income by charging tourists money for the masks they want to see and for the ritual itself (Davis, 68).

The traditional dama consists of a masquerade intended to lead the souls of the departed to their final resting places, through a series of ritual dances and rites. Dogon damas include the use of many masks, which they wore by securing them in their teeth, and statuettes. Each Dogon village may differ in the designs of the masks used in the dama ritual. Similarly each village may have their own way of performing the dama rituals. The dama consists of an event, known as the Halic, that is held immediately after the death of a person and lasts for one day (Davis, 68).

According to Shawn R. Davis, this particular ritual incorporates the elements of the yingim and the danyim. During the yincomoli ceremony, a gourd is smashed over the deceased’s wooden bowlhoe, and bundukamba (burial blanket). This announces the entrance of persons wearing the masks used in this ceremony, while the deceased’s entrance to his home in the family compound is decorated with ritual elements (Davis, 72–73).

The yingim and the danyim rituals each last a few days. These events are held annually to honor the elders who have died since the last Dama. The yingim consists of both the sacrifice of cows, or other valuable animals, and mock combat. Large mock battles are performed in order to help chase the spirit, known as the nyama, from the deceased’s body and village, and towards the path to the afterlife (Davis, 68).

The danyim is held a couple of months later. During the danyim, masqueraders perform dances every morning and evening for any period up to six days, depending on that village’s practice. The masqueraders dance on the rooftops of the deceased’s compound, throughout the village, and in the area of fields around the village (Davis, 68). Until the masqueraders have completed their dances, and every ritual has been performed, any misfortune can be blamed on the remaining spirits of the dead (Davis, 68).


Crocodile Totem

Dogon society is composed of several different sects:

  • The sect of the creator god Amma. The celebration is once a year and consists of offering boiled millet on the conical altar of Amma, colouring it white. All other sects are directed to the god Amma.[citation needed]
  • Sigui is the most important ceremony of the Dogon. It takes place every 60 years and can take several years. The last one started in 1967 and ended in 1973; the next one will start in 2027. The Sigui ceremony symbolises the death of the first ancestor (not to be confused with Lébé) until the moment that humanity acquired the use of the spoken word. The Sigui is a long procession that starts and ends in the village of Youga Dogorou, and goes from one village to another during several months or years. All men wear masks and dance in long processions. The Sigui has a secret language, Sigui So, which women are not allowed to learn. The secret Society of Sigui plays a central role in the ceremony. They prepare the ceremonies a long time in advance, and they live for three months hidden outside of the villages while nobody is allowed to see them. The men from the Society of Sigui are called the Olubaru. The villagers are afraid of them, and fear is cultivated by a prohibition to go out at night, when sounds warn that the Olubaru are out. The most important mask that plays a major role in the Sigui rituals is the Great Mask, or the Mother of Masks. It is several meters long, held by hand, and not used to hide a face. This mask is newly created every 60 years.
  • The Binou sect uses totems: common ones for the entire village and individual ones for totem priests. A totem animal is worshiped on a Binou altar. Totems are, for example, the buffalo for Ogol-du-Haut and the panther for Ogol-du-Bas. Normally, no one is harmed by their totem animal, even if this is a crocodile, as it is for the village of Amani (where there is a large pool of crocodiles that do not harm villagers). However, a totem animal might exceptionally harm if one has done something wrong. A worshiper is not allowed to eat his totem. For example, an individual with a buffalo as totem is not allowed to eat buffalo meat, to use leather from its skin, nor to see a buffalo die. If this happens by accident, he has to organise a purification sacrifice at the Binou altar. Boiled millet is offered, and goats and chickens are sacrificed on a Binou altar. This colours the altar white and red. Binou altars look like little houses with a door. They are bigger when the altar is for an entire village. A village altar also has the ‘cloud hook’, to catch clouds and make it rain.
  • The Lébé sect worships the ancestor Lébé Serou, the first mortal human being, who, in Dogon myth, was transformed into a snake. The celebration takes place once a year and lasts for three days. The altar is a pointed conic structure on which the Hogon offers boiled millet while mentioning in his benediction eight grains plus one. Afterwards, the Hogon performs some rituals in his house, which is the home of Lébé. The last day, all the village men visit all the Binou altars and dance three times around the Lébé altar. The Hogon invites everybody who assisted to drink the millet beer.
  • The twin sect: The birth of twins is a sign of good luck. The extended Dogon families have common rituals, during which they evoke all their ancestors back to their originthe ancient pair of twins from the creation of the world.
  • The Mono sect: The Mono altar is at the entry of every village. Unmarried young men celebrate the Mono sect once a year in January or February. They spend the night around the altar, singing and screaming and waving with fire torches. They hunt for mice that will be sacrificed on the altar at dawn.

Dogon villages


A typical Dogon village.

A Toguna

Villages are built along escarpments and near a source of water. On average, a village contains around 44 houses organized around the ‘ginna’, or head man’s house. Each village is composed of one main lineage (occasionally, multiple lineages make up a single village) traced through the male line. Houses are built extremely close together, many times sharing walls and floors.

Dogon villages have different buildings:

  • Male granary: storage place for pearl millet and other grains. Building with a pointed roof. This building is well protected from mice. The number of filled male granaries is an indication for the size and the richness of a guinna.
  • Female granary: storage place for a woman’s things, her husband has no access. Building with a pointed roof. It looks like a male granary but is less protected against mice. Here, she stores her personal belongings such as clothes, jewelry, money and some food. A woman has a degree of economic independence, and earnings and things related to her merchandise are stored in her personal granary. She can for example make cotton or pottery. The number of female granaries is an indication for the number of women living in the guinna.
  • Tógu nà (a kind of case à palabres): a building only for men. They rest here much of the day throughout the heat of the dry season, discuss affairs and take important decisions in the toguna.[37] The roof of a toguna is made by 8 layers of millet stalks. It is a low building in which one cannot stand upright. This helps with avoiding violence when discussions get heated.
  • Punulu (a house for menstruating women): this house is on the outside of the village. It is constructed by women and is of lower quality than the other village buildings. Women having their period are considered to be unclean and have to leave their family house to live during five days in this house. They use kitchen equipment only to be used here. They bring with them their youngest children. This house is a gathering place for women during the evening. This hut is also thought to have some sort of reproductive symbolism due to the fact that the hut can be easily seen by the men who are working the fields who know that only women who are on their period, and thus not pregnant, can be there.


Wonders: The Dogon People


Photo: Dogon villageAccording to oral tradition, the Dogon people of south-central Mali originated near the headwaters of the Niger River, and fled their homes sometime between the 10th and 13th centuries because they refused to convert to Islam. However, the Voltaic language of the Dogon suggests a more ancient presence in their present-day homeland. They inhabit a rugged and isolated environment where cliffs protected the group from outside invaders, including French colonialists and missionaries.

