Photo Credit: BitChute

You may or may not be familiar with CERN – The Large Hedron Collider in Switzerland.  If you are, I hope that the information below will add something to what you already know.  Even if you are familiar with CERN, you may or may not know about all the other Colliders/Accelerators currently active around the world, or the ones that came before them.  AND, you may or may not know about the plans for future Colliders/Accelerators.  

There has been a lot of Shenanigans connected to and surrounding CERN, as well as a lot of Strange Events that are totally unexplainable.  Those are not covered in this article, but some of them can be found in the following articles on my webpage:

Nov 10, 2016
Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.


Physicists love playing. And that would be fine, if the toys they like were not expensive and useless. This is what many people think when they hear of particle accelerators. Scientists are aware of this common feeling, and work hard to raise awareness of how particle accelerators benefit science and society.

Particle accelerators are designed to propel particles via electromagnetic fields and pack them into beams. They have been built since the first decades of the past century, and can be linear or circular, small enough to be held on a hand or large enough to cross borders among nations. There are thousands of accelerators all over the world, allowing scientists to investigate the fundamental building blocks of matter and to understand the most intimate secrets of the Universe.

document entitled Application of Particle Accelerators in Europe, developed within EuCARD-2, a European Project promoting and developing new technologies for particle accelerators, and published in Issue 21 of Accelerating News   Source

Apr 2, 2017
There are over 30,000 particle accelerators all over the world, so what are they used for? Hint: It’s not just particle physics. Subatomic Particles Explained In Under 4 Minutes – Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here – Read More: The accelerator in the Louvre… In a basement 15 meters below the towering glass pyramid of the Louvre Museum in Paris sits a piece of work the curators have no plans to display: the museum’s particle accelerator. This isn’t a Dan Brown novel. The Accélérateur Grand Louvre d’analyse élémentaire is real and has been a part of the museum since 1988. The Large Hadron Collider…The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It first started up on 10 September 2008, and remains the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way.” ‘Big Bang’ experiment starts well… “Scientists have hailed a successful switch-on for an enormous experiment which will recreate the conditions a few moments after the Big Bang. They have now fired two beams of particles called protons around the 27km-long tunnel which houses the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).” ____________________ Seeker inspires us to see the world through the lens of science and evokes a sense of curiosity, optimism and adventure.


Most people, if they are aware of Colliders at all, relate only to the LHC at CERN.  However, they have been using colliders of all shapes and sizes around the world since WW2.  Perhaps even before.  DO you think that, perhaps, all those COLLIDERS banging particals together at such force above and mostly below ground, might have anything to do with the CLIMATE CHANGE, and the LAND SHIFTING, and THE SINK HOLES, and THE EARTHQUAKES, AND THE FLOODS??  Hmmm?

I bet you were not even aware that any of this has been going on.  Let’s take a look at some very interesting information…shall we?

The International Linear Colliders two linear  accelerators will hurl electrons and their antiparticles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero will give the particles more and more energy until they collide at the center. The machine will stretch approximately 31 kilometers. The beams will collide 14,000 times every second at the extremely high energy of 500 billion electron volts (GeV).  Source: Accelerators AND Beams

Linear accelerators, or linacs for short, are designed to hurl a beam of particles in a straight line. In general, the longer the linac, the more powerful the particle punch. The linear accelerator at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, near San Francisco, is the largest on the planet.

SLAC’s klystron gallery, a building that houses components that power the accelerator, sits atop the accelerator. It’s one of the world’s longest modern buildings. Overall, it’s a little less than 2 miles long, a feature that prompts laboratory employees to hold an annual footrace around its perimeter.

Scientists tend to construct large particle accelerators underground. This protects them from being bumped and destabilized, but can also make them a little harder to find.

For example, motorists driving down Interstate 280 in northern California may not notice it, but the main accelerator at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory runs underground just beneath their wheels.

Residents in villages in the Swiss-French countryside live atop the highest-energy particle collider in the world, the Large Hadron Collider.

And for decades, teams at Cornell University have played soccer, football and lacrosse on Robison Alumni Fields 40 feet above the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, or CESR. Scientists use the circular particle accelerator to study compact particle beams and to produce X-ray light for experiments in biology, materials science and physics.  Source


Well, naturally the people are not aware that these huge devices are right under their feet, NO ONE TELLS US ABOUT THEM.  Why all the secrecy?  What are they hiding?  Why are the people not given an opportunity to have a say in whether these things can be placed in their community?  JUST how do these things affect our environment on a daily basis, and why are we not informed?  AND JUST WHERE DOES THE MONEY COME FROM FOR ALL THESE COLLIDERS that cost billions of dollars?

