“Janus is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, doorways, passages, and endings. He is usually depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past.”  wikipedia

This post will convince you that they are working very hard to CHANGE our entire beings by polluting and/or altering our DNA.  

If you have looked into paganism and/or Magic at all, you are well aware that numbers, symbols, names, and the etymology of words are all very important in the realm of the spirit.  What is happening today in our world is totally related to Paganism/Magic.  The Elite who run the world are VERY MUCH into Witchcraft/Magic and they have a deadline for the completion of their AGENDA and  a great deal of the AGENDA MUST BE COMPLETED BY 2021!  

As you read through this POST, be mindful of terminology and symbolism.  There are many clues in their events and their projects.  They are required to reveal their plans so they do it in a way that makes it hard to recognize unless you are awake and alert.  

If you are alert as you review this material you may very well see things that I may have missed.  We are all just doing our best to uncover the TRUTH that has been so affectively hidden from us for so long.


I SPY a Trump Janus GEMINI GoldenEye

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In this video they talk about the WORLDWIDE ECONOMIC MELTDOWN… which the elite have planned for 2021.  IF you are not familiar with this plan see my article on DAVOS:

DAVOS – World Economic Forum – WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!


Gold is the metal of the sun and has been considered by many as crystallized sunlight. When gold is mentioned in alchemical tracts, it may be either the metal itself or the celestial orb which is the source, or spirit, of gold. Sulphur because of its fiery nature was also associated with the sun. As gold was the symbol of spirit and the base metals represented man’s lower nature, certain alchemists were called “miners” and were pictured with picks and shovels digging into the earth in search of the precious metal–those finer traits of character buried in the earthiness of materiality and ignorance. The diamond concealed in the heart of the black carbon illustrated the same principle. The Illuminati used a pearl hidden in the shell of an oyster at the bottom of the sea to signify spiritual powers. Thus the seeker after truth became a pearl-fisher: he descended into the sea of material illusion in search of understanding, termed by the initiates “the Pearl of Great Price.”
           When the alchemists stated that every animate and inanimate thing in the universe contained the seeds of gold, they meant that even the grains of sand possessed a spiritual nature, for gold was the spirit of all things. Concerning these seeds of spiritual gold the following Rosicrucian axiom is significant: “A seed is useless and impotent unless it is put in its appropriate matrix.” Franz Hartmann comments on this axiom with these illuminating words: “A soul cannot develop and progress without an appropriate body, because it is the physical body that furnishes the material for its development.” (See In the Pronaos of the Temple of Wisdom.)
           The purpose of alchemy was not to make something out of nothing but rather to fertilize and nurture the seed which was already present. Its processes did nor actually create gold but rather made the ever-present seed of gold grow and flourish. Everything which exists has a spirit–the seed of Divinity within itself--and regeneration is not the process of attempting to place something where it previously had not existed. Regeneration actually means the unfoldment of the omnipresent Divinity in man, that this Divinity may shine forth as a sun and illumine all with whom it comes in contact.

God of two faces, Janus the opener,
open the gates for our offerings,
seen by you,
to pass through into the arms of the Kindreds,
of the Deities, of the Ancestors, of the Spirits.
Open the gates for the gifts of the Kindreds to pass through into our lives,
the gifts of the Deities, of the Ancestors, of the Spirits,
our words, our sacrifices, our freely-poured out libations bringing in response
blessings, powers, and long-continued life.
Open the gates, Janus Patulcius,
open them in return for this sweet-smelling incense.
Janus be my guide to the holy;
open the gateway, god of gates.

by Ceisiwr Serith (David Fickett-Wilbar)

\Here we need to step back to the Golden Eye video momentarily for some symbology.


This pic in the center was snipped from the Golden Eye video, on the left I highlighted what I wanted you to notice. (please forgive my shakey hand)  You can see depicted in this photo first of all the sigil of the Mark of the Beast.   It is looking more and more everyday that the coming mandatory vaccine may be the MARK OF THE BEAST prophesied in the Bible.  It is most likely that this Plandemic was devised to open the way for the Mark to be enforced.

Next you will notice the man falling through the sigil of Mammon, in the world of magic this image is a powerful working, symbolizing the demonic realm taking down mankind.  You should also notice the image of a cross outside the circle.  Also, a magical working to signify that the grace of God is outside of what is happening to mankind.  The end of GRACE.

You should also notice if you look closely that the image of the cube is inside the circle as well. 

The following video talks how “Back to the Future ties in with TRUMP.  It talks about Time Travel and the Space program, as well as the worlds telescopes.  It also talks about the Geminus Gate/Wall related to JANUS, and the Q aspects of JANUS.  The Vaccine is also addressed before the video ends.  Watch the whole video!!
Streamed live on Aug 11, 2020
You cant make this up…

For more information on TRUMP visit my article the GOLDEN BOY.

Temple of Baal – Part 4 – Golden Boy


Remember the Trump video we did on the JANUS GOLDEN KEY?

Posted September 15, 2020
Remember the Trump video we did on the JANUS GOLDEN KEY? Well, Trump just gave Netanyahu a GOLDEN KEY in the first Middle East peace deal! About a month ago, we uploaded two videos about Trump holding a golden key during the election. We compared him to the two-face god, Janus… who also holds a golden key, a key to his gate that is OPENED during WAR and closed during PEACE.… Well, yesterday, Trump gave Netanyahu a golden key to the White House as part of a PEACE deal in the Middle East. The Janus Gate depicted on coins resembles the White House. So, once again, it appears as though we were right.

About a month ago, we uploaded two videos about Trump holding a golden key during the election. We compared him to the two-face god, Janus... who also holds a golden key, a key to his gate that is OPENED during WAR and closed during PEACE.… Well, yesterday, Trump gave Netanyahu a golden key to the White House as part of a PEACE deal in the Middle East. The Janus Gate depicted on coins resembles the White House. So, once again, it appears as though we were right.



Janus a “Key”

Janus, the ambivalent Indo-European deity with two faces, one on each side of the head, was one of the earliest gods of Rome. Originally the god of gods and benevolent creator, he became the god of change and transitions such as the progression of past to future, of one condition to another, of one vision to another, and of one universe to another. He was god of the gate and the presiding deity of the beginning of anything.

The opening month of the year (January, from janua, “gate”) was sacred to him, as was the first day of each month. He presided over the start and the vestals took care of the completion of any enterprise. He ruled the birth of gods, the cosmos, mankind and its undertakings. As warden of gates, which he opened and closed, he was depicted with a doorkeeper’s keys and staff. His two faces meant that he watched entrances as well as exits, and saw into the internal as well as the external world, left and right, above and below, before and after, for and against. His shrines were archways, such as gateways or arcades at crossing places. (Taken from Dictionary of Symbols, Jean Chevalier & Alain Gheerbrant).

Let us look now at the esoteric symbolism of Janus, especially in connection to arcane Christian Mysteries. A curious document expressly representing Christ in the form of Janus shows a cartouche painted on a detached page of a fifteen century manuscript found at Luchon, in France. This painting ends the leaf for the month of January in the prefatory calendar of the book. At the summit of the medallion is the monogram “I.H.S” (for Hiesou, Greek for “Jesus”) surmounted by a heart.

The rest of the medallion features a bust of Janus and his dual function in the harmonization and blending of his/her dual nature. The two faces represent a male and female; they both share one crowned head, which we will discuss later on. The male figure holds a sceptre in his hand and his female counterpart holds a key.

In reproducing this document, Charbonneau-Lassay writes: “On Roman monuments, Janus is shown crowned as in the cartouche of Luchon, with the scepter in the right hand, because he is king; he holds in the other hand a key which opens and closes the epochs; this is why, by extension of this idea, the Romans consecrated to him the doorways of houses and the gates to cities.

Christ, also like the ancient Janus, holds the royal sceptre to which he is entitled by his Heavenly Father as well as by his earthly ancestry. His other hand holds the key to the eternal secrets, the key colored by his blood which opens the doorway of  life for lost humanity.”

To translate the Christ mystery into our own language, the “cartouche” shows the process and the result that it brings about in a seeker. It shows us the level of consciousness we call the Cosmic Christ or Cosmic Consciousness. In the Christic Mysteries, the seeker who has reached this level of attainment is called a “Son of God.”

Before going deeper into the symbolic meaning of Janus, let us look at what Charbonneau-Louis (CharbonneauLassay is the author of the famous Bestiary of Christ  500 copies printed in Belgium during the Second World War.  Bestiary a descriptive or anecdotal treatise on various real or mythical kinds of animals) especially a medieval work with a moralizing tone.meant by the word “blood.” In an esoteric and spiritual  context, blood represents all the integral qualities of fire, heat and vitality inherent to the Sun and the Cosmic Christ. Therefore, according to mystical tradition, blood represents new life, new beginnings and resurrection. By “blood of Christ,” Charbonneau-Lassay means a spiritual and alchemical process of purification from all past karma so as to receive “new blood” and reach a new level of spiritual energy. This means that this process brings about a complete renewal and the birth of a “Son of God” in the flesh.

The symbolic image of Janus/Jana is androgynous, since the masculine and feminine energies and qualities are in complete balance and harmony and their respective attributes makes the head of Janus/Jana crowned. This shows us that their dual nature unites at the mind level and becomes one complete new being. Some authors regard Jana as Diana/Artemis, a lunar goddess representing the feminine aspect of Janus. Janus is also a lunar symbol but it represents another aspect of the lunar process that is more active and masculine. Hence when observed separately, each of the figures of Janus/Jana represents the psychic energies within the seeker that have been transformed and purified, each holding his/her own virtue and function.

The crown that harmonizes and unites them after their “mystical wedding” gives rise to the third face, which remains invisible and represents the crowning of the great work, the androgynous level of consciousness where God incarnates in the seeker. Thus, the seeker knows in all humility that he is a Son of God. For this reason, the crown is a solar symbol and, therefore, the two streams of the moon within the seeker blend, and from a level of duality, they unite with the Sun symbol of the Father and God. The alchemical symbol of the rebis reminds us of the same principle hidden behind the cartouche of Janus/Jana.

The Rebis (from the Latin res bina, meaning dual or double matter) is the end product of the alchemical magnum opus or great work. After one has gone through the stages of putrefaction and purification, separating opposing qualities, those qualities are united once more in what is sometimes described as the divine hermaphrodite, a reconciliation of spirit and matter, a being of both male and female qualities as indicated by the male and female head within a single body. The sun and moon correspond to the male and female halves, just as the Red King and White Queen are similarly associated.

Whenever the symbolism of Janus relates to time, between the past (which is no longer) and the future (which is not yet), the true Face of Janus that which looks at the present and is supposed to face us is not shown; it is neither one nor the other of the two we can see. This third face is, in fact, invisible because the present in its temporal manifestation is but an intangible and imperceptible instant. (This is also why certain languages, such as Hebrew and Arabic, do not have present tense verbs.)