Traditionally, the extended patrilineal family forms the basic social unit of the Dogon, who lack strong centralized authorities. hogon, or headman (traditionally the oldest man in the area), provides spiritual leadership and safeguards the religious masks for which the Dogon are famous; however, a council of elders holds decision-making power within each village. The Dogon maintain a kind of caste system based on occupation. Farmers rank at the top of the system, while blacksmiths and hunters, who perform “polluting” work, are lower on the caste scale.

Unlike their Muslim neighbors, most Dogon still practice a traditional religion with a complex mythology. Dogon cosmology considers every being a combination of complementary opposites; elaborate rituals are necessary to maintain the balance. Ancestor-worship is another importance facet of Dogon religion. Members of the “Society of Masks” perform rituals to guarantee that a person’s “life force” will flee from his or her corpse to a future relative of the same lineage. One of the most famous Dogon rituals is the Sigi — a series of rituals performed once every 60 years. Islamic missionaries, however, have had some success among the Dogon, and approximately 35 percent of the Dogon population are now Muslim.

Source: Microsoft Encarta Africana. ©1999 Microsoft Corporation. Used with permission.



The Dogon are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of Mali, in West Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara, in the Mopti region. The population numbers between 400,000 and 800,000.
The Dogon people has a system of signs which ran into the thousands, including “their own systems of astronomy and calendrical measurements, methods of calculation and extensive anatomical and physiological knowledge, as well as a systematic pharmacopoeia”.
The Dogon are primarily agriculturalists and cultivate millet, sorghum and rice, as well as onions, tobacco, peanuts, and some other vegetables.
The supreme god Amma – the unity of earth and heaven: two arms pointing to the sky and the other two to earth.

The Kanaga mask is a mask of the Dogon of Mali traditionally used by members of the Awa Society, especially during the ceremonies of the dead (dama, ceremony of mourning).  Ancestor Worship

The Kanaga mask evokes the Creator God Amma. It presents a double cross shape, which reminds the creation of the world, danced during funeral ceremonies where it is used by members of the Awa society. The general uninitiated public tends to see there various animal subjects : the kommolo tebu (a bird), the lizard, the iguana, the barâmkamza dullogu(a water insect), the hand of God or the female spirit of the trees (gyinu ya). The mask is represented both in male and female form. The male version is the most numerous.
Kanaga is represented on the flag of French Sudan (1892–1958) and the ephemeral Republic of Sudan (1958–1959). As well as that of the Federation of Mali (1959–1960) grouping Senegal and the Sudanese Republic.
The Hebrew meaning of AWA


av’-a `awwa’; the King James Version Ava, a’-va:

A province, the people of which Shalmaneser king of Assyria placed in the cities of Samariain the room of the children of Israel taken into exile by him (2 Kings 17:24). It is probably the same as Ivva (2 Kings 18:3419:13Isaiah 37:13), a province conquered by Assyria.

What Does The Name Awa Mean?

The Meaning of Names › awa › about
A user from the United Kingdom says the name Awa is of Arabic origin and means “Beautiful angel and night
The Origin of Hawaiian Awa

Pronounced “ah-vah”, which means bitter, awa it is known as the Hawaiian kava drink. Hawaiian awa has many different names, depending on the region in the Pacific Islands and the cultural background. Many know it as kava around the world.

It is called yaqona in Tonga, ‘ava in Samoa, sakau in Pohnpei, and malok in Vanuatu.

Hawaiians have called it awa since it first came to Hawaii thousands of years ago. Awa, in the beginning, was mostly used for religious ceremonies. Certain Gods are associated with the use of Hawaiian awa, offering blessings to crops, hunting, fishing and even unions between families.

Today awa is used for medicinal reasons as well as a social and ceremonial drink. It is used to ease tension and alleviate pain.

How Awa Came to Hawaii

As Pacific Islanders traveled and settled in various parts of the South Pacific, they would take their most important plants with them. This type of plant was originally known as canoe plants.

Awa is extracted from the root of the piper methysticum plant, or pepper plant.

During all the traveling and the years of moving through the Islands, the Hawaiian awa plant lost its ability to reproduce through seed. The Hawaiian natives found other ways to grow it. They used the stems and leaves to propagate the plant.

They would mix and match different strands of awa to create different chemotypes. If they liked the effects, they kept it. If they did not like the effects, they quit growing that version. They spent much time mutating the plant until they found the most noble versions.

Eventually, thirteen noble strands of Hawaiian awa were created that are of the best quality and still available today.

GENETIC MODIFICATION.  I find it interesting that this is a “DRINK” and “The word Nommos is derived from a Dogon word meaning to make one drink.”


Dagon (n.)
god of the Philistines, represented as having the upper body of a man and the lower part of a fish, late 14c. (Judges xvi.23), from Hebrew Dagon, from dag “fish.”
“Now the rulers of the Philistines assembled to offer a great sacrifice to Dagon their god and to celebrate, saying, “Our god has delivered Samson, our enemy, into our hands.””
‭‭Judges‬ ‭16:23‬ ‭KJVA
“And the Philistines took the ark of God, and brought it from Ebene´zer unto Ashdod. When the Philistines took the ark of God, they brought it into the house of Dagon, and set it by Dagon. And when they of Ashdod arose early on the morrow, behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the earth before the ark of the Lord. And they took Dagon, and set him in his place again. And when they arose early on the morrow morning, behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord; and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold; only the stump of Dagon was left to him. Therefore neither the priests of Dagon, nor any that come into Dagon’s house, tread on the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod unto this day. But the hand of the Lord was heavy upon them of Ashdod, and he destroyed them, and smote them with emerods, even Ashdod and the coasts thereof. And when the men of Ashdod saw that it was so, they said, The ark of the God of Israel shall not abide with us: for his hand is sore upon us, and upon Dagon our god.”
‭‭1 Samuel‬ ‭5:1-7‬ ‭KJVA‬‬
Strongs #1712: Proper Name Masculine;
from דָּג [dag ]; the fish-god;
Dagon = “a fish”
deity of fertility; represented with the face and hands of a man and the tail of a fish
Strongs #1016: Proper Name Location;
from בּיִת [bayith ] and דָּגוֹן [Dagown ]; house of Dagon;
= “house of Dagon”
1) the temple of Dagon in Judah
2) the temple of Dagon in Asher
“Now the Philistines fought against Israel; and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down slain in mount Gilbo´a. And the Philistines followed hard after Saul, and after his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abin´adab, and Malchi–shu´a, the sons of Saul. And the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers hit him, and he was wounded of the archers. Then said Saul to his armor-bearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me. But his armor-bearer would not; for he was sore afraid. So Saul took a sword, and fell upon it. And when his armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise on the sword, and died. So Saul died, and his three sons, and all his house died together. And when all the men of Israel that were in the valley saw that they fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, then they forsook their cities, and fled: and the Philistines came and dwelt in them. And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his sons fallen in mount Gilbo´a. And when they had stripped him, they took his head, and his armor, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to carry tidings unto their idols, and to the people. And they put his armor in the house of their gods, and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon. And when all Ja´besh–gil´e-ad heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul, they arose, all the valiant men, and took away the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, and brought them to Jabesh, and buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh, and fasted seven days. So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the Lord, even against the word of the Lord, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it; and inquired not of the Lord: therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse.”
‭‭1 Chronicles‬ ‭10:1-14‬ ‭KJVA‬‬