"Electrons will collide with protons or larger atomic nuclei at the Electron-Ion Collider to produce dynamic 3-D snapshots of the building blocks of all visible matter," according to the U.S. Department of Energy. (Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory/DOE)
“Electrons will collide with protons or larger atomic nuclei at the Electron-Ion Collider to produce dynamic 3-D snapshots of the building blocks of all visible matter,” according to the U.S. Department of Energy. (Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory/DOE)

The United States will soon have its first new particle collider in decades.

Earlier this year, the Department of Energy announced that Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, will be home to the Electron-Ion Collider [EIC], which will investigate what’s inside two subatomic particles: protons and neutrons.

Brookhaven’s website describes this instrument as “a machine that will unlock the secrets of the strongest force in nature.” It’s essentially an electron microscope that shoots electrons at protons and neutrons in order to measure them, says Paul Dabbar, undersecretary for science at the Department of Energy.

You need to accelerate it to very high levels of energy in order to basically shoot it, to do the mapping a little bit like an MRI or a CT scan for the inner workings of matter,” he explains.

The electron beam is accelerated very fast in a circle, Dabbar says.

“We will generate an electron beam and accelerate it to very, very close to the speed of light,” he says. “We basically circle around them imparting energy into the electron beam until it reaches the level that we want it so that we can image the protons and neutrons.”

Scientists can’t accelerate it exactly to the speed of light because as any piece of matter approaches that speed, its mass changes, Dabbar says.

“That mass change makes it increasingly hard to get faster and faster,” he says. “And as you reach the speed of light, you reach an infinite amount of energy needed to get to that last step, and therefore, we cannot do that.”

An electron–ion collider (EIC) is a type of particle accelerator collider designed to collide spin-polarized beams of electrons and ions, in order to study the properties of nuclear matter in detail via deep inelastic scattering. In 2012, a whitepaper[1] was published, proposing the developing and building of an EIC accelerator, and in 2015, the Department of Energy Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) named the construction of an electron–ion collider one of the top priorities for the near future in nuclear physics in the United States.[2]

In 2020, The United States Department of Energy announced that an EIC will be built over the next ten years at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York, at an estimated cost of $1.6 to $2.6 billion.[3]

On 18 September 2020, a ribbon-cutting ceremony was held at BNL, officially launching the development and building of the EIC.[4]

"This schematic shows how the EIC will fit within the tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, background photo), reusing essential infrastructure and key components of RHIC," according to the U.S. Department of Energy. (Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory/DOE)
“This schematic shows how the EIC will fit within the tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, background photo), reusing essential infrastructure and key components of RHIC,” according to the U.S. Department of Energy. (Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory/DOE)
On the practical applications of this research

“Well, the basic science research that this country has done and we have led particle physics since World War II, since the Manhattan Project, and a lot of the technologies that we use today have come out of the basic research that came out of the national labs, including in physics. These accelerators can be used for many different things…

…“one, which is, I think, very interesting here in the near term, is around quantum information technologies. Utilizing quantum, which is inputting data into atoms rather than transistors, is basically a particle physics problem. And so the same equipment that we’re looking at, technology that we’re developing here and we’ve developed in the past for kind of older versions of accelerators, is the exact same particle technology that will be used for the upcoming quantum computing and the quantum internet.

On why this collider won’t be up and running until 2030

“So first of all, one of the advantages of this particular site and building it here is that we’re actually using some existing collider infrastructure. There is a collider at Brookhaven National Lab right now called RHIC, which is a relativistic hadron collider. So there’s already a loop there that it was accelerating other types of ions. There was an accelerator infrastructure [already] there. And so we’re going to finish that mission in terms of imaging for nuclear physics in 2024. Between now and then, we’re actually going to be starting both the engineering design in more detail as well as design around components like the accelerators. And then in 2024, when we take down the Rick Collider at Brookhaven National Lab, then we’ll start actually installing. And so from then it will take about six years to both do the construction and then do the commissioning and startup.”