Thus, the seeker lives on a different plane of existence, since he is “invisible” and does not dwell in the past or the future. He is awake in the present, and is not affected by his past or his future. He trusts only the present moment because he lives in the spirit, which contains all reality. This third, invisible face of Janus reminds us of the sacred and divine face of the Cosmic Christ, the Divine Face hidden within the “seed.” Thus this little cartouche contains all the keys and tools of the mystical process of this great mystery.

Hindu tradition has a similar symbol: the third eye of Shiva that is also invisible and not represented by any corporeal organ. This invisible eye represents the “sense of eternity,” and its glance is said to reduce everything to ashes, to destroy all manifestation, and purifies and transforms karma, keeping only what is pure in the eternal present. Thus the apparent destruction is, in reality, a transformation of the old ways into no ways, no opinions, no judgments, no limitations, living “out of time” and yet in it.

Thus we see that Janus represents he who is not only the “master of the triple time (past/future/present a designation that Hinduism also applies to Shiva), but also, and above all else, he is the Lord of Eternity.

In the New Testament, Christ said, “I am the alpha and omega,” the beginning and the end. The master of time cannot himself be subject to time, which has its principle in him, just as, according to Aristotle, the prime mover of all things or the universal principle of movement is necessarily immobile. It is the center that is everywhere, and its circumference nowhere.

Janus is portrayed as holding the sceptre and the key. Now, like the crown, the sceptre is the emblem of royal power. Seen from a mystical perspective, they symbolize one who has reached the highest level of Cosmic Consciousness as an awakened master of himself and of his own destiny. Furthermore, since the sceptre is on his right, or masculine, side he represents, in an initiatory sense, the inner spiritual power of the mystic. The key, on his left, or feminine, side represents Jana, his complement, or Sophia, the higher intuition and intelligence within a mystic that holds the key to the kingdom. The crown symbolizes the three principles in a mystic, i.e., his mystical wedding or the union of the two opposites on the axial neutral pole of pure Consciousness and Being. According to Hebrew Kabbalah symbolism, the right and left correspond respectively to two Divine attributes: mercy (CHESED) and justice (GEBURAH). On one level, this shows that the seeker judges no one except himself, and on a more spiritual level, it proves that the invisible part or third face is the real judge of the living and dead, the one that conveys harmony and peace. This small cartouche, therefore, shows us that when the masculine and feminine energies within the mystic function properly and in harmony, then the mystical wedding takes place in the seeker, bringing about his/her own invisible face and presence of Cosmic Consciousness. This invisible presence also has the symbolic name of Melchizedek.

Sometimes Janus is shown with two keys, those of the solstice gates, Janua Celi and Janua Inferni, corresponding respectively to the winter and summer solstices, the two extremes in the sun’s annual course, for as master of time, Janus is the janitor who opens and closes this cycle. Janus is also the god of initiation into the mysteries. (The word “initiation” derives from in-ire, or enter (again the symbolism of the gate). Christ said, “I am the Way” another connection between Janus and Christ?)

Turning to their initiatory symbolism, Janus as the god of initiation has two keys, gold and silver, that represent the greater mysteries and the lesser mysteries, and the celestial and terrestrial paradises, respectively. Because Janus is also the master of the solstices, with ascending and descending cycles that begin at the winter and summer solstice respectively, he is also the Master of the Two Ways to which the solstice gates give access, the ways of the right and the left, which the Pythagoreans represented by the letter “Y,” represented exoterically in the myth of Hercules as the ways of virtue and vice.

In Hindu tradition, these same two ways are termed the “Way of the Gods” (deva-yana) and the “Way of the Ancestors” (pitri-yana). The symbolism of Ganesha has many parallels with that of Janus. He, too, is the Master of the Two Ways and therefore Lord of Knowledge, echoing the idea of initiation into the mysteries. Finally these two ways could be construed as those of the heavens and of the hells. However, for seekers, these two ways are part of an initiatory process, the right side representing ascension into heaven and the left, descent into hell’s cycles of purification that the seeker must undergo.

So Janus/Jana acquire their powers and virtues only after the seeker has successfully entered and purified his own karmic “inner hell,” a long and gradual process. The more the soul of the seeker “allows” him to descend into the depth of his personal “hell,” the more he is elevated and ascends to a level of “heaven” that corresponds to the level of consciousness that he has achieved through purification. These spiritual “operations” are linked together and can never be separated.

Streamed live on Sep 16, 2020
46 days to V-day (I mistakenly say 77 in the show) Multi trillion dollar VC & med. equipment funding, unprecedented Depression Era hit to the economy, and infinite unmitigated risk for a less than half of 1 percent mortality rate for those infected. Something else is happening here. They are mingling themselves with the seed of men, mixing iron needles with watery clay. We will also talk about how God had already revealed to us, Trump’s Janus key.


When the ionized upper atmosphere of the earth is illuminated by high-power HF radio waves at appropriate frequencies, the temperature of electrons in the ionosphere can be raised substantially. In addition, radio waves with sufficient energy cause parametric instabilities that generate a spectrum of intense plasma waves. Observations of these phenomena have produced new understanding of plasma processes. One consequence of heating and plasma wave generation is that irregularities are formed in the electron distribution which are aligned with the earth’s magnetic field. Because of this, a scatterer of large radar cross section is produced, which scatters HF through UHF communication signals over long distance paths, that would not otherwise be normally possible by ionospheric means. This paper summarizes results of radio, radar, communication, and photometric experiments that explored the characteristics of the volume of ionosphere which has been intentionally modified, temporarily, above facilities near Boulder (Platteville), Colo., and at Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
Published in: Proceedings of the IEEE ( Volume: 63 , Issue: 7 , July 1975 )
Page(s): 1022 – 1043
Date of Publication: July 1975 
 ISSN Information:
Publisher: IEEE
WAIT NOW WHAT????   I thought “telescopes” were about looking at the Stars.  For those of you who do not believe that they have been messing with the atmosphere and manipulating the climate… YOU BETTER THINK AGAIN!  They have so many ways that they are messing with our ENVIRONMENT.  SO HUMANS are not the issue.  MEAT eaters are not the issue!  The issue is the diabolical and deliberate destruction of our environment by the elite, in order to gain COMPLETE CONTROL of the masses.  NOT CONVINCED YET??  Stay with me… there is more…


A unique, high-altitude plasma cavity formed over Arecibo during an ionospheric heating campaign conducted at the observatory in June of 2019. Simultaneously, the Arecibo Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) collected measurements of the narrow cavity, revealing an exceptionally deep depletion of the electron density and a strong enhancement of the electron and ion temperatures.

The AO experiment and its scientific implications were detailed in a recent publication of the Journal of Geophysical Research – Space Physics. The team of researchers used the Arecibo Observatory’s 430 MHz radar to put energy into the Earth’s ionosphere, and then observed how the ionospheric plasma was affected. In response to the heat, the plasma density itself was reduced, forming the observed cavity.  (Do you see that THEY – THE “SCIENTIST” are WARMING OUR ATMOSPHERE and declaring a CLIMATE CHANGE Emergency.)

Dr. Edlyn Levine, Lead Physicist at the MITRE Corporation and the principal investigator of the study, described the motivation behind this work. “Modification experiments that leverage resonant coupling of high power radio frequency waves to the ionospheric plasma reveals complexities of the ionosphere that are important to understand for both fundamental and applied planetary science.”

“This showed that the level of modification that we can do to the ionosphere using Arecibo is more profound than generally accepted for a heater of our power level…” – Dr. Michael Sulzer, Senior Observatory Scientist at Arecibo Observatory

In this experiment, the team was surprised by the strength of the plasma cavity that formed. “This showed that the level of modification that we can do to the ionosphere using Arecibo is more profound than generally accepted for a heater of our power level,” remarked Dr. Michael Sulzer, AO scientist and co-author on the publication. “Every ionospheric parameter we were studying showed modification of some kind!In addition to having the ability to modify the ionosphere, Dr. Levine asserted that “Arecibo is uniquely positioned at mid-latitude and has unique diagnostic capabilities, the most exceptional being the ISR.”

“Arecibo is uniquely positioned at mid-latitude and has unique diagnostic capabilities, the most exceptional being the ISR.” – Dr. Edlyn Levine Lead Physicist at the MITRE Corporation

In fact, the team applied a new ISR technique during their observations. They alternated the radar system on and off every 10 seconds, and then used the radar backscatter to understand the background conditions of the ionosphere better. This provided a clearer view of the plasma cavity.

Ionospheric studies have always been of interest to Dr. Sulzer. “There is still so much we do not know,” he related. “Experimental plasma physics is a difficult science. In a laboratory, your experiment is limited because you have to confine the plasma. However, using the entire ionosphere as a lab is extremely interesting because the plasma is unconstrained in size.”

Dr. Levine affirmed the importance of using facilities like Arecibo to obtain a more detailed understanding of how the ionosphere responds to changes like those created during the heating experiments. “We are constantly being surprised by new results from further probing of the ionosphere.”

The physical facility of Arecibo is incredible in scale and capability, but the most remarkable aspect of my visit was the incredibly friendly and knowledgeable scientific and engineering staff,” Dr. Levine remarked about her first visit to the Arecibo Observatory. “My hope is that this is the first of many high frequency heating campaigns that we can run.


This next document is particularly technical in language and probably much more information than most people, including myself care to navigate.  However, I am including a portion of the article in my post for those who might be technically savy and interested in more details.  Also, for the rest of us, there are some visuals that help you to see what they are doing to our atmosphere on a regular basis.  Bear in mind, this is only one facility, and there a many more like it, and even more that are of a different nature but equally as disruptive to our atmosphere and our earthly environment.  I am trying to paint you a picture of how insane these “scientist” truly are and how “SCIENTISM” is the new religion but based on the VERY MOST ANCIENT PAGANISM.


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Link to Publisher's site


Profiles of the electron number density in the ionosphere are observed at the Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico on a regular basis. Here, we report on recent observations showing anomalous irregularities in the density profiles at altitudes >~300 km. The irregularities occurred during a period of “mid-latitude spread F,” a space-weather phenomenon relatively common at middle latitudes in summer months characterized by instability and electron density irregularities in the bottomside of the ionospheric F layer. Remarkably, electron density irregularities extended well above the layer, through the ionization peak and into the topside which is regarded as being stable. Neither the neutral atmosphere nor the ionosphere is thought to be able to support turbulence locally at this altitude. A numerical simulation is used to illustrate how a combination of atmospheric and plasma dynamics driven at lower altitudes could explain the phenomenon.