one of the Old Testament people of coastal Palestine who made war on the Israelites, early 14c., from Old French Philistin, from Late Latin Philistinus, from Late Greek Philistinoi (plural), from Hebrew P’lishtim, “people of P’lesheth” (“Philistia”); compare Akkadian Palastu, Egyptian Palusata; the word probably is the people’s name for themselves. Hence, “a heathen enemy, an unfeeling foe” (c. 1600).
from Latin Palestina (name of a Roman province), from Greek Palaistinē (Herodotus), from Hebrew Pelesheth “Philistia, land of the Philistines” (see Philistine). In Josephus, the country of the Philistines; extended under Roman rule to all Judea and later to Samaria and Galilee.
“Woe unto the inhabitants of the seacoast, the nation of the Cher´ethites! the word of the Lord is against you; O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant. And the seacoast shall be dwellings and cottages for shepherds, and folds for flocks.”
Zephaniah 2:5-6 KJVA
Strongs #6429: Noun;
from פָלַשׁ [palash ]; rolling, i.e. migratory;
Philistia = “land of sojourners”
1) the general territory on the west coast of Canaan or the entire country of Palestine
AV translations:
Palestina, Palestine, Philistia, Philistines.

“The word of the Lord came again unto me, saying, Now, thou son of man, take up a lamentation for Tyrus; and say unto Tyrus, O thou that art situate at the entry of the sea, which art a merchant of the people for many isles, Thus saith the Lord [God]; O Tyrus, thou hast said, I am of perfect beauty. Thy borders are in the midst of the seas, thy builders have perfected thy beauty. They have made all thy ship boards of fir trees of Senir: they have taken cedars from Lebanon to make masts for thee.”
‭‭Ezekiel‬ ‭27:1-5‬ ‭KJVA‬‬
Strongs #6865: Proper Name Location;
or נְבוּכַדְרֶאצּוֹר [Tsowr]; the same as צֹר [tsor ]; a rock;
Tyre or Tyrus = “a rock”
1) the Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast
A free-born African, was a descended from the Dogon Tribe of West Africa. The Dogon Tribe is known for tracking the heavens. Banneker was a self-taught astronomer of the highest order and a genius. He was able to accurately predict solar and lunar eclipses which he published in a 6-year almanac.
In 1753 at the age of 22, Banneker completed a wooden clock that struck on the hour. He modeled his clock from a borrowed pocket watch by carving each piece to scale.
Although a fire on the day of Banneker’s funeral destroyed many of his papers and belongings, one of his journals and several of his remaining artifacts are presently available for public viewing.

In Egyptian mythology, Sopdet was the deification of Sothis, a star considered by almost all Egyptologists to be Sirius. The name Sopdet means (she who is) sharp in Egyptian, a reference to the brightness of Sirius, which is the brightest star in the night sky. In art she is depicted as a woman with a five-pointed star upon her head.
Just after Sirius has a heliacal rising in the July sky, the Nile River begins its annual flood, and so the ancient Egyptians connected the two. Consequently, Sopdet was identified as a goddess of the fertility of the soil, which was brought to it by the Nile’s flooding. This significance led the Egyptians to base their calendar on the heliacal rising of Sirius.
ISIS❗️Goddess of the Throne❗️

chapter 53 sura
In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
1. By the star as it goes down.
2. Your friend has not gone astray, nor has he erred.
49. And that it is He who is the Lord of Sirius.


Origin Stories

All origin stories begin with Gods who came from the sky, created humans, then left promising to return one day. They go by various names and descriptions often linked to ancient aliens. There seems to be a pattern with all of this found in oral traditions, petroglyphs, ceramics and other art forms, ancient star maps, and other artifacts. Most myths depict Gods meeting with primitive humans – their agendas varying.

The precise origin of the Dogon, like those of many other ancient cultures, is linked to the Nommo (see below). Their civilization emerged, in much the same manner as most ancient civilizations.

Because of these inexact and incomplete sources, there are a number of different versions of the Dogon’s origin myths as well as differing accounts of how they got from their ancestral homelands to the Bandiagara region. The people call themselves ‘Dogon’ or ‘Dogom’, but in the older literature they are most often called ‘Habe’, a Fulbe word meaning ‘stranger’ or ‘pagan’.

Certain theories suggest the tribe to be of ancient Egyptian descentthe Dogon next migrating to the region now called Libya, then moving on to somewhere in the regions of Guinea or Mauritania.

Around 1490 AD, fleeing invaders and/or drought, they migrated to the Bandiagara cliffs of central Mali. Carbon-14 dating techniques used on excavated remains found in the cliffs indicate that there were inhabitants in the region before the arrival of the Dogon. They were the Toloy culture of the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC, and the Tellem culture of the 11th to 15th centuries AD.

The key spiritual figures in the religion were the Nummo/Nommo twins.

The religious beliefs of the Dogon are enormously complex and knowledge of them varies greatly within Dogon society. Dogon religion is defined primarily through the worship of the ancestors and the spirits whom they encountered as they slowly migrated from their obscure ancestral homelands to the Bandiagara cliffs. They were called the Nommo.

The Nommo are ancestral spirits (sometimes referred to as deities) worshipped by the Dogon people of Mali. The word Nommos is derived from a Dogon word meaning “to make one drink.” The Nommos are usually described as amphibious, hermaphroditic, fish-like creatures. Folk art depictions of the Nommos show creatures with humanoid upper torsos, legs/feet, and a fish-like lower torso and tail. The Nommos are also referred to as “Masters of the Water”, “the Monitors”, and “the Teachers”.Nommo can be a proper name of an individual, or can refer to the group of spirits as a whole.

Amphibious Gods

Dogon mythology states that Nommo was the first living creature created by the sky god Amma. Shortly after his creation, Nommo underwent a transformation and multiplied into four pairs of twins. One of the twins rebelled against the universal order created by Amma. To restore order to his creation, Amma sacrificed another of the Nommo progeny, whose body was dismembered and scattered throughout the world. This dispersal of body parts is seen by the Dogon as the source for the proliferation of Binu shrines throughout the Dogons’ traditional territory; wherever a body part fell, a shrine was erected.

The Nommo allegedly descended from the sky in a vessel accompanied by fire and thunder. After arriving, the Nommos created a reservoir of water and subsequently dove into the water. The Dogon legends state that the Nommos required a watery environment in which to live. According to the myth related to Griaule and Dieterlen: “The Nommo divided his body among men to feed them; that is why it is also said that as the universe “had drunk of his body,” the Nommo also made men drink. He gave all his life principles to human beings.The Nommo was crucified on a tree, but was resurrected and returned to his home world. Dogon legend has it that he will return in the future to revisit the Earth in a human form.