On why this is the first particle accelerator built in the U.S. in decades

“There’s a bit of a history around these accelerators. They cost a lot of money. There was one that was looked at a couple of decades ago called the Superconducting Super Collider, (now that is really the only one that I personally and probably most of the public was aware of before I started writing on the topic, that is probably because they shut down the project.) which ran into some … challenges. The U.S. decided to invest in CERN [the European Organization for Nuclear Research] and the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva for that particular piece of science. We’ve been focusing on other areas. So one of them has been a neutrino piece of infrastructure at Fermilab outside of Chicago.

We’ve been investing in Europe for some colliders over the last, you know (interesting that they don’t want to state the amount of time), the near term. And by the way, we continue that is for that particular type of collider. We’re increasing our investment by the United States into the European collider at CERN. But we decided to take a look at building this particular collider in the U.S. I think a key thing for your listeners to kind of understand is that the budgets for the Office of Science and science in general at the federal level, including NASA and the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health, are at all-time highs, and we’re very excited about the support that, very bipartisan support from both Congress and ultimately president signing the budgets for all-time highs. So we’re very excited about that.”

Chris Bentley produced and edited this interview for broadcast with Kathleen McKennaSamantha Raphelson adapted it for the web.  This segment aired on February 12, 2020.



On 30 October, CERN will be joining scientists around the world who are shedding light on one of the darkest mysteries of our universe to celebrate Dark Matter Day 2020

By Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira


Dark matter warps distant starlight and enables galaxies to rotate at unfathomable speeds, yet is completely invisible to traditional detectors. In fact, scientists only know that dark matter exists because of its massive gravitational pull on ordinary matter. In the hunt for this elusive substance, scientists’ most powerful weapons are their creativity and their perseverance. ( their vivid imagination and their stubborn insistence on its existence is what keeps this BS alive.)

Several experiments at CERN, including AMSATLASCASTCMSFASER and Osqar are searching for dark matter. In order to identify possible dark-matter particles,experiments try to “make them” (so, since they can’t find any evidence of them, they will manufacture them. lol,lol, lol and this is what the world’s greatest minds call science!!) (through particle collisions in the LHC), “break them” (by examining what could be the remnants of their collisions in outer space) or “shake them” (by searching for the kicks that dark matter could give to atomic nuclei in detectors).  (Oh my WORD, they are spending BILLIONS of Dollars chasing their imaginations, it is ALL BS!)

Dark Matter Day is celebrated every year by laboratories involved in Dark Matter research around the world, hence CERN’s participation in the event. On 30 October (the darkest season of the year, spiritually, when countless animals and humans are being sacrificed, they celebrate darkeness.) from 17:00 CET, CERN theorists and experimentalists working on some of the CERN experiments will present their latest research on dark matter and answer burning questions from the audience through a YouTube and Facebook live discussionViewers are welcome to ask questions ranging from the nature of Dark Matter to how scientists intend to make it in a lab – and how to visit these experiments at CERN.

Do not miss the presentations and Q&A sessions of our two special guests. At 17:30 CET, ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano will reflect on his contribution to the Dark Matter hunt achieved through physically going to space to replace a vital instrument of the AMS detector on the International Space Station. Columbian artist Juan Cortés will also be joining live: he created an art piece entitled Superlunar, which invites us to experience Vera Rubin discoveries on the relationship between dark matter and the rotational movement of galaxies through a poetic approach.  (They declare to you that dark matter exists and preach to you how it works in our universe… when they know darn well they have no proof that it exists.  They make fun of Christians who believe in a Holy Ghost you cannot prove… though his presence is clearly evident in people’s lives, but they want you to believe in DARK MATTER because they tell you it exists.  With NO EVIDENCE other than what the create in a lab.)

Additionally, check out the CERN Youtube tutorial on advanced Dark Matter detection, and make sure to have jelly nearby… (things might get sticky), and follow a public talk on Dark Matter on the YouTube channel of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN, on Thursday 29 October at 20:00 CET.

For more information on the full international programme for the week (from 26 to 31 October), check out the Dark Matter Day site and follow #darkmatterday.



Linac 4, CERN's latest linear particle accelerator
Linac 4, CERN’s latest linear particle accelerator / Andrew Hara/CERN / VIEW 1 IMAGES

After an almost two-year shutdown for repairs and upgrades, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is beginning to fire back up for its next phase of probing the mysteries of physics. Its newest particle accelerator, Linac 4, completed its first test run over the past few weeks, with the potential to provide much more energetic beams than ever before.