Since the 1960s, the Earth’s ionosphere has been studied with the incoherent scatter technique that uses radar to probe weak thermal fluctuations in the gas of free electrons in the upper atmosphere. The largest and most sensitive incoherent scatter radar is the 430-MHz system at the Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico. At Arecibo, the plasma number density, ion composition, electron and ion temperature, and plasma drift velocity can be profiled by analyzing the backscatter from these thermal fluctuations. Early insights into the morphology of the ionosphere, its dependence on local time, season, and on the solar radiation flux came from pioneering incoherent scatter radar studies at Arecibo. The incoherent scatter technique was developed by a number of investigators. A review of early ionospheric research at Arecibo was given by Mathews.

It has long been appreciated that the ionosphere at both low and high magnetic latitudes can be unstable. Free energy bound in the configuration of ionospheric layers or in currents flowing within them can lead to the spontaneous growth of irregularities with spatial scale sizes ranging from tens of centimeters to thousands of kilometers. The irregularities can interfere with radio communication, navigation, and imaging systems, including satellite-based systems, and pose a hazard. Understanding, anticipating, and mitigating the effects are important aspects of space-weather research,.


Ionospheric observations were made with the Arecibo Observatory on 30 July 2016, using the incoherent scatter technique and a mode which was described in detail by Hysell et al.. The results are shown in Fig. 1. The figure shows electron number density versus altitude and local time directly over the radar. The experimental cadence is one profile per minute, and the range resolution is 300 m. In processing these data, a single noise estimate for the entire period shown was calculated and subtracted from the receiver power at all times. This procedure introduces a small bias since the noise estimate does not capture the noise variation with sidereal time. However, it greatly reduces the temporal variance of the resulting plasma number density estimate, revealing minute variations that would otherwise be difficult to distinguish.

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Electron number density on the evening of 30 July 2016, represented as a function of altitude and local time in grayscale format. The figure shows both the E and F regions on the same scale and the E region in an expanded scale

The bottomside of the F layer is modulated with a period of roughly 60–90 min. This is a common ionospheric feature, termed MSTID, which is usually attributed to gravity waves in the thermosphere. The modulation crests have a sawtooth appearance. The third crest of the MSTID is moreover populated with narrow plasma density depletions spanning altitudes between ~250 and 350 km and extending up through the peak of the F layer. These irregularities are characteristic of mid-latitude spread F conditions and indicative of plasma instability. Note that the depletions are tilted from vertical.

More plasma irregularities were observed in the E region where an Es layer was seen to erupt into dense patches. In this case, the patches were approximately coincident in time with the crests in the MSTID. Only the third set of patches was coincident in time with mid-latitude spread F, however. Note that the E- and F-region ionization directly above Arecibo, where the magnetic dip angle is approximately 44°, does not reside on common magnetic field lines, and no claim can be made regarding the electrical coupling of the F region and the Es layers. Experience at Arecibo has shown that patchy Es layers, MSTIDs, and spread F can occur together or independently in time.

What is most remarkable about the observations are the faint plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere, >~350 km, visible from ~2230 LT through the end of the observation. The irregularities are more evident in Fig. 2 where they have been enhanced. The irregularities exist throughout the topside and appear to modulate the topside boundary. They are both wavelike and, at least superficially, turbulent. They both precede the striated depletions in the bottomside F region in time and linger behind them for at least an hour.

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Enhanced version of the topside ionospheric irregularities from the latter portion of the event. A low-pass filter (Gaussian with a standard deviation of 100 pixels) was applied to the original image, and the difference between the filtered and unfiltered images was then plotted. Despite having units of per cubic meter, the quantity being plotted is not strictly electron density, and the grayscale is arbitrary

These irregularities are remarkable in that the topside ionosphere is usually regarded as laminar and stable. The neutral gas as these altitudes is highly viscous and unable to support inertial-range turbulence. Ion inertia is also usually regarded as negligible in this regime of space, implying that the plasma also cannot support inertial-range turbulence. It is, therefore, somewhat surprising for the topside to exhibit telltale signs of turbulence like this. As noted above, coherent scatter has been observed from the topside mid-latitude ionosphere in the past during spread-F events, signifying plasma instability. What is new here is the observation of superficially turbulent density irregularity and flow in the topside revealed by incoherent scatter.

The incoherent scatter technique affords measurements of other state parameters in the ionosphere such as ion composition, temperature, and line-of-sight drifts. There are two feed systems that can probe the ionosphere along two distinct lines of sight. For these experiments, one (the line feed) was pointed at zenith, and the other (the Gregorian feed) at 15° zenith angle and at azimuth angles swept between 270° and 360°. From dual-beam data, estimates of the vector drift velocity of the plasma can be made with the assumption that the flow is spatially homogeneous over the volume probed by the two beams. Vector wind profiles can furthermore be estimated in the E region using statistical inverse methods, invoking the conservation properties of the plasma and assuming that the components of the electric field transverse to the magnetic field in the E and F region are the same. The methods involved were described in detail by Hysell et al..

Figure 3 shows the results of the aforementioned analysis. We highlight the results of panel (f) which shows estimates of the vector plasma drifts in the F region. The red, green, and blue curves denote drifts parallel to the magnetic field B, perpendicular to B and eastward, and perpendicular to B and northward, respectively. That the difference between the red and blue curves is generally small signifies the fact that the upward drifts were most often modest, echoing the information in panel (b). The average of the red and blue curves gives the northward drift which was large and oscillatory. The green curve gives the eastward drift which was also large and oscillatory. During much of the mid-latitude spread F event, the F region was drifting rapidly (>150 ms−1) to the northwest.

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State parameters derived from incoherent scatter measurements using dual radar beams. a Line-of-sight E-region plasma drift profiles measured at zenith. b Average line-of-sight F-region plasma drifts measured at zenith. c Line-of-sight E-region plasma drift profiles measured off zenith. d Average line-of-sight F-region plasma drifts measured off zenith. e E-region temperature profiles. f Average F-region vector plasma drifts. Here the red, green, and blue lines indicate drifts parallel to the geomagnetic field, perpendicular and eastward, and perpendicular and upward/northward, respectively. g E-region zonal wind profiles. h E-region meridional wind profiles. i E-region vertical wind profiles. The bottom three panels reflect conditions within just the third patchy Es layer

Panels (g) and (h) show estimates of the horizontal winds in the E region. As is typical, the winds are large (~100 ms−1), and the horizontal winds in particular are characterized by strong shears. Similar observations led to propose neutral KHI as the mechanism underlying Es layer patchiness.

Additional contextual information comes from a small 29.8-MHz radar system located on St. Croix, USVI. This radar detects coherent backscatter from meter-scale plasma density irregularities embedded in the Es layers. The irregularities in question are strongly elongated in the direction of the magnetic field B. The radar is located so as to be able to detect strong Bragg or coherent scatter from E-region irregularities directly over Arecibo. The radar nominally uses 28-bit Barker coded pulses with a baud length of 7 μs and a pulse repetition frequency of 400 Hz. The incoherent integration time is nominally 3 s.

Figure 4 shows a plan view of the backscatter seen at St. Croix during the mid-latitude spread F event. Images like these are constructed using aperture synthesis methods of the kind used by radio astronomers to image distant radio sources in the cosmos. Images can be computed at a cadence of once every few seconds. The imaging technique utilized here, which has been described in detail by Hysell and Chau, gives information about the Doppler shift of the echoes as well as the intensity of the backscatter. The velocities indicated by the color scale are the phase velocities of the meter-scale waves in the plasma which is controlled by a number of factors, the proper motion of the Es layer patches being only one of them.

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Representative images of radar echoes due to coherent scatter from plasma density irregularities in Es layers near 110-km altitude at 2324.5 LT. The brightness of the image pixels specifies the echo signal-to-noise ratio on a decibel scale. The hues reflect Doppler velocity, with red (blue) hues denoting drifts away from (toward) the radar located on St. Croix, USVI

Studies have shown that the strongest coherent backscatter generally arises from the densest regions of the patchy Es layer as determined by incoherent scatter. The coherent scatter therefore conveys information about the horizontal configuration of the patches, their proper motion, their propagation, evolution, and lifetimes. This image suggests that patchy Es layers extended well away spatially from the immediate vicinity of Arecibo.

This representative image shows that the Es-layer patches are organized horizontally along fronts. In this case, there are two fronts over Puerto Rico and a third to the northwest. The two larger fronts are themselves structured, showing evidence of secondary waves along their length. When animated, successive images from this event show that the fronts propagate in space in different directions but most often to the southwest. This is typical of Es-layer observations made using this instrument. Fronts are typically separated by a few tens of kilometers, propagate at about 100 ms−1, and exhibit periods of about 5 min. It has been argued by Larsen and Hysell et al. that the fronts represent individual Kelvin–Helmholtz billows which deform Es layers that were originally produced and then broken up by the neutral shear flow. In this scenario, E-region coherent scatter is indicative of strong winds and wind shears in the lower thermosphere.

Numerical simulation

We can attempt to reproduce the ionospheric irregularities observed over Arecibo, the F-region and topside irregularities in particular, through numerical simulation. The simulation couples together two models—one of neutral thermospheric dynamics, and another of the ionospheric plasma response. Neutral winds predicted by the former are used to drive ionospheric evolution in the latter.

The numerical simulation is described in more detail in the methods section of this paper. The problem is complex, and a number of compromises have been made in the modeling in order to keep the computations tractable. For example, the neutral dynamics model is cast in two dimensions only. In previous model studies, primary KHIs with two-dimensional (2D) symmetry arise and achieve large amplitudes before 2D and three-dimensional (3D) secondary instabilities which break the symmetry and go on to affect billow dissipation,. By modeling the neutral dynamics in 2D, we will be testing whether the multifaceted ionospheric phenomena we observe can arise from relatively simple 2D neutral wind forcing. The results are extended into three dimensions by assuming invariance in the unmodeled horizontal dimension. When the neutral wind field is introduced into the ionospheric model, the unmodeled dimension is offset by 5° from the magnetic meridian. This figure is arbitrary and can be varied without significantly affecting the simulation outcome.

Another limitation of the simulation is that it neglects reverse coupling from the ionosphere back to the neutral atmosphere. The ionospheric plasma is only a minor constituent of the upper atmosphere and represents a small part of the momentum budget. While ion drag alters the neutral atmospheric circulation at low and middle latitudes as well as the temperature and composition, (e.g., ref.  and references therein), the timescale for altering the neutral circulation is proportional to the ratio of neutral and plasma mass density and is of the order of hours in the mid-latitude F region. This is long compared to the e-folding time of the plasma instabilities of interest here. We nonetheless cannot fully discount a role for reversed coupling which could include thermal and compositional effects. A fully consistent treatment of the coupled neutral/plasma dynamics, thermodynamics, and chemistry is a priority for future research, but is beyond the scope of the present analysis.