The Dogon are famous for their astronomical knowledge taught through oral tradition, dating back thousands of years, referencing the binary star Sirius. In the latter part of the 1940s, French anthropologists Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen – who had been working with the Dogon since 1931 – confirming this theory. Their astronomical information begs the question – How did the Dogon come by this knowledge? Their oral traditions say it was given to them by the Nommo.

As the story goes … in the late 1930s, four Dogon priests shared their most important secret tradition with two French anthropologists, Marcel Griaule and Germain Dieterlen after they had spent an apprenticeship of fifteen years living with the tribe. These were secret myths about the star Sirius, which is 8.6 light years from the Earth.

The Dogon priests said that Sirius had a companion star that was invisible to the human eye. They also stated that the star moved in a 50-year elliptical orbit around Sirius, that it was small and incredibly heavy, and that it rotated on its axis.

Initially the anthropologists wrote it off publishing the information in an obscure anthropological journal, because they didn’t appreciate the astronomical importance of the information.

What they didn’t know was that since 1844, astronomers had suspected that Sirius A had a companion star. This was in part determined when it was observed that the path of the star wobbled.

In 1862 Alvan Clark discovered the second star making Sirius a binary star system (two stars).

In the 1920’s it was determined that Sirius B, the companion of Sirius, was a white dwarf star. White dwarfs are small, dense stars that burn dimly. The pull of its gravity causes Sirius’ wavy movement. Sirius B is smaller than planet Earth.

The Dogon name for Sirius B is Po Tolo. It means star – tolo and smallest seed– po. Seed refers to creation. In this case, perhaps human creation. By this name they describe the star’s smallness. It is, they say, the smallest thing there is. They also claim that it is ‘the heaviest star’ and is white in color. The Dogon thus attribute to Sirius B its three principal properties as a white dwarf: small, heavy, white.




Case study 1: the Dogon intermittent shade

It was November of 2011, during one of the worst droughts ever suffered even in Africa’s Sahel region, just south of the encroaching Sahara Desert. Although it was harvest time, there was not going to be any harvest for hundreds of thousands of farmers all around us. As we drove over 500 km northeast from the country’s capital to some villages near the town of Koro, near the Burkinabe border, virtually every field around us had not a single maize, sorghum or millet plant that would reach your waist.

But as we approached the villages at our destination, we started seeing a strange sight. In every field, there were about 80 to 100 trees per hectare, of a dozen different species. Strangest of all, every one of them was shaped in a funny inverted cone, like huge funnels from a kitchen. Furthermore, we could see the people harvesting and hauling back to the village a bumper crop of millet and half a dozen other crops. Even I, with 50 years’ experience at improving smallholder farmer agriculture in 51 developing nations, had no idea what was going on. Here these people had somehow created a veritable oasis in the middle of a desert.

After we had said our elaborate, obligatory greetings, asking how everything was right down to the people’s cattle, I asked one of the Dogon leaders about those funny, funnel-shaped trees. Good teacher that he was, he started by asking me a question to illustrate his point: “What happens to crops that are planted right under a mango tree, with its dense foliage down close to the ground?” 

“The crops die.” 


“Because they never get any sunlight.”

“Exactly. But if most of a tree’s leaves are high off the ground, their shadow gradually moves across the field as the sun travels across the sky. That way, all the crops, even those right next to the tree trunk, get some good sunlight at least part of the day. And that way they all grow better.”

Most temperate country soils textbooks show photos of nitrogen-fixing nodules as tiny spheres of about 1 mm in diameter, well-spaced along a root. Obviously, tropical legumes that fix anywhere from 80 to 400 kg/ha of pure nitrogen would require more room than such minuscule nodules could ever provide. This photo shows the nodules from one single mucuna plant grown under ideal conditions, with no competition from other plants. Under normal field conditions, a single plant may produce up to one or two of these “golf balls” of nodules per plant. Even so, they will fix more N in a hectare of soil than that contained in 6 bags of urea, which has the highest content of nitrogen among the synthetic fertilizers. Image credit: Roland Bunch

The Dogon people were using what we now call “intermittent shade.” Crops all over the lowland tropics produce as much as 40% better under a well-managed tree shade than if they have to withstand the full tropical sunlight all day long. This is because they cannot stand the excessive tropical heat, which causes them to stop growing during several hours in the middle of the day. And with global warming, this problem is going to get worse in the near future.

An intermittent shade also reduces both the evaporation of moisture from the farmers’ soil and transpiration from their crops. Crucial moisture is thereby no longer being sucked out of the farmers’ soil. This means that during a drought, crops will produce a whole lot better under intermittent shade than out in constant, direct sunlight.

I had never seen a case of intermittent shade before that November day, because as far as I know after all my wanderings, the Dogon people invented it. This little known “tribe” from the middle of nowhere (very near, in fact, to the proverbial Timbuktu), has given the world an incredibly valuable technology that we will soon begin spreading across the tropics. It will raise yields, but will also provide firewood and fodder so that real forests don’t have to be cut down, thus helping to defend farmers on three continents, as well as all the rest of us, from global warming. Furthermore, the trees drop more of that much-needed organic matter on the soil to enrich it, which sequesters more carbon in the soil. This is in addition to all the carbon that is sequestered in the trees themselves.

And now you know why the elite have been feverishly burning down all the forests across the Earth!!!  To CREATE GLOBAL WARMING!! Or at the very least to worsen it.

And what does all this cost?Just the labor of pruning the trees in that funny shape once a year. Trimming those trees will also save African women the huge job of walking long distances to climb trees to cut firewood and haul it all the way back to the village. All in all, these trees in the fields will save labor and cost nothing to grow. After all, they were already there before many of today’s Dogon people were born. Will other farmers accept this innovation? Well, the Dogon themselves have spread it over an area including between 15 and 20 whole villages, without an extension program in sight.


The Dogon people of Mali are believed to have originated in ancient Egypt, though they have stories of traveling from the Mande kingdom.  What is known for sure is that they settled along the sandstone cliffs by the Bandiagara Escarpment probably during the 15th or 16th century.  It is thought that they ended up here while trying to escape Islamization. With bluffs reaching over 1600 feet high and 90 miles long, and the cliffs littered with hundreds of caves, it would have been the perfect place to hide from enemies.


The Dogon have become popularized for their ancient tales on human origins and extraterrestrial contact. According to legend, a race of beings called Nommo, came from the star system Sirius, thousands of years ago. The beings are said to have come to Earth and provided humans with knowledge.  They gave the Dogon information about their solar system as well as our own. These same creatures also appear in Babylonian and Sumerian myths.