The LHC paused operations in December 2018, beginning a massive overhaul called the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). When it’s fully finished and finally fired up in 2026, the upgraded facility will be seven times more powerful and will collect around 10 times more data in the following decade than it did during the previous run.

And now, the first incremental stage of this upgrade is coming online. The new linear accelerator, called Linac 4, has been installed and tested over the last few weeks. This device is the starting point for accelerating protons, which are then injected into the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster and onto the rest of the accelerator complex.

Linac 4 replaces Linac 2, which was in operation at CERN for 40 years. As you might expect the new model is significantly more powerful, injecting particles into the PS Booster at energies up to 160 MeV – much higher than Linac 2’s 50 MeV. By the time these beams are boosted, they’ll reach energies of 2 GeV, compared to the 1.4 GeV that Linac 2 was capable of.

This extra energy is thanks to the fact that scientists can tweak Linac 4’s beams in much more detail than its predecessor.

“With Linac 4, we can adjust additional parameters of the beam so we can feed the Booster in a loss-free process,” says Bettina Mikulec, team leader at the operations group for Linac 4. “We can also adapt the energy spread of the beams to match the Booster’s acceptance, whereas with Linac 2 one practically only adjusted the length of the beam before injection.”

In the three weeks up to mid-August, Linac 4 was tested with low-energy beams of negative hydrogen ions, running only through the first part of the accelerator. On August 20, it was finally cranked right up to maximum energy, with beams accelerated through the whole machine. These were then sent into a “beam dump” at the end, a device that catches and absorbs the particles.

Further testing will take place over the next few weeks and months. In September, the beams will be sent down the injection line towards the PS Booster, but will be caught in a beam dump before they arrive.

Currently, the first beam to be delivered into the PS Booster is scheduled for December 7. After that, the first test beams will be sent into the LHC at the end of September 2021 – representing a four-month delay thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Source: CERN


CHINA’S super particle collider could RIP the fabric of the universe, according to a shock claim as an astrophysicist warns there is a chance colliders could cause a ‘catastrophe that engulfs space itself’.

lhc tear

China’s SUPERCOLLIDER could ‘RIP the fabric’ of the UNIVERSE (Image: GETTY)

The east Asian nation is building a particle accelerator which will be seven times as powerful as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland.

With a circumference of 34 miles, it will also be twice as long as the LHC.

When CERN began work on the LHC, many feared it could end the universe or create black holes on Earth.

Now with China’s plans to build a more powerful particle accelerator, the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), the fears have inevitably rose again.

Space website the Daily Galaxy paraphrased astrophysicist Martin Rees and wrote “there’s a chance the colliders could cause a ‘catastrophe that engulfs space itself’.

Mr Rees warned “innovation is often hazardous,” but that “physicists should be circumspect about carrying out experiments that generate conditions with no precedent, even in the cosmos.”

Wang Yifang, director of the Institute of High Emergency Physics at the academy, confirmed the CEPC’s power.

He said: “LHC is hitting its limits of energy level.

What portal did CERN open now? Strange Clouds Hover Above the LHC

It seems not possible to escalate the energy dramatically ay the existing facility.

“The technical route we chose is different from the LHC.

“While the LHC smashes together protons, it generates Higgs particles together with many other particles.”

Mr Yifang told China Daily the CEPC, which is set to be built near the start of the Great Wall, creates a “clean environment that only produces Higgs boson particles.

particle smash

CEPC will be seven times as powerful as the Large Hadron Collider (Image: GETTY)

“This is a machine for the world and by the world: not a Chinese one”.

Work on the CEPC is set to start before 2021, with the hopes of having it up and running by 2055.

The Daily Galaxy wrote: “China’s Massive Particle Accelerator could create a phase transition that rips the very fabric of spacetime”.

CERN’s Concept Design for Next-Gen ‘Supercollider’ Mirrors China’s Plans

Future Circular Collider, Large Hadron Collider, particle physics, Higgs boson, Sabine Hossenfelder, Circular Electron-Positron Collider, science communication, extra dimensions, Big Bang, black holes,
The world’s largest particle physics laboratory has unveiled its design options for the Large Hadron Collider’s successor – what is expected to be a 100-km long next generation ‘supercollider’.