A third limitation of the simulation is that it does not make provisions for ionized metallic species. Sporadic E layers are known to be composed primarily of metallic ions, the small rates of diffusion and recombination of metallic species being important contributing factors to the intensity of the layers which can rival the F peak in density. This simulation cannot reproduce very dense Es layers. We are therefore essentially testing in simulation whether dense Es layers are a necessary component of the ionospheric plasma instabilities underlying mid-latitude spread F. The results presented below suggest that they are not.

Figure 5 shows results of the numerical simulation 25 min into a run initialized at 2330 local time. (The start time of the ionospheric model is 142 min after gravity wave (GW) initialization.) Key features of the ionospheric plasma configuration include the sawtooth modulation of the F-region bottomside which is like that of an MSTID. This is a consequence of the thermospheric gravity wave packet which induces periodic plasma motion through dynamo action. In the middle left panel of Fig. 5, nearly horizontal streamlines indicative of westward flows at high altitudes become more strongly modulated in the bottomside, even forming closed loops (vortices) at times. Despite the strong modulation of the plasma flow, however, the bottomside deformation remains limited. This is because the gravity wave phase speed does not match the plasma flow speed, and over time, any given plasma volume is likely to ascend and descend alternately as the gravity wave propagates through. This phenomenon, known as spatial resonance, prevents MSTID breaking. The direction of the net plasma flow also changes from westward to eastward over time as the background winds shift. Similar behavior was evident in panel (f) of Fig. 3 which shows several reversals in the zonal plasma flow.

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Results from the ionosphere simulation after 25 min of ionospheric evolution. a Plasma number density, with red, blue, and green hues representing molecular ions, atomic ions, and protons, respectively, in the plane perpendicular to B in a 2D cut through the center of the model volume. b Electron density profile through the center of the top left panel. c Current density in μA m−2 according to the color wheel, also in a perpendicular-to-B cut through the center of the model volume. White contours are equipotential curves which are streamlines of the flow. d Electric field profile through the center of the middle left panel. e Meridional current density in μA m−2 according to the color wheel. f Zonal electric field in the equatorial plane in a cut through the center of the model volume. The color wheels indicate the magnitude and direction of the current density relative to the maximum value of either 15 or 150 nA m−2 full scale

Another feature reproduced by the simulation is the appearance of patchy Es layers in the lower thermosphere. The layer forms at the node of the neutral wind shear over time, i.e., there was no thin layer in the model initial conditions. Neutral dynamic instability and the attendant plasma structuring are responsible for the patchiness. The layer in the model is composed of molecular ions, and the amplitude is limited by a combination of diffusion and recombination. In nature, the layer could be composed of metallic ions, permitting it to become much denser.

Other signature features of the simulation are tilted striations in the bottomside concentrated near the MSTID crest. The striations resemble the narrow density depletions seen in the bottomside in the mid-latitude spread F event if we roughly equate space and time and consider relatively steady flow during the period the striations passed over the radar. They arise in the simulation where the transverse (to B) current density has a significant vertical component and the vertical plasma density gradient is steep. The striations are very similar to irregularities, which have been predicted analytically and produced in numerical simulations of the bottomside equatorial F-region ionosphere. The mechanism at work in the equatorial case is termed collisional shear instability since plasma shear flow is necessarily associated with it. In the equatorial analyses and simulations, density striations immersed in a background wind field become electrically polarized in such a way as to satisfy the quasineutrality condition, and the resulting plasma flow increases the amplitude of the striations. The growth rate of this instability is maximum for irregularities that are oriented neither horizontally nor perpendicular to the horizontal but at an intermediate angle. The mechanism functions in the mid-latitude simulation as well and so could be a key component of mid-latitude spread F.

The lower left panel of Fig. 5 shows currents flowing in the plane of the magnetic meridian. Constant-p surfaces follow magnetic field lines, and q is related to magnetic latitude. Currents flowing to the right and left are field-aligned currents. Transverse (to the magnetic field) currents can be driven both by irregular winds and by winds blowing in regions where the plasma conductivity is irregular. Field-aligned currents then flow between different regions to maintain quasineutrality in the plasma. The figure shows how different ionospheric layers are coupled by the field-aligned currents which connect them. The field-aligned currents shown here flow from the E region through the F peak and into the topside ionosphere. The conductivity is distributed evenly enough in altitude to allow current sources in all the altitude strata to influence the plasma dynamics globally. This allows winds in the lower thermosphere to drive plasma dynamics in the topside.

Indeed, Fig. 5 shows evidence of plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere. These are seen faintly in panels (a) and (b). The evidence is more clear in panel (c) which shows irregularities in current density in topside strata that happen to be above the strongest concentrations of plasma and neutral instabilities. The sources of the irregularities are (1) winds blowing across the bottomside plasma irregularities where the conductivity is irregular and (2) turbulent winds in the lower thermosphere where KHI is starting. Both factors disrupt the transverse plasma flow globally. Topside density irregularities may then be generated where the irregular flow stirs the topside background plasma density gradient. This could be how topside plasma irregularities come into being at middle latitudes where magnetic field lines subtend a wide range of altitudes.

Figure 6 shows the electron density from the simulation at the same time as the previous figure. In this figure, however, the vertical axis represents altitude taken along a purely vertical cut through the simulation. The electron density is also shown in grayscale format, promoting a comparison with the Arecibo ISR data. To convert from the spatial axis of Fig. 6, we can take the zonal flow speed in the simulation to be about 100 ms−1, meaning that it would take approximately 75 min for the simulated structure to pass over a fixed site assuming steady, frozen flow. In the figure can be found the most important features of the ISR dataset including, crucially, electron density fluctuations extending well into the topside (>~350 km altitude in the case of the simulation).

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Detailed view of a vertical cut through the simulated electron density after 25 min of simulation time in grayscale format


The Arecibo dataset presented here points to a number of ionospheric phenomena, indicators of several distinct but related driving mechanisms. The first is gravity waves propagating in the thermosphere. In simulation, a gravity wave wind field induces ionospheric currents, and because the conductivity is inhomogeneous, the ionosphere becomes polarized and deforms, resulting in periodic undulations or MSTIDs. The amplitude of the MSTIDs is limited by the fact that the wind field varies along magnetic field lines which act like equipotential lines, “shorting out” the polarization to some degree. The amplitude is also limited by the fact that the gravity waves are not frozen in the frame of reference of the ionospheric plasma. Parcels of ionospheric plasma ascend and then descend under the action of the wave, and the MSTID does not break.

The currents induced by the gravity wave wind field are moreover able in simulation to drive plasma instabilities with scale sizes much smaller than the MSTIDs. That the zonal winds and the zonal plasma drifts are different implies the existence of Pedersen current with a vertical component. This current can excite interchange-type plasma instabilities, i.e., instabilities that occur where current flows transverse to the magnetic field in regions where the plasma is inhomogeneous. Irregularities produced by this mechanism in simulation resemble the irregularities seen by Arecibo associated with mid-latitude spread-F conditions. The irregularities are confined mainly to the bottomside F-region ionosphere and tilted from vertical. The mechanism at work appears to be similar to the collisional shear instability associated with the bottomside equatorial F-region ionosphere. Small-scale irregularities embedded within them could produce scintillation in transionospheric radio signals and result in degradation of radio communication, navigation, and imaging systems.

In the numerical simulation and in nature, additional structuring in the topside ionosphere emerged where neither neutral nor plasma instability is expected to operate locally. The structuring seen over Arecibo appears to be turbulent, at least superficially, a characteristic which is unexpected in flows in both the neutral and charged gasses at upper thermospheric altitudes.

The plasma circulation all along a given magnetic field line is controlled by neutral wind dynamos at altitudes where the Pedersen conductivity is significant and where either the plasma conductivity or the wind itself is highly irregular. The conductivity is irregular in the MSTID crests where interchange-type plasma instability is active, and the winds can be highly irregular in the lower thermosphere where roll-like deformations in Es layers suggest the presence of KHI. We attribute the anomalous topside ionospheric irregularities to a combination of these two mid-latitude phenomena which can induce subtle irregularities far from where they are immediately located.

Neutral atmosphere dynamics

Neutral atmosphere dynamics are described by a 2D finite-volume (FV) code that solves the anelastic Navier–Stokes equations in a horizontally periodic Cartesian domain extending well into the thermosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated its ability to describe GW propagation and nonlinear dynamics in 2D and 3D extending into the thermosphere and ionosphere in a variety of applications.

The FV code formulation retains density fluctuations only in the buoyancy term and employs a thermodynamic definition of the potential temperature fluctuation that is modified to achieve an equation set that conserves mass, momentum, total energy, and potential vorticity, apart from dissipative effects. Assuming a relatively high-frequency GW such that rotation is negligible, the governing equations may be written as:


Here, overbars denote mean fields, primes denote deviations from these fields (e.g., p=p¯+p), and the solution variables are the velocity, ui or (uvw), the pressure fluctuation, p′, and the potential temperature, θ. Equations (1)–(3) are discretized using a second-order, FV scheme yielding exact numerical conservation of mass, momentum, and kinetic and thermal energy (apart from explicit dissipation) and thus faithfully represents the underlying conservation laws. In the above, μ = νρ is the dynamic viscosity, ν is the kinematic viscosity, ρ is the mass density, and κ is the thermal diffusivity. We assume ν/κ = 1 so that the thermal and velocity fields require the same resolution.

Equations (1)–(3) yield a dispersion relation for linear, inviscid, steady GW motions in a non-rotating, isothermal atmosphere with uniform U and N that is identical to that for the GW branch of the compressible acoustic-GW dispersion relation given by


A radiation condition is imposed at the upper boundary that is an anelastic extension of the Klemp and Durran method, modified such that the required polarization relations are assessed from the computed solution near the upper boundary rather than being specified a priori. This modification allows the radiation condition to indirectly account for viscous and nonlinear effects near the upper boundary, which can lead to polarization relations that differ significantly from the predictions of linear inviscid theory. The FV code also allows a “sponge” layer at the upper boundary to ensure no GW reflection in cases where large incident amplitudes may violate the assumed linear radiation condition. Horizontal boundary conditions are periodic.

We assume GW propagation in an (xz) plane without loss of generality and perturbations having the form ϕ′ = ϕexp[i(kx+mzωt)] with a specified horizontal wavelength λx = 2π/k = 300 km, initial vertical wavelength λz = 2π/m = 40 km, and frequency ω = 0 at the source level in the reference frame moving with the GW horizontal phase velocity c. These parameters are roughly consistent with the characteristics of typical MSTIDs observed in the upper atmosphere. We also assume a background environment initially at rest at all altitudes having constant buoyancy frequency, N = 0.02 s−1, mean temperature, T(z) = 240 K, and scale height, H = 7 km, at lower altitudes, with T and N2 varying in the thermosphere as shown in Fig. 7 and N2 = (g/T)(dT/dz + g/cp), where gT, and cp are gravitational acceleration, temperature, and specific heat at constant volume, respectively.