God’s Word tells us all about the Ancient Visitors.  Check out my related post:


Oddly, the Dogon did have knowledge for centuries that were, until Galileo and his telescope, unknown to the Western world. They identified Jupiter’s moons and Saturn’s rings and knew that the Sun was the center of our solar system. They have stories about the big bang and other astronomical events. They had awareness about an invisible companion star orbiting Sirius that was unidentified until 1970. It baffles scientists to this day that an ancient race had knowledge of solar systems that cannot be seen without the help of high-powered telescopes.


Dogon religion is based on oral traditions, which may vary slightly depending on which Dogon clan is being consulted. The most widespread account states that the Nommo are the creation gods, who came from the sky in space ships, and will return one day. Ancestor worship and cult initiation plays a large part of their belief system. (As well as animism, totems, demons, fetishes, ecstatic dance, chanting, idols and sacrifices.)  There are three main cults among the Dogon, all of which incorporate mask making.

Awa is the cult of the dead. Members dance with liturgical masks during both funeral and death anniversary ceremonies in order to lead souls of the deceased to their final resting place.

Lebe is the Earth God. This cult primarily deals with agriculture. All Dogon villages have a shrine to encourage the fertility of the land. A Hogon, or priest, is responsible for protecting the purity of the soil.

Binu is a supernatural and protective being that reveals itself to others in the form of an animal. Binu shrines are meant to house spirits of mythic ancestors who lived before mankind experienced death.


These next two articles I included just to show you that they have been focusing a great deal of time, energy and money researching these millet grains because they are looking for ways to increase the incomes of the indigenous nations while destroying the economies of the developed nations.  They are also looking to promote the pagan beliefs while trying to destroy the Word of God.


Fonio (Digitaria exilis Stapf) is an ancient African cereal that represents a rich source of carbohydrate, fat, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and sulfur-containing amino acids. Processing and utilization of fonio require adequate knowledge of its structural, chemical, and nutritional characteristics. The present work evaluates the structural, techno-functional, and gelling properties of fonio and compares them to other major gluten-free cereals (rice, maize, sorghum, and millet). Fonio flour presented significantly higher water absorption index and swelling power, while it scored a lower water solubility index than the reference flours. The pasting viscosity profile of fonio was similar to that of rice, with equivalent peak viscosity but a breakdown viscosity 24% lower than rice, indicative of higher stability and resistance to shearing and heating. Rheological properties demonstrated that fonio generates gels with remarkably strong structures. At 15% concentration, fonio gel withstood stress 579% higher than those observed in the reference flours without breaking its structure. Fonio flour presented the highest gelatinization enthalpy (11.45 J/g) and a narrow gelatinization temperature range (9.96 °C), indicative of a better-packed starch structure than the other analyzed flours. The texture of the gels made with fonio showed higher firmness over the evaluated period. These combined results suggest that fonio is a suitable ingredient for gel-like food formulations.

4. Conclusions

Fonio flour demonstrated good performance when comparing its properties to other gluten-free sources, showing significant differences in techno-functional, pasting, rheological, and gelling properties. Fonio presented a higher ability to absorb water during gelatinization and swelling in excess water, resulting in the highest determined values of WAI and SP, believed to be influenced by its small starch granule size and high specific surface area. This greater ability to interact with water was also verified in the evaluated gel properties. Fonio had a higher pasting viscosity, as well as high shearing and heating stability and resistance, consistent with a better-packed starch structure than the other analyzed GF flours, as shown by the thermal analysis. Rheological properties revealed that fonio flour generated gels with a remarkably strong structure, particularly at high flour concentrations (12% and 15%). Fonio gels also exhibited notably higher elastic modulus and firmness values than the rest of the GF flours. These combined results lead to the conclusion that fonio has the potential to be used in food, especially in preparations such as porridge, where better gelling properties are appreciated. Therefore, it is suggested that fonio is a promising starch source to compete with other commercially important flours, such as rice, in industrial applications.


Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today’s food formulation—both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of ‘healthy’ cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.

Keywords: Acha, Cereal, Digitaria spp, Fonio, Health benefits, Iburu, Wholegrain


The world continues to depend and receive sustenance from grain crops (Conklin and Stilwell ) including the continent of Africa (Taylor ). An increasing world population necessitates high production of grains to cater for the food needs of the masses, resulting in the replacement of Agriculture with agri-commerce in most parts of the world. This fact is resulting in the shift from traditional to commercial crops, from non conventional to commercial cereal crops.

However, traditional cereals—sorghum (Rooney and Awika ), millet (Joshi et al. ; Balasubramanian and Viswanathan ), acha (white fonio), iburu (black fonio), tef, maize, and rice, still constitute the staple diet for human consumption, and play an essential role in providing not just food but healthy food for the poorest populations and regions. Healthy food in the sense that most of these traditional cereal grains are often consumed whole and the sorghum and millets are gluten-free, hence suitable for coeliacs (Taylor et al. ).

Among traditional cereals, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. Iburua Stapf) which are also called fonio (Dendy ), fundi, findi, hungry rice, and Asian millet (NRC ) have received increasing attention in research and development since the last review (de Lumen et al. ; Irving and Jideani ; Jideani ; Kwon-Ndung and Misari ; Nzelibe et al. ; Morales-Payan et al. ; Adoukonou-Sagbadja et al. ; Philip and Itodo ; Ayo and Nkama ; Jideani et al. ; Taylor ; Agu et al. ). Such attention is seen in the European Fonio project—a cereal believed to be a healthy and cheap addition to European diets, while at the same time generating incomes for local producers in Africa (Dury et al. ). The project is managed by the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD), and aims to increase production and bring the crop to the European market (CIRAD ).

The consumption of fonio (acha and iburu) like in tuo (tuwo), djouka, couscous, gwete, achajollof, kunuacha, etc. (Jideani ) should no longer be regarded as a coping strategy for increasing household food security considering the high comparative cost of this traditional cereal in area of production (Kone ; Jideani ; Dury et al. ) and the fact that they are sold to Africans emigrated in Europe and United States. The cereal, cultivated throughout West Africa, is now in high demand in English-speaking countries (Nigeria, Ghana, and Gambia) and in the Francophone countries (Mauritania, Niger, Chad, Benin, Burkina Faso Senegal, Mali, Cote d’ivoire, Togo and Guinea), where it is produced (Jideani ; Kone ; Obilana ; Ayo and Nkama ). These grains are now produced by small enterprise and sold not only on local urban markets, but also to Africans who emigrated to Europe and United States. Export markets are now in place arising from the strong consumer demand partly due to its nutritional qualities (Lasekan ; Jideani ) and because it helps to satisfy demand for a more varied cereal diet.

With the tempo of research and development activities around the crop, it is conceived that in the near future exportable value-added acha and iburu products will begin to emerge in the European and United States markets. For European consumers, the desirable criteria are nutritional quality, originality, healthier properties and environment friendliness (CIRAD ).