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Profiles of N2 and T employed for the GW simulation. N2 and T at lower altitudes asymptote to 4 × 10−4 s−2 and 240 K, respectively

An initial GW packet having a Gaussian amplitude variation in altitude with a full-width/half-maximum of 50 km was specified such that amplitude growth as ϕ′ ~ ez/2H yielded a large GW amplitude, KHI, and irreversible induced mean flows beginning at ~105 km. The simulation employed a spatial resolution of 500 m over a domain extending 450 km in the vertical and 300 km in the horizontal, in order to resolve these dynamics.

Mean and GW parameters specified at lower altitudes imply an initial GW phase speed c = 127 ms−1. Variations in T and N2 in the thermosphere and variations in U and c accompanying GW momentum transport, mean-flow accelerations, and GW self-acceleration, imply significant variations of the GW λzc, and vertical phase structure with time and altitude. The induced mean flow is given by dU/dt = −(1/ρ)d(ρuw′〉)/dz, where 〈uw′〉 is the GW momentum flux and 〈〉 denotes an average over GW phase. The GW intrinsic frequency, ωi = k(c − U), is related to the GW and mean parameters through Eq. (4), with the mean wind, U = −c, specified such that the GW is steady in the ground-based reference frame in the absence of mean flow accelerations. Note that U changes are only permanent accompanying GW dissipation and are reversible if dU/dt is due entirely to GW localization and transience.

The GW evolution is shown with contours of u′ at three times from ~138 to 172 min in Fig. 8. GW propagation is upward and to the left in these panels. At the earliest time, the GW has not yet achieved it maximum amplitude (nor initial KHI) between ~100 and 150 km, but it has experienced vertical phase compression (reductions in λz) below and above 100 km accompanying transient U accelerations that impose a smaller c − U on the trailing GW packet. Continued GW amplitude increases by 155 min (middle panel in Fig. 8) reveal further vertical phase compression and initial, small-scale KHI accompanying intensifying GW wind shears. The KHI spatial scales and amplitudes increase dramatically over the next ~17 min as the GW achieves it maximum amplitude at these altitudes. These are the times at which these neutral dynamics yielded strong responses in the ionospheric model code, so the further evolution of this flow is not of interest.

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Cross-sections of GW and KHI u′. At a 138, b 155, and c 172 min after initiation of the GW packet at lower altitudes. Maximum u′ is approximately 150 ms−1. The dominant KHI horizontal scales at the final time are ∼30–40 km

These results are of 2D neutral dynamics, where in reality, KHI would yield 3D secondary instability structures at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. However, the same response would be virtually guaranteed using a 3D model resolving 3D KHI dynamics. Additionally, high Reynolds numbers for this event likely would enable 3D secondary instabilities, but not by a wide margin. But 3D results by themselves could have led to the conclusion that the 3D plasma responses were due to 3D neutral dynamics, which is clearly not the case here. This suggests that the plasma dynamics themselves evolve 3D structures with 2D neutral forcing.

The simulated wind field is extended to three dimensions with the assumption that the winds are invariant in the unmodeled horizontal direction. The resulting wind frame of reference is then rotated by 5° and then coupled into the ionosphere model. (The rotation is not essential but was introduced to allow for the possibility of winds in the meridional direction.)

Plasma dynamics

The neutral winds are used to drive a separate model of mid-latitude ionospheric evolution. The model considers the dynamics of four ion species (O+, NO+, O2+, and H+) plus electrons. It evolves the number density of these species by enforcing the conservation of number density and momentum. Limited chemistry including charge exchange and dissociative recombination is considered. The momentum equation can be solved explicitly in the collisional regime relevant here, yielding the following expression for the velocities of the charged species:

vs – u = μs ⋅ (E + u × B) – Ds ⋅ ∇lnns + Ts ⋅ g,

where μsDs, and Ts are the tensor mobility, diffusivity, and gravitational coefficients for species s, which can be evaluated using state-parameter estimates taken from empirical models (see below) following prescriptions found in ref. . Combining the velocities gives a specification for the current density J ≡ s(qsnsvs) of the form


where σ is the conductivity tensor and Ξ is a tensor specifying the current density driven by gravity. Expressions for the tensors in the case where Coulomb collisions are neglected were given by Shume et al.. The effects of Coulomb collisions are included in the parallel transport in the current, more generalized form of the model in which collision terms coupling the ion species in Eq. (6) also appear.

We divide the electric field into a background and a perturbed component, viz., E = Eο − ∇ϕ, and solve the resulting elliptic partial differential equation for the electrostatic potential ϕ. The model solves for the potential in three spatial dimensions by imposing the quasineutrality condition, i.e., the condition that the number density of ions and electrons be equal throughout the simulation. This is equivalently the condition that the current density be everywhere solenoidal. Currents driven by electric fields, winds, pressure gradients, and gravity are included in the model as shown above. The potential equation implied by the quasineutrality condition,


is solved using a stabilized preconditioned biconjugate gradient scheme. Generalized mixed (Robin) boundary conditions are used in every dimension, i.e., dϕ/dn + βϕ = 0, where β is adjusted on each boundary so that the derivative remains approximately constant near that boundary.

The model then evaluates the convective derivative in the continuity equation for each ion species by incorporating the ion velocities in a flux assignment scheme based on the total variation diminishing (TVD) condition. We apply monotone upwind schemes for conservation laws (MUSCLs) applicable to the ion continuity problem. The method combines upwind differencing schemes, flux limiting, and second-order TVD schemes to minimize diffusion and dispersion in the time advance. It has been extended to 3D using a dimensional splitting technique. Neumann boundary conditions are applied to the number densities on all boundaries at this stage. A second-order Runge–Kutta scheme is then used for time advance. Step sizes are 2.5 s.

The ionosphere model is initialized using plasma number densities from the Parametrized Ionospheric Model (PIM). PIM is a parametrized, physics-based ionospheric model that does not include sporadic E layers which, therefore, do not appear in the initial conditions of our model. Initial ion fractions are taken from the IRI-2016 model. Background neutral atmospheric parameters used to calculate Pedersen, Hall, and direct conductivities and other transport coefficients are imported from the NRLMSISE-00 model.

The ionosphere model is cast in magnetic dipole coordinates. The grid has 192 × 161 × 145 cells in the ϕp, and q coordinates, respectively. This is an orthogonal system, simplifying model construction. In this coordinate system, most of the cross-derivative terms in the quasineutrality condition vanish identically. Further details about the coordinate system and other features of the ionosphere model were given by Hysell et al.,,.

Code sharing

The numerical codes used for this work are academic rather than production codes and do not currently run on publicly accessible servers. The authors will work with individuals wishing to share the codes.

Data availability

Arecibo World-Day data are available through the Madrigal database available through Additional data products referred to in this paper are available from the authors.


M.P. Sulzer, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (Second Edition), 2015


The incoherent scatter radar (ISR) technique is a powerful ground-based tool used to measure various properties of the ionized part of the upper atmosphere called the ionosphere. All radars transmit radio waves at a target and receive much weaker waves generated when electrons, the lightest charged component of the target matter, accelerate in response to the incident waves and reradiate the signal. Reflection and scatter are terms used to describe the reradiation, depending upon the degree and nature of the organization of the electrons in the target. Incoherent scatter returns come from free electrons in the ionospheric gas, or plasma, usually with a strong influence from the ions. ISRs can be used to measure electron and ion temperatures and velocities, and the number densities of the electrons and the various ions. ISR has remained a useful technique for ionospheric studies during the last 40 years, because a complete, accurate, and elegant theory describes the spectrum of the scattered signal, and because inexpensive and easily implemented digital signal processing makes the use of new radar techniques practical and allows new and better data analysis methods. Data analysis consists of comparing measured spectra with model spectra, adjusting the model parameters for a good match using nonlinear least-squares fitting. The primary task of ISRs is the global study of the effects of energy inputs into the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, that is, solar radiation and particles entering along the Earth’s magnetic field lines from above, and energy, often in the form of waves, from the denser atmosphere below. ISRs verify many aspects of the behavior of the ionospheric plasma, including plasma instabilities generated naturally and artificially. ISRs also make measurements in the middle atmosphere, and can function as MST (mesosphere–stratosphere–thermosphere) radars in the lower atmosphere.

The required hardware is large: one or more antennas, 30–300 m in diameter, and a powerful transmitter, 1 MW or more, capable of transmitting for several percent of the time. Most radars are monostatic, using the same antennas for transmission and reception. Each ISR is the result of different compromises in design, trading away the less needed characteristics in order to lower the cost. The Arecibo radar (18.3° N, 293.2° E) obtains a very high sensitivity at 430 MHz by using a fixed spherical dish 305 m in diameter constructed in a sinkhole in Puerto Rico. Energy focuses to a line rather than a point as with a parabolic antenna, and the original design used a long line feed antenna. Today, a Gregorian feed with secondary and tertiary reflectors is used to correct the spherical aberration. With such a large antenna the feed is moved rather than the dish, with zenith angles of 20° attainable at Arecibo. The Jicamarca observatory in Peru (−12.0° N, 283.1° E) uses a large array of dipoles operating at 50 MHz to obtain a similar sensitivity. It has a limited range of pointing angles nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field and is used to study the electrodynamics and other features of the ionosphere at the magnetic equator.

Radars requiring full sky coverage use movable parabolic dishes, and accept lower sensitivity as a result of the smaller antenna. The Millstone Hill facility in Massachusetts, USA (42.6° E, 288.5° N) operates at 440 MHz and has two parabolic dishes, one fixed in the vertical direction (68 m) and the other (46 m) rapidly steerable over most of the sky. The Sondrestrom facility in Greenland (67.0° N, 309.0° E) operates at about 1100 MHz and also uses a steerable parabolic dish (32 m). This radar has moved from the Stanford Campus to Alaska and then to Greenland in response to the needs of the scientific community. These four radars form a longitudinal chain operated under the CEDAR (Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions) program of the US National Science Foundation (NSF).

The EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter) Association, a consortium of six European countries and Japan, operates the newest facilities. These are 931 MHz radar with transmitting and receiving facilities in Tromsø, Norway (69.6° N, 19.2° E) and receiving sites in Kiruna, Sweden, and Sodankylä, Finland, a so-called tristatic system. The Tromsø site also has a monostatic 224 MHz system using a cylindrical paraboloidal antenna with mechanical steering in one plane and electrical pointing by means of phasing in the other plane. The newest EISCAT radar is located in the Svalbard archipelago on the island of Spitzbergen (78° N, 20° E) and has two parabolic dishes. The Institute of Ionosphere in Kharkov, Ukraine, operates a facility at 150 MHz with a 100 m fixed vertical dish and a 25 m steerable dish. The Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics operates a radar near Irkutsk (53° N, 103° E) in Russia (Siberia) which steers by changing the frequency between 154 and 162 MHz. The EISCAT, NSF, and Kharkov radars frequently operate together on ‘World Days’ that allow global studies of the ionosphere and space weather events. Originally designed for middle atmospheric studies, the MU radar near Shigaraki, Japan, has regularly been used in the ISR mode in recent years.


William Liu, … Andrew Yau, in Multiscale Coupling of Sun-Earth Processes, 2005


The Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) is a major $44 M upper atmospheric research facility funded by the US National Science Foundation in August 2003. Featuring a novel modular design, AMISR offers the scientists two advantages: relocatability to different locations around the globe to facilitate comparative studies, and remote steering and control to allow scientists to zoom in on interesting auroral and ionospheric features in real time.

Two of the three gigantic AMISR “faces” (each 32 m2 in size, with 128 modular panels) will be built at Resolute Bay, Canada, where a host of Canadian and international ground instruments already operate, making it one of the best locations to study the underexplored polar cap region. Many polar cap phenomena are direct signatures of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, and proxies of magnetospheric topology (theta auroral, auroral patches, and traveling vortices); the debate on convection topology under northward IMF conditions is seen by many as a litmus test of competing theories of dayside reconnection. However, the absence of an incoherent radar facility in the polar cap has limited the study of how these large- and meso-scale structures cascade to small scales. AMISR will fill this gap by providing data on how ionospheric instabilities can be excited by external forcing and how the resulting wave-particle interactions may control polar wind dynamics, among other potential effects.

Canada’s involvements in AMISR is still developing. The poleward extension of the HF radar network, appropriately named PolarDARN, is one such possibility. The complementarity between PolarDARN and AMISR can be appreciated by the following consideration. AMISR is a powerful instrument to probe ionospheric waves and instabilities on the meso and small scales; however, its limited field of view does not allow it to see the context in which these processes occur. For example, not knowing whether the convection is four-cell or two-cell limits one’s ability to connect ionospheric observations to magnetospheric reconnection and convection. PolarDARN is an ideal complement in giving the large-scale information, much like the complementary value of THEMIS GBO to the overall mission. Other potential Canadian support instruments include Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) and optical instrumentation

(including potentially THEMIS-type imagers) placed in strategic locations to allow stereoscopic imaging of auroral features underlying AMISR observations.


Are you beginnng to understand what has been happening to our Environment?  I can tell you right now the motivation behind all of this is that the ELITE are looking for all the ANCIENT artifacts and Temple Worship pieces to call for the Ancient Ones and the Power of the Demonic forces.  They are also searching for bodies, both of animals, hybrids, giants and the rulers and warriors of the past so they can use the DNA to bring them back.  They have been changing the weather to melt the ice, move the water out of the way to reveal these things.  They have also been undermining digging like crazy under the earth, yes to build their shelter from what is coming, but also to cause instability and bring about earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, floods, and volcano eruptions. 


Catholic Herald


The Vatican Observatory is being opened up to the public

When people ask why the Vatican has an observatory, one Jesuit priest says it’s because it cannot afford a particle accelerator.

This nerdy quip by the Vatican Observatory’s vice director, Jesuit Fr Paul Mueller, has become his signature response to those who are surprised to discover that popes have collected telescopes.

Eleven Jesuit astronomers live, work and pray together at two sites: one is in Arizona, at the modern Mount Graham International Observatory, and the other is at their historic headquarters on the grounds of the papal summer villa in Castel Gandolfo near Rome.

Fr Mueller, a US priest who has degrees in physics, history, philosophy and theology, and a doctorate in the history and philosophy of science, says: “Science is part of our life; for us there is no conflict, no tension.

He spoke while giving reporters a tour of the observatory’s facilities at the papal villa. Four observatory domes and telescopes are housed in two buildings ­– one being the papal residence itself, with a stunning view of Lake Albano, and the other a newly refurbished building in the wooded gardens.

The latter facility houses the Carte du Ciel (Celestial Map) telescope from 1891, a Schmidt telescope from 1957 and a new exhibit showcasing a number of historical scientific instruments, artifacts and meteorites from the observatory’s collections.

The plan is to open the space to the public starting next summer with visits organised by the Vatican Museums.

Fr Mueller said one idea would be to have groups tour the villa’s garden, have dinner and then visit one of the observatory domes for a night of stargazing. The Vatican Museums already organise special tours of the papal villa and gardens at Castel Gandolfo. Fr Mueller said the tour would help to make the historical treasures and achievements of the Vatican Observatory more visible.

The observatory traces its origins back to an observational tower erected at the Vatican by Pope Gregory XIII in 1578 in preparation for reforming the Western calendar. (And they will change TIMES and SEASONS) Over time, a number of posts for celestial observation were set up along the Vatican walls and elsewhere in Rome, such as atop the Church of St Ignatius where Jesuit Fr Angelo Secchi – the father of astrophysics– conducted much of his work.

Pope Leo XIII formally established the Vatican Observatory – placed on a hillside behind the dome of St Peter’s Basilica – in 1891 as a visible sign of the Church’s centuries-old support for science.

The pope’s main observatory, by now entrusted to the Jesuits, was eventually moved to Castel Gandolfo in 1935. Two observational domes were built on top of the pope’s summer villa to house two Zeiss telescopes purchased that year.

The Carte du Ciel telescope – what Fr Mueller calls “the jewel” of the observatory – was moved in 1942 from the Leonine Tower in Vatican City to the papal villa and, in 1957, it was joined by a Schmidt wide-angle telescope that Pope Pius XII purchased with his own money as a gift to the observatory, according to astronomer Fr Gabriele Gionti.

The Jesuit observatory staff set up a second research centre in Tucson, Arizona, in 1981after Italian skies became too bright for night-time observation. Twelve years later, in collaboration with the state’s Steward Observatory, they completed the construction of the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mount Graham, considered one of the best astronomical sites in the continental United States. Lucifer Telescope…read my article:

Do You Believe in Magick? Part 27 – A Device Named Lucifer


Visitors who participate in next year’s sky-watching tour at the papal gardens are expected to use the Carte du Ciel telescope. It was purchased after an Italian astronomer, Fr Francesco Denza, persuaded Pope Leo in the late 1800s to let the Holy See take part in an international survey of the night sky.  (So, they are not going to let the public use the latest technology… limiting them only to a telescope from 1800 or before.)

The Vatican was one of some 18 observatories around the world that spent the next few decades taking thousands of glass-plate photographs and cataloguing data for the “Carte du Ciel” project. Sisters Emilia Ponzoni, Regina Colombo, Concetta Finardi and Luigia Panceri, of Sisters of the Holy Child Mary, helped map nearly half a million stars for the Vatican’s assigned slice of the sky.

Claudio Costa, a space systems consultant engineer, oversaw the telescope’s recent restoration. He was the last person to use the historic telescope before it fell into disuse in the 1980s and he was the first to use it after restorers got it fully functioning again.

Soon, the staff hope it will be the public’s turn to peek through this piece of history and view the heavens in a new way.

When we use the telescopes to examine the heavens, that’s a kind of worship,” Fr Mueller said.  (THAT IS FOR CERTAIN, they are worshiping the stars, and the stars are entities.)

Science, he said, is searching for the truth, which exists in “two books: the book of Scripture and the book of nature”.  (The BOOK of Nature??  What book is that?  They are not studying the Scripture, I can tell you that much.  And the equipment they are employing are far from “natural”)

While people may struggle to make sense of what they see, in the end, the priest said, “The truth is one, [the books] cannot disagree because God is the author of both books.”

God said he placed the Stars in the heavens as signs for us.  For Times an Seasons and days and years.  If GOD placed them there to guide man,  I doubt very highly that it would require all this HUGELY EXPENSIVE and HIGHLY DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY to read them. 

14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:  Genesis 1:14


Throughout history there has been enmity between science and faith  (I won’t say religion, because religion is manmade to control people, it is all corrupted since the beginning.  BUT FAITH is the word for standing on and believing the Word of GOD and the One who SPOKE IT!). Anyway, SCIENCE is a Religion and it is the source of MAGICK, it is ANTI-GOD.  Therefore, anyone professing to represent the Faith of GOD must stand against “Science”.  My upcoming articles will prove beyond a doubt that Magic and Science are the same thing. 



“at another time, in another way,”