Acha and iburu—consumption as wholegrain cereal

The growing popularity of whole grains has opened up opportunities for more novel, flavourful and lesser-known types of grains. Acha and iburu cereal grains are mostly consumed whole, perhaps because of their small size (Jideani and Akingbala )—each seed is only slightly larger than a grain of sand. Progress has been made with respect to whole grains on many fronts cumulating so far to three international whole grain summits. Wholegrain is defined as intact and/or processed (e.g., de-hulled, cleaned, ground, cracked, flaked or the like) grains, where the fractions endosperm, bran and germ are present in the same proportion as found in the least processed traditional forms of the edible grain kernel of the same species (Jones ). Another definition says that “whole grains shall consist of the intact, ground, cracked or flaked caryopsis, whose principal anatomical components—the starchy endosperm, germ and bran—are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis”. A list of cereal grains, including acha and iburu, that are considered as wholegrains when consumed in whole form is shown in Tables 1 (Jones ). There is now sufficient evidence showing that higher whole grain diets compared with refined grain diets are beneficial for several health outcomes (Marquart et al. ). Incidentally, acha and iburu are naturally and always consumed as whole grain. In recent years, increasing demand possibly reflects consumer interest in less-processed foods and the subsequent health benefits of these grains. It is possible that acha and iburu are potentially important source of nutraceuticals such as antioxidant phenolics and cholesterol-lowering waxes. It was previously reported (Jideani ) that acha and iburu help diabetic patients in parts of West Africa. The healthful, cholesterol-lowering, and cancer-risk-reduction potential of cereals and cereal fractions has been predicted by evaluating their in vitro bile acid binding under physiological conditions (Kasarda ; Kahlon ). There is increasing approach to use more of grains for health maintenance. Consumption of the grain as whole grain makes it an excellent source of dietary fibre and associated nutraceutical benefits of whole grain suitable for the health conscious and for obesity and diseases, such as diabetes. The research and discussions have focused on whole grain cereals. One of such is the Healthgrain EU Integrated project aimed to provide the scientific basis for increasing the intake of protective grain components relevant for reduction of risk of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. The research program, during 2005–2010; includes breeding, technology, nutrition, and consumer research, and interactive network with different stakeholders (Poutanen ). Food products that are source of dietary fibre are useful in the prevention and treatment of constipation, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension (Kamran et al. ) hence acha and iburu stand the chance of helping millions in the continent of Africa and also alleviate the prevailing food insecurity.

Table 1

The AACC Intl. Task Force on Defining Whole Grains in Foods’ list of cereals and pseudocereals that when consumed in whole form, including the bran, germ, and endosperm are considered whole grain

Cereal Scientific name
True cereals
 Wheat, including spelt, emmer Triticum spp.
  Faro, einkorn, kamut, durums
 Rice, African rice Oryza spp
 Barley Hordeum spp.
 Corn (maize, popcorn) Zea mays
 Rye Secale cereale
 Oats Avena spp
 Millets Brachiaria spp.; pennisetum spp.;
 Panicum spp.; Eleusine spp.;
 Echinochloa spp.
 Sorghum Sorghum spp.
 Teff (tef) Eragrostis spp.
 Triticale Triticale
 Canary seed Phalaris arundinacea
 Job’s tears Coix lachrymal-jobi
 Fonio (acha, iburu, black fonio, hungry rice, Asian millet) Digitaria spp.
 Amaranth Amaranthus caudatus
 Buckwheat, Tartar buckwheat Fagopyrum spp.
 Quinoa  Chenopodium quinoa Willd.-is generally considered to be a single species within the Chenopodiaceae
 Wild rice Zizania aquatica

Jones () with slight modification on fonio

The health benefits of wholegrain cereal products are now widely recognised (Marquart et al. ) and considered to result from the presence of a range of bioactive components, including dietary fibre and phytochemicals (Shewry ). The Codex Alimentarius Commission’s Committee in Nutrition and Foods for special dietary uses at its meeting in Nov. 2008 adopted a new definition of dietary fibre as “Carbohydrate polymers with 10 or more monomeric units, which are not hydrolysed by the endogenous enzymes in small intestine of humans” (Codex Alimentarius ).

The use of whole grain product in the development of specialty food has been on the increase with Kroger recently offering 6 varieties of cholesterol-lowering bread with 100% whole wheat bread (IFT ). Plant sterols, also called phytosterols, found in plants, are clinically shown to lower LDL cholesterol as part of a heart-healthy diet. Clinical studies suggest that plant sterols can reduce cholesterol by 8–15%. Plant sterols have been determined to be Generally Recognized as Safe in a variety of food and beverage applications (Kowalski ).

Uniqueness of acha and iburu cereal grain proteins

Research and development on acha and iburu cereal grains is experiencing renewed interest in Africa and the rest of the world, particularly for its flavour and nutritional qualities (Jideani et al. ; Shewry ; Koreissi et al. ). Acha and iburu proteins have composition similar to that of white rice (Temple and Bassa ; Jideani and Akingbala ), but having relatively higher sulphur amino acid (methionine and cystine) content (de Lumen et al. ; Lasekan ; Jideani et al. ). Sulphur amino acids are crucial for proper heart function and nerve transmission, and cereals are an essential source of amino acids for people with low meat intake (CIRAD ). This and other attributes of acha and iburu show the uniqueness of the grains and their potential in contributing significantly to whole grain diets. Undoubtedly, utilisation would also lead to improvement in economic status of the producers in Africa.

Acha proteins have been shown to be less susceptible to denaturation than durum protein (Jideani et al. ). In-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) values for cooked and uncooked acha using pepsin were similar to those of cooked and uncooked durum wheat; without much change in the IVPD for both cereal grains at cooking temperatures of 100–140 °C and times 10–40 min in either water or salt solution. Most, if not, all countries in Africa still import substantial amount of wheat and wheat end products. Such importation has implication on the already weak economy of these countries hence the need for concerted effort to develop acha and iburu grains. Preliminary results show that these grains, based on the functionality of the proteins, can be used to create a number of value added food products (Table 2). Acha grain would therefore be suitable as a good source of calories and digestible proteins for many people living in and beyond the semi-arid tropics who depend largely on maize, sorghum and millet grain supplies. The relatively high level of hydrophobic residues in prolamin protein fraction of acha is a potential that could be exploited as bioplastic films and coatings for foods.

Table 2

Sensory qualities of dambu produced from maize (DME), millet (DMI), sorghum (DSO), and acha (DAH)

Dambu Aroma Texture Appearance Chewiness Overall acceptability
DME 6.3 ± 1.86 5.5 ± 1.79 5.7 ± 2.03 6.2 ± 1.60 5.8 ± 2.10
DMI 7.2 ± 1.80 6.4 ± 1.76 6.1 ± 2.05 6.1 ± 1.74 6.7 ± 2.16
DSO 6.6 ± 2.11 5.6 ± 2.58 6.2 ± 2.21 5.7 ± 2.34 5.7 ± 2.50
DAH 6.5 ± 1.64 7.2 ± 1.98 7.6 ± 1.32 6.6 ± 2.28 6.6 ± 1.64

Values are mean ± standard deviation; Means with different superscript within the same column differ significantly (p < 0.05) using Duncan multiple range test

Agu et al. ()

Starch properties of acha and iburu cereal grains

The molecular features of acha and iburu starches are similar to tef (Eragrostis tef Trotter). Bultosa et al. () observed slow rate of retrogradation, slightly lower percent crystallinity, lower gelatinisation temperatures and lower gelatinisation enthalpy for tef starches (as compared to maize starch) and related these to the shorter outer (A + B1) chain lengths of their amylopectin molecules, and suggested could be the foundation of the good keeping quality of tef injera, the main staple on the Ethiopian diet. The lower setback viscosities of acha and iburu starches upon cooling to 50 °C would make them suitable for use in preparing gels with tendencies to synerese (Jideani and Akingbala ).

Nutraceuticals are now said to play a role in diabetes. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties. Resistant starch is part of some ingredients that assist in preventing and managing prediabetes and type 2-diabetes. Some of the other ingredients include bioactive peptides, traditional herbs from China, India, and Mexico, Cinnamon, Chromium, soybeans and soy components and others (Pasupuleti and Anderson ).

One source of dietary fibre that is receiving increased interest for use as a food ingredient is resistant starch (RS), Starch that resists digestion and absorption in the small intestine (Mermelstein ). Four types of resistant starch exist: RS1—Physically inaccessible or indigestible starch, found in seeds, legumes, and unprocessed whole grains; RS2—Starch that occurs in its natural granular form, such as uncooked potato, green, banana flour, and high-amylose corn; RS3—Starch with digestion-resistant crystalline regions formed when starch-containing foods are cooked and cooled e.g. cooked-and-chilled potatoes or retrograded high-amylose corn; and RS4—Chemically modified starches not found in nature, including starch ethers, esters, and cross-bonded starches (Anderson et al. ).

It is believed that acha and iburu contain resistant starches. Resistant starches have shown promise in the management or prevention of certain diseases or health conditions. Now, researchers are studying how resistant starches can reduce the glycemic and insulin response (Pasupuleti and Anderson ; Yadav et al. ; Deepa et al. ).

The in-vitro starch digestibility and glycemic property of acha, iburu and maize porridge has been investigated (Jideani and Podgorski ). The study showed that the total starch (TS) for maize, acha and iburu flours were 45.3, 43.6 and 41.5% respectively. The resistant starch (RS) was 2.9, 2.1 and 1.2 respectively for maize, acha and iburu flours and the digestible starches (DS) 43.7, 41.4 and 40.0%. The authors conclude that acha and iburu may have potential in a low GI food as porridge from both grains had low estimated value of 40 (Jideani and Podgorski ). As the number of people diagnosed with diabetes continues to increase around the world, nutritional approaches to diabetes prevention is one step researchers should take to address this serious situation by formulating a diet to optimise health and counteract the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in an aging population (Aoe ). Clinical trials using antihyperglycemic medications to improve glycemic control have not demonstrated the anticipated cardiovascular benefits. Low-glycemic index diets may improve both glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with type 2 diabetes, and Jenkins et al. () demonstrated that in patients with type 2 diabetes, 6-month treatment with a low-glycemic index diet resulted in moderately lower glycated haemoglobin A levels compared with a high-cereal fibre diet.

Today, with diabetes on the rise even among teenagers coupled with the advocacy to avoid refined grain products, whole grain acha and iburu can present a healthier alternative in the form of diabetes-friendly products and other health management products.

Development of value-added acha and iburu products

Acha and iburu have considerable potential in foods and beverages (Jideani ; Jideani and Ibrahim ). Towards adding value to the promotion of acha and iburu as convenience and conventional foods and drinks some products have gone through laboratory production as discussed in this section.

Production of non-wheat bread from acha (D. exilis) was successful on laboratory scale (Jideani et al. ), awaiting development at pilot scale level. The focus being the development of ‘bread’ from acha and iburu for dietetic purposes considering the possible technological uses of the grains (Jideani ) coupled with the advantage of being gluten-free. Similar studies have been done on non-wheat bread from rice (Ylimaki et al. ; Kadan et al. ) and sorghum (Schober et al. ) in search of novel ways of making bread to reduce the Third World’s dependence on imported wheat for white bread (Satin ; Lovis ). The possibility of producing acha bread with Irish potato starch (IPS) (Alexander ) as gluten replacer (Ranhotra et al. ) with varying (1–4%) quantity of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and the effect of sprouted soybean flour on the acha bread have been reported (Jideani et al. ). The addition of CMC (Dziezak ) gave an increase in loaf volume (LV) of 40.0% in acha bread (AB) with 1% CMC to 59.5% in AB with 4% CMC. The specific loaf volume (SLV) did not differ significantly from each other. AB with 4% CMC compared favourably with wheat bread in sensory characteristics. The addition of 5% sprouted soybean flour made the bread softer and significantly increased the crude protein and fibre content of the loaf (Jideani et al. ).

Some investigators are currently using starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeast for sour acha, cassava flours, and cassava starch in production of sour dough (compared with sour maize bread) based on conventional technique. Preliminary results show the great potential inherent in acha and iburu for sour dough. The investigation will include development of starter cultures for acha and iburu sour doughs (Edema 2009, Personal communication. University of Agriculture Abeokuta Nigeria).

The use of acha in the production of dambu—a non-fermented, steamed and granulated dumpling product from cereal grains has been demonstrated (Agu et al. ). The findings suggested that acha among other cereal grains (pearl millet, maize, and sorghum) could serve as a substitute and complementary to millet, sorghum and maize grains in the production of dambu. Of particular interest was that the amino acids profile of dambu made from acha (DAH) (in g/100 g protein) were comparatively higher than those made from other cereal grains. Sensory tests indicate that products made with acha and iburu have desirable taste, texture and appearance. (Table 3); substantiating the fact that acha grains can be exploited in the development of health or speciality foods. Dambu is a popular midday meal of the Fulanis, normally sprinkled into fermented skimmed milk or whole milk and sugar may be added to taste. The Fulanis are ethnic group of people spread over many countries predominantly in West Africa and also found in Central and North Africa (Wikipedia ) between the latitude 4°N to 30°N and longitude 15°W to 18°E.