I had a crush on Pete Duel, was devastated by his death on New Years Eve
I still have a suitcase full of Pete Duel stuff I collected, even after all these years I still can’t bare to throw it way
Pete’s death had a huge impact on me, which has been with me ever since. It is a marvellous show and the world lost someone special the day Pete diedOmigod I’m normal after all- there are others like me who pine for Pete. Thanks for keeping the show alive.I don’t know if you remember Alias Smith & Jones, but I just loved it as a kid. Somewhere along the line my mother told me that ‘Hannibal Hayes’ (Pete Duel) had shot himself because of an argument with his girlfriend. Like so many other things since then, I never thought to question it because I ‘bought‘ that explanation 37 years ago.   (it happened when she was 10 and it came to her mind again 37 years later – 37 or 3+7 = 10) I’m not exactly sure why Pete Duel came to mind again. It was something to do with my post on Twinsel Town – perhaps the sound of his name that fitted so perfectly into that ‘twinning’ theme‘Duel’ or Dual’. I wondered about continuing that post in the same vein, but got pulled in a different direction. Like the quotes shown above, I too have always held something unsettled in me regarding the ‘unacceptableness‘ of this man’s death – perhaps it is too easy to buy into an actor’s character, but for me this man was too full of life. I have since read that Pete Duel was far more serious than the character he played, with a passion for nature & conservation. Because he came to my attention I decided to look at the circumstances surrounding his death. I very quickly got the wtf feeling. He ‘apparently’ committed suicide on the 31st December 1971, under a christmas tree.When I was 10 my favourite show was Alias Smith & Jones. On December 31st 1971 the star of the show committed suicide by blowing his own head off under the Christmas tree (Asheroh Pole or the Obelisk which is the penis of Osiris) , As a child this made me think why would someone do this at such a special time? It still bothers me today“On the Thursday night he died, he and his girlfriend, Diane Rey had watched his weekly show. Ms. Rey went off to bed in the house they shared while Mr. Duel stayed up to watch the LA Lakers battle the Seattle Supersonics in basketball. Sometime after midnight, he came into the bedroom, picked up his .38 (3×8 = 18 or 3 8s – 888) revolver and told Ms. Rey he “would see her later.” Then he walked back into the living room. Minutes later, Rey heard a shot and found Duel dead in the living room.”
No note was found and Mr. Duel had called his answering service that very evening to schedule a wakeup call at 6:30 (or 6 x 3= 18) -A.M for an 8 o’clock studio callI had no desire to go prying into this man’s death but felt it important to take a look at his death certificate – in the top right hand corner of the death certificate we find a cluster of familiar numbers Date of death – December 31, 1971.  (7+1 = 8)
Time: 01 33
Filming had just been completed of the 33 rd episode.There’s no way all this would slip past questioning minds these days, but back then we were learning how to ‘buy’ what we were told. (we also did not have the overwhelming access to information and research material that is available at the click of your mouse today.)From wiki: “Alias Smith and Jones began with a made-for-TV movie of the previous year called The Young Country, about con artists in the Old West… Roger Davis starred as Stephen Foster Moody, and Pete Duel had the secondary but significant role of  HonestJohn Smith” …well who can pass up an opportunity to check up on a name like that (go on just take a quick peek),M1 Interestingly, in AS & J – Pete Duel still retains the name ‘Smith‘ as his alias, though this time he is Joshua Smith Looking at other tv programmes that he appeared in in 1971 we find;1-A Passing of Torches (1971-Marcus Welby MD)
A quick search reveals that to ‘pass the torch‘ is – “to relinquish (responsibilities, for example) to another or others
Torches are an emblem of the Passion and the Betrayal. They were carried by troops, led by Judas Iscariot, as they came to arrest Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane”
2-“The Name of the Game” – The Savage Eye (1971)– “The Merv Griffin Show” …. as Himself (1 episode, 1971) – Episode dated 3 December (so just a few weeks before he died).
In symbolism, the griffin combines the symbolic qualities of two solar creatures, the lion and the eagle. It is the king of birds and lord of the air (BENNU and OSIRUS) united with the king of beasts and lord of the earth. Griffins are a symbol of the sun, wisdom, vengeance, strength, and salvation...The griffin was also an embodiment of Nemesis, the goddess of vengeance and retribution, and turned her wheel of fortune.
The griffin’s 
dual nature led it to be associated with Jesus Christ, God and man, king of heaven and earth. The eagle half of the griffin signified Christ’s divinity and the lion half represented his humanity. During the Middle Ages, griffins were symbols of Christ’s resurrection.” (Well that is what the ROMAN Church told people.  That is a blasphemous LIE) 
Pete Duel’s death occurred on 31st December (1971) – New Year’s Eve – the final day of the Gregorian year. If you are not familiar with this date it is because you have no doubt spent your life in a hut on the moon. This is one of the biggest ‘created’ times in our lives – here is a link I made earlier, a quick scroll down gives all moon hut dwellers an insight into the orchestrated hype that surrounds this time. largest (New Year) events in the world are focused on:
Hong Kong
New York
Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Valparaiso “last year…more than two million visitors witness the largest fireworks in a natural setting … a total of more than 21 kilometers of fireworks on the bay, from the commercial port city of Valparaiso to Concon, Chile“.”
In this modern world of ours we have found we need to blow a hole into next year (& God know’s what else) with colourful explosive pyrotechnic devices at this time.Blowing open the ‘Gates of Janus’ in Sydney Harbour last year. A little further info for visiting moon dwellers.” New Year’s Day is the first day of the new year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though other dates were also used in Rome). In all countries using the Gregorian calendar, except for Israel, it is a public holiday, often celebrated with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts.  (actually according to the Creator, the day starts at sundown.  Midnight to 3 am is known as the witching hour very appropriate time to blow open the gates of HELL!)Fireworks (devices) take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials (confetti for example). They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks.(Bear in mind that the SUN is often related to FIRE)  Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations …Fireworks were originally invented by the Ancient Chinese for entertainment purposes, as a natural extension of the Chinese invention of gunpowder
New Years Eve 1971, (in real life) gun powder blows a hole through the skull of Pete Duel. In Roman mythology, Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings and endings. His most prominent remnants in modern culture are his namesakes: the month of January, which begins the new year, and the janitor, who is a caretaker of doors and halls.” He was considered to be the “god of the gods” and guarded all kinds of doors and gates. This god was also invoked at the beginning of sacrifices and is therefore thought to have had something to do with beginnings in general” According to Macrobius and Cicero, Janus and Jana are a pair of divinities, worshipped as the sun and moon, whence they were regarded as the highest of the gods, and received their sacrifices before all the others. Janus and Janua are variant forms of Dianus and Diana” – (on the  show) his girlfriend Diana lives & Pete dies.Images of Janus are easy to recognise – he is depicted with two heads looking in opposite directions – Pete Duels exits this world by blasting a ‘gateway‘ through his head.This article is a dip into something much bigger – however it was always my intention to post what I could on the day of Pete Duels death. I found the following snippet & link which widens this theme for me – however I am limited with time at the present & so post simply for your perusal & interest.Let us look now at the esoteric symbolism of Janus, especially in connection to arcane Christian Mysteries. A curious document expressly representing Christ in the form of Janus shows a cartouche painted on a detached page of a fifteen century manuscript found at Luchon, in France. This painting ends the leaf for the month of January in the prefatory calendar of the book. At the summit of the medallion is the monogram “I.H.S” (for Hiesou, Greek for “Jesus”) surmounted by a heart.
The rest of the medallion features a bust of Janus and his 
dual function in the harmonization and blending of his/her dual nature. The two faces represent a male and female; they both share one crowned head, which we will discuss later on. The male figure holds a scepter in his hand and his female counterpart holds a key.” Full article link follows if you are interested – Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. It was first proposed by the Calabrian doctor Aloysius Lilius (Lily is another form of Lucifer) , and decreed by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was named, on 24 February 1582 by the papal bull Intergravissimas…”

Aloysius French Baby Names Meaning: In French Baby Names the meaning of the name  is: Famous warrior, from the Old German ‘Chlodovech’. Aloysius is the name of the Italian Saint Aloysius of Gonzaga, and common among British Roman Catholics.  Source

LANGUAGE FAMILY:INDO-EUROPEAN > GERMANIC > WEST GERMANIC > GERMAN ORIGIN:GERMANIC NAME ROOT:*HLŪDAZ WĪG > CHLODOVECHMEANING: This name derives from the Old High German name “Chlodowich and Chlodovech”, composed of two elements: “*hlūdaz”, meaning (to hear, loud, sound, noise / famous) and “wīg”, meaning (fight, battle, fighter, able to fight). The name means “glorious in battle, famous warrior”. Directly from the root of the name derives, for example, “Ludwig” and from “Chlodovech”, for example, derive the masculine form “Clovis and Clodoveo”. Clovis I, “Latinized form Chlodovech”, king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe. His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived more than 200 years, until the rise of the Carolingians in the 8th century. While he was not the first Frankish king, he was the kingdom’s political and religious founderSource

Pete Duel was born on 24th February (1940) 

…The intercalary day in a leap year is known as a leap day. Since Roman times 24 February (bissextile) was counted as the leap day, but now 29 February is regarded as the leap day in most countries.”

I apologise if this tale is a little meandering, there is a wider theme that will be looked at in the next part. At the moment I am writing this on New Years Eve. I do not know if & why Pete Duel killed himself, but trails lead in many directions. I do not know if sacrifices are hand picked, if the key is to be found in the numbers or stars of their birth, if nasty secret societies need to feed their agendas or some kind of dimensional energies are at work. However when looking at the circumstances leading up to & surrounding the death of this man, I do not feel the element of free will.

A few weeks ago I happened upon a DVD of the first series of AS & J, after a certain amount of umming & ahhing (well research can be bloody expensive) I bought the set & have been been making my way through them ever since.

The introduction which I remembered word perfect from childhood tells us that neither of the outlaws ever shot anyone. Incidentally this beginning is narrated by Roger Davis, the actor who replaced Pete Duel in the show & who had starred with him in the original movie The Young Country.

Thus far there has been an episode where we are told a 17 year old girl committed suicide – the story turns out to be fabricated – 17 reversed gives 71 (the year of his death) plus perhaps the message that there was no suicide.

Another episode is entitledThe Man who murdered himself” – a really poor excuse for a storyline with a search for the remains of a mythical race of 7 foot Indians bones are eventually found in a cave & Hannibal Heyes (Pete Duel) is requested to lie down beside them to gauge their height – I found this image & the episode’s title very disturbing.

The 12th episode is entitled “The Fifth Victimin which Pete Duel is shot in the head. In this episode, unless my maths is worse than I thought, only 4 people are shot, 3 are killed plus Hannibal Heyes (Duel) is wounded but pulls through, so who I wondered was the 5th victim?

Pete Duel came from a very long line of doctors & it was thought he would follow in the family footsteps, instead he became an actor – not an easy career choice however “On his arrival in Hollywood in the mid-1960s, he struck pay dirt almost immediately in semi-heavy roles.” For Pete Duel the doors swung open very easily.

I shall leave this article here for now. For this part I’m trying to draw attention to the timing of his death & why that might have been. We are right on the cusp of yet another year & all the hype, drama & heightened tensions of that event makes me wonder very much about the timing & details of an event from 37 years ago & just how much effect it had on the psyche of the people of that time. My feelings & research & the words & feelings of others suggest that even though many years have passed the events surrounding this man’s leave-taking require an honest gaze.

In the meantime & on the anniversary of his death I offer these words & intent “Go with Love, Peter Deuel”


c.1432, “otherwise called,” from L. form of alius “at another time, in another way,” from alius “(an)other,” from PIE *al- “beyond” (cf. Skt. anya “other, different,” Avestan anya-, Armenian ail, Gk. allos “another,” Goth. aljis “other,” O.E. elles “otherwise, else”). The noun meaning “assumed name” is first recorded 1605.

by Common Lit Staff / 2014
8th GradeLexile: 1370
Consider the different ways we express ourselves, especially in the new age of technology. The Internet has heavily shaped our notion of identity. On the Internet, people can create a multitude of personas, some of which can be created with false information.

As you read, take notes on the ways in which people express their identity on the Internet.

Associated Explainer


An online identity, sometimes called an Internet persona, is an identity established by a user to interact with others through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, blogs, or multi-player games. Although some people use their real names online, many Internet users prefer to be anonymous, identifying themselves by pseudonyms. Some users can be deceptive about their identity.

Pseudonym, has its origins in the Greek word pseudōnymos, which means “bearing a false name.” Greek speakers formed their word by combining pseud-, meaning “false,” and onyma, meaning “name.” French speakers adopted the Greek word as pseudonyme, and English speakers later modified the French word into pseudonym.

Pseudonym noun – a fictitious name used by an author to conceal his or her identity; pen name.