Table 3

Food use potential of acha (Digitaria exilis) and iburu (D. iburua) with corresponding references

Food use References
Biscuits: Acha/iburu –flour, -wheat, -soybean biscuit Ayo and Nkama ()
Wheatless acha/iburu bread Jideani et al. (); Ayo et al. ()
Composite acha/iburu bread Ayo and Nkama (); Igyor (); Jideani and Ibrahim ()
Alcoholic beverage—malting Nzelibe and Nwasike (); Nzelibe et al. ()
Non alcoholic beverage Gaffa and Jideani (); Gaffa et al. ()
Dumpling product—dambu Agu et al. ()
Porridge Obizoba and Anyika ()

Other food uses of acha and iburu

Cakes, cookies and other snack foods have been successfully made from acha and iburu. Wholemeal acha and iburu flours can be used in the preparation of a number of biscuits and snacks that could be useful for individuals with gluten intolerance (Ayo and Nkama ). The use of sorghum and pearl millet flours in cookies have been reported (Badi and Hoseney ; Chiremba et al. ). From functionality and health perspectives, acha and iburu can serve as ingredients in formulating bars, breakfast mueslis and ready-to-eat cereals, pasta, crackers, cookies and biscuits. Ancient grains have been emerging in recent months, like chia, quinoa, teff, amaranth and millet in new product development. Acha and iburu have similar functional properties with these grains that are believed to represent the highest quality of vitamins, minerals and fibre; hence there is great potential in their use as ingredients in product formulation.

The low-starch gelatinisation temperature (Jideani et al. ) and high-beta-amylase activity (Nzelibe and Nwasike ; Nzelibe et al. ) shows the brewing potential of acha and iburu in partial substitution of barley malt.

Constraints and opportunities for commercialisation

The need for tedious harvesting and postharvest processing of Digitaria spps still pose problems to utilisation of this potential indigenous crop in Africa (Adoukonou-Sagbadja et al. ). Results obtained by Adoukonou-Sagbadja et al. () are relevant for acha and iburu breeding, conservation and management of their genetic resources in West Africa.

There is a need to improve productivity of acha and iburu (from the present 500–600 kg of grain/ha through non-mechanised, labour intensive process) through development of adapted varieties, appropriate production and farming systems, etc.; technology by way of innovation in post-harvest mechanisation and processing; and distribution systems for local and export markets. It is believed that these grains are well positioned for improved production considering that present production cannot meet a quarter of demand (NRC ).

There should be attempts to measure the levels of phytochemicals in acha and iburu and characterise the physiological relevance of the whole grain bioactives at levels provided by a diet of whole grain foods. It is known that modern varieties of grains do have higher levels of phytochemicals (Shewry ). Selection for high levels of bioactive components in cereal breeding programmes leading to a new generation of ‘healthy’ cereal grains is now possible (Kleter et al. ; Shewry ). It would be helpful to know the amounts and compositions of bioactive components, including dietary fibre and phytochemicals, among these Digitaria spps and whether this can be exploited to produce new types of grains with enhanced health benefits. Awika and Rooney () reported phytochemicals and potential impact on human health for sorghum. Acha and iburu grow in the same or similar climatic condition with sorghum, millet and maize in West Africa. Variation in amounts and compositions of dietary fibre and phytochemical components in cereal grains is genetically determined, although environmental effects were also observed (Shewry ). Effects on African cereal grains, particularly acha and iburu consumed as wholegrains, are therefore needed in this emerging area with apparently much benefit to human nutrition.

Acha and iburu are believed to be high in fibre (NRC ). There is general consensus among public health authorities and nutritionists that the inclusion of fibre in the human diet provides health benefits (Pietta ). That benefit message has reached consumers, and many food and beverage companies have responded by launching products fortified with fibre. Accurately measuring the fibre content of foods is critical to making a sound benefit claim, whether it is a nutrient content claim, structure-function claim, or health claim (Mermelstein ). Further work is needed on the health benefit of acha and iburu as not all whole grains have equal effects on health, the same physiological benefits, or equal levels of evidence. In terms of levels of evidence regarding various whole grains and health, it is said that the following continuum exists: oats > barley > rye > wheat > > rice > corn (Jones ). There is need to evaluate the healthful properties of acha and iburu using various assays like the bile-acid-binding approach. For greater health-promoting potential of plant foods, commercial breeding companies have been making use of this in vitro bile-acid-binding methodology in their selection. In vitro bile binding is a valuable tool for screening food fractions for their healthful potential before animal and human studies are warranted (Kahlon ).

There should be work on sensory attributes and consumer acceptance. This will help to also create a consumer demand versus technology push in the development of not just a good quality product from acha and iburu as in other grains (Talukder and Sharma ) but exportable value added products from these cereal grains.


Acha and iburu cereal grains have received some attentions and show an impressive future and huge potential for wider use. No doubt, these grains are becoming important to world’s scientists hence the fonio (acha and iburu) research (2006–2009) under the EU’s Research programme.

As rich source of fibre and other phytonutrients, they can be used as ingredient helping to improve nutritional profiles without compromising taste and quality in products. The advantage of incorporating acha and iburu as whole grains into formulations looks enormous, for example blending them with refined grains. Following these strategies, innovative formulations can be developed ranging from pastas designed specifically for diabetics to varied dishes combining exotic flavour with whole grain benefits. On the consumption of these two grains as whole grain and healthful benefit, future work might focus on attempts to further establish the health claim on acha and iburu grains. Although few studies mentioned above have started looking into the area of resistant starch, it appears that the issue needs further research including phytochemicals to ascertain the potential impact on human health. Health benefit is critical for a broad acceptance of acha and iburu by consumers, if it is to be produced on a high scale and not on the present small restricted areas.

However, some serious technical problems remain. Some of the challenges to geneticists and cereal scientists include whether it is possible to increase the seed size through selection, hybridisation, or other genetic manipulation; and the yield of acha and iburu. There is the need to use modern knowledge of cereal-crop improvement to make some advances and improvements. Concerning genetic manipulation of acha and iburu seeds for increased yield, application of transgenics (Gressel ) might be an option for plant breeders to consider as prerequisite for commercialisation in light of food security, globalisation and Africans emigrated to Europe and United States as consumer demand in Africa and Europe continues to increase.

There are many tales and myths of “Ancient Aliens” and many people groups worship twins and duality, many nations also worship changelings and MANY NATIONS including ours worship the gods/goddesses of the sea to this day.  

Check out my related series:

Are You Having A Mari-time? 

Why Pirates & Mermaids? 

Check out this post as well.  It talks about the Roman’s “Heavenly Twins”

Distribution of the Vaccines led by Tiberius SOFTWARE

Scientists would have you believe that the only way this could be explained is if you believe in ALIENS from Outer Space.  But, the truth is that this is quite easily explained if you READ THE WORD OF GOD.  Fallen Angels came to earth and TAUGHT Mankind all the Hidden things that they knew.  All the knowledge presented in a manner that leads people away from GOD.  Why, because they hate GOD and they hate Mankind. 

The Fallen Angels perverted every bit of life on EARTH through Genetic Modification. That is why God sent the flood, another event that is found in nearly every nations mythology.  Though not presented as it is in the bible.  

If you really are looking for TRUTH.  IF you want answers that can change your life.  TRUST THE WORD OF GOD and READ IT!!