Users express online identity both explicitly and implicitly. Users express themselves explicitly through usernames, pictures, and the information about themselves that they choose to give others, such as their hometown. They can also explicitly express their identity by choosing an avatar, an icon-sized graphic image, or by creating user profiles in social media networks, such as Facebook. Implicitly, users express their identity through what they say to other users and the opinions they express. As other users interact with an established online identity, it gains a reputation, which enables them to decide whether the identity is worthy of trust.

avatar (n.)  from etymology online
1784, “descent of a Hindu deity to earth in an incarnate or tangible form,” from Sanskrit avatarana “descent” (of a deity to the earth in incarnate form), from ava- “off, down” (from PIE root *au- (2) “off, away”) + base of tarati “(he) crosses over,” from PIE root *tere- (2) “cross over, pass through, overcome.”

Meaning “concrete embodiment of something abstract” is from 1815. In computer use, it seems to trace to the novel “Snowcrash” (1992) by Neal Stephenson.

So, we see that an AVATAR is so much more than just a “false NAME”.  When we take on an AVATAR we are inviting a diety (false god) to descend (to come down into our physical body an inhabit us)  cross over (to move from the spiritual dimension into the physical plane by entering our body), pass through (to pass through the veil and enter using our body as a gateway)  and/or overcome (take dominion, possess) us.



Social networking services and online avatars have made the notion of identity far more complex, because the identities that people define in the social media are not necessarily the identities that they actually have. For example, several studies have shown that people lie about themselves in online dating profiles, or in communication with potential partners.

A person may feel that she is able to lie about her identity on the Internet because it creates a “mask” effect, where no one can see her “true self.” Social theorists believe that whenever an individual interacts with others online, she portrays a mask of her identity, not her true identity. This is partly due to the fact that in some online contexts, such as Facebook, she must answer specific questions to create an online profile. Further, as she begins to interact with others, she adds more and more layers to her mask through the vocabulary she uses and the topics she writes about.  (So we see that the whole online ID thing has just been another way to get us used to masking ourselves, makes me wonder how many other ways we have not yet uncovered.)

The kind of mask one chooses reveals at least something about the person who chooses it. While the online mask does not reveal the actual identity of the person, it does reveal an example of what lies behind the mask. For instance, if a person chooses to act like a rock star online, this may mean that he or she has an interest in rock music. Even a person choosing to hide behind a totally false identity says something about the fear and lack of self-esteem he or she may be experiencing.


Online identity offers potential social benefits to those with physical and sensory disabilities, because others cannot see them. These users can free themselves from their disabilities by creating online personas that are not disabled. This is called “disembodiment,” and gives these users the opportunity to operate outside the constraints of social stigmatization. They can be treated on their merits as a person, rather than being seen as someone inferior due to a disability.


Most concerns about virtual identity revolve around the contrast between online and offline existence. The ability to challenge the notion of what “real” means has raised questions about how virtual experience may affect one’s offline emotions.

If you have not spent the last three months locked up in your room, than you have experienced first hand the dehumanization of the mask.  When we cannot see the full face of even people close to us the connection is lost to some extent.  Our face gives expression to who we are inside.  Wearing a mask isolates us.  It makes us feel disconnected even from ourselves.  But, there is a greater element to this whole issue that has not really been addressed yet…  How it affects our relationship with GOD, the creator of all things.  

It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honour of kings is to search out a matter.


I have always been a little unclear about this particular scripture, but in the light of what has been happening with the COVID 19 Plandemic, now it makes sense.
So, Adam and Eve, having eaten of the tree of the KNOWLEDGE of GOOD and EVIL, now wise in their own eyes, CONCEALED  themselves amongst the TREES.  

The ancient symbol of the Tree has been found to represent physical and spiritual nourishment, transformation and liberation, union and fertility. … They are seen as powerful symbols of growth and resurrection. In many of folk religions, trees are said to be homes of spirits.(As in Spiritual Entities, as in the FALLEN, Demons, Evil Spirits.) Oct 8, 2017   SOURCE

In other words they joined the allegiance of the fallen.  Aligned themselves with those who rejected GOD. 

Matthew Poole’s Commentary

It is the glory of God; it is agreeable to the nature and highly conducing to the honour of God, because it is a testimony of his infinite wisdom and knowledge, of his absolute power and sovereignty, and of his other incomprehensible perfections.

To conceal a thing; to keep his counsels and the reasons of his actions in his own breast, that he needs not to impart them to any other for their advice and assistance, as being self-sufficient both for the contrivance and execution of whatsoever pleaseth him, and accountable to none for any of his matters.

But the honour of kings is; but kings must not affect to be like God in this respect,because they are creatures (created beings), and therefore ignorant and insufficient, and accountable to a higher authority;  (and this is why, you MUST either serve the Creator or serve the lesser gods who are really demons, because you are NEVER going to be able to stand alone…able to be fully self-sufficent both for the contrivance and execution of whatsoever pleaseth him, and accountable to none.)

to search out a matter; in the conduct of their great affairs, not to lean to their own understandings, nor to be wedded to their own wills, but to communicate their counsels to others, that so they may search and find out the true and right way, and to be ready to give a satisfactory account of the justice and reasonableness of them, as occasion shall require.


Verses 2-7. – Proverbs concerning kings. Verse 2. – It is the glory of God to conceal a thing. That which is the chief glory of God is his mysteriousness, the unfathomable character of his nature and attributes and doings. The more we search into these matters, the more complete we find our ignorance to be; finite faculties are utterly unable to comprehend the infinite; they can embrace merely what God chooses to reveal.
“Secret things belong unto the Lord our God” (Deuteronomy 29:29),
and the great prophet, favoured with Divine revelations, can only confess,
           “Verily, thou art a God that hidest thyself” Isaiah 45:15; comp Ecclesiastes 8:17Romans 11:33, etc.). 
But the honour of kings is to search out a matter. The same word is used for “glory” and “honour” in both clauses, and ought to have been rendered similarly. It is the king’s glory to execute justice and to defend the rights and safety of his people. To do this effectually he must investigate matters brought before him, look keenly into political difficulties, get to the bottom of all complications, and watch against possible dangers. The contrast between the glory of God and that of the king lies in thisthat whereas both God and the king desire man’s welfare, the former promotes this by making him feel his ignorance and littleness and entire dependence upon this mysterious Being whose nature and designs mortals cannot understand; the latter advances the good of his subjects by giving them confidence in his zeal and power to discover truth, and using his knowledge for their benefit. Septuagint,
“The glory of God concealeth a word (λόγον): but the glory of a king honoureth matters (πράγματα)
Do you get it yet??  The evil entities who declared themselves equal with GOD, set themselves up as gods on the earth and ruled over the Pagans mercilessly, violently and greedily, until JESUS CAME.  Jesus came and set us free from their dominion.  The WORD OF GOD HIMSELF took on flesh and walked among us, showing us how to live, revealing TRUTH to us, dying on the cross to pay the recompense for our sins, sent us the  Holy Spirit to guide and comfort us and EMPOWER us to live this life victoriously.  JESUS was our kinsman redeemer.  He paid the price to open the GATES of Heaven that we might fellowship with the TRUE AND LIVING CREATOR GOD as we were originally intended to do, before the deception in the garden an the subsequent fall of man.
When we concel, cover up, mask our faces we are telling the ALMIGHTY, that we consider ourselves GODS.  Able to to keep our own counsels and the reasons of his actions in our own breast, that we need not to impart them to any other for their advice and assistance, as being self-sufficient both for the contrivance and execution of whatsoever pleaseth us, and accountable to none for any of his matters.   In outher words we are declaring we are EQUAL WITH GOD. 
In the definition of AVATAR there was a reference to it being related to the Science Fiction Novel “Snow Crash”.  I looked that up and I highly recommend you research it for yourself.  I have posted the “back ground” of the story from wiki.  It is very intereting.  
Snow Crash is a science fiction novel by American writer Neal Stephenson, published in 1992

The story opens in Los Angeles in the 21st century, an unspecified number of years after a worldwide economic collapse. Los Angeles is no longer part of the United States, as the US federal government has ceded most of its power and territory to private organizations and entrepreneurs.[4] Franchising, individual sovereignty, and private vehicles reign supreme. Mercenary armies compete for national defense contracts while private security guards preserve the peace in sovereign, gated housing developments. Highway companies compete to attract drivers to their roads and all mail delivery is by hired courier. The remnants of government maintain authority only in isolated compounds where they do tedious make-work that is, by and large, irrelevant to the society around them.

Much of the world’s territory has been carved up into sovereign enclaves, each run by its own big business franchise (such as “Mr. Lee’s Greater Hong Kong”, or the corporatized American Mafia), or various residential burbclaves — quasi-sovereign gated communities.

This arrangement resembles anarcho-capitalism, a theme Stephenson carries over to his next novel The Diamond Age. As described in both novels, and the short story “The Great Simoleon Caper” (1995), hyperinflation has sapped the value of the US dollar to the extent that trillion dollar bills—Ed Meeses—are nearly disregarded and the quadrillion dollar note—the Gipper—is the standard “small” bill. This hyperinflation was created by the government overprinting money, due to loss of tax revenues, as people increasingly began to use electronic currency, exchanged in encrypted online transactions and thus untaxable. For physical transactions, they resort to alternative currencies such as yen or “Kongbucks” (the official currency of Mr. Lee’s Greater Hong Kong). Hyperinflation has also negatively affected much of the rest of the world (with some exceptions like Japan), resulting in waves of desperate refugees from Asia who cross the Pacific in rickety ships hoping to arrive in North America.

The Metaverse, a phrase coined by Stephenson as a successor to the Internet, constitutes Stephenson’s vision of how a virtual realitybased Internet might evolve in the near future. Resembling a massively multiplayer online game (MMO), the Metaverse is populated by user-controlled avatars as well as system daemons. Although there are public-access Metaverse terminals in Reality, using them carries a social stigma among Metaverse denizens, in part because of the poor visual representations of themselves as low-quality avatars. Status in the Metaverse is a function of two things: access to restricted environments such as the Black Sun, an exclusive Metaverse club, and technical acumen, which is often demonstrated by the sophistication of one’s avatar.


26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. 28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.  Genesis 1:26-28 

We were CREATED by a loving Father in His own image.  The very same loving Father who watches over us, and protects us from the evil spirits who seek to destroy our souls and everyone and everything that we love.  These same evil entities have been working hard throughout the centuries and millenium to debase man to be as low as any animal or crawling thing or inanimate object on the earth, yet exalt him above his CREATOR!  

They tear you down, until you are so lost you do not even know which end is up, what is right or wrong, if you are a boy or a girl…or anything else in the “universe”; in other words you are nothing. Then these lying spirits of HELL,  tell you that you are GOD.  In your minddless, heartless, souless condition, in your utter blindness of SPIRIT, you BELIEVE IT!




Much More Than Beads, Jazz and Parades!