The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) submitted the conceptual design report for what it is calling the Future Circular Collider (FCC). The FCC is expected to be able to smash particles together at even higher intensities and push the boundaries of the study of elementary particles. CERN expects it can come online by 2040, when the Large Hadron Collider’s (LHC’s) final run will come to a close.

The LHC switched on in 2008. Its first primary goal was to look for the Higgs boson, a fundamental particle that gives all other fundamental particles their masses. The LHC found it four years. After that, physicists expected it would be able to find other particles they’ve been looking for to make sense of the universe. The LHC has not.

This forced physicists to confront alternative possibilities about where and how they could find these other hypothetical particles, or even if they existed. The FCC is expected to help by enabling a deeper and more precise examination of the world of particles. It will also help study the Higgs boson in much greater detail than the LHC allows, in the process understand its underlying theory better.

The CERN report on what the FCC could look like comes at an interesting time – when two supercollider designs are being considered in Asia. In November 2018, China unveiled plans for its Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), a particle accelerator seven-times wider than the LHC.

Also read: China, Japan Prepare to Transform Asia Into Hub of Particle Physics Research

The FCC, CEPC and the LHC are all circular machines – whereas the other design is slightly different. Also in November, Japan said it would announce the final decision on its support for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in a month. As the name suggests, the ILC’s acceleration tunnel is a straight tube 30-50 km long, and parallels CERN’s own idea for a similar machine.

But in December, a council of scientists wrote to Japan’s science minister saying they opposed the ILC because of a lack of clarity on how Japan would share its costs with other participating nations.

In fact, cost has been the principal criticism directed against these projects. The LHC itself cost $13 billion. The FCC is expected to cost $15 billion, the CEPC $5 billion and the ILC, $6.2 billion. ($1 billion is about Rs 7,100 crore.)

They are all focused on studying the Higgs boson more thoroughly as well. This is because the energy field that the particle represents, called the Higgs field, pervades the entire universe and interacts with almost all fundamental particles. However, these attributes give rise to properties that are incompatible with the universe’s behaviour at the largest scales.

Scientists believe that studying the Higgs boson closely could unravel these tensions and maybe expose some ‘new physics’. This means generating collisions to produce millions of Higgs bosons – a feat that the LHC wasn’t designed for. So the newer accelerators.

The FCC, the CEPC and the ILC all accelerate and collide electrons and positrons, whereas the LHC does the same with protons. Because electrons and positrons are fundamental particles, their collisions are much cleaner. When composite particles like protons are smashed together, the collision energy is much higher but there’s too much background noise that interferes with observations.

These differences lend themselves to different abilities. According to Sudhir Raniwala, a physicist at the University of Rajasthan, the CEPC will be able to “search for rare processes and make precision measurements”. The FCC will be able to that as well as explore signs of ‘new physics’ at higher collision energies.

According to CERN’s conceptual design report, the FCC will have four phases over 15 years.

I – For the first four years, it will operate with a centre-of-mass collision energy of 90 GeV (i.e. the total energy carried by two particles colliding head-on) and produce 10 trillion Z bosons.

II – For the next two years, it will operate at 160 GeV and produce 100 million W bosons.

III – For three years, the FCC will run at 240 GeV and produce a million Higgs bosons.

IV – Finally, after a year-long shutdown for upgrades, the beast will reawaken to run at 360 GeV for five years, producing a million top quarks and anti-top quarks. (The top quark is the most massive fundamental particle known.)

After this, the report states that the FCC tunnel could be repurposed to smash protons together the way the LHC does but at higher energy. And after that also smash protons against electrons to better probe protons themselves.

The first part of this operational scheme is similar to that of China’s CEPC. To quote The Wire‘s report from November 2018:

[Its] highest centre-of-mass collision energy will be 240 GeV. At this energy, the CEPC will function as a Higgs factory, producing about 1 million Higgs bosons. At a collision energy of 160 GeV, it will produce 15 million W bosons and at 91 GeV, over one trillion Z bosons.

Michael Benedikt, the CERN physicist leading the FCC project, has called this a validation of CERN’s idea. He told Physics World, “The considerable effort by China confirms that this is a valid option and there is wide interest in such a machine.”  (What??  The fact that an insane, totalitarian communist government is investing in it VALIDATES their “theory? their “science”… their fantasy.)

Also read: Hopes for ‘New Physics’ Pave the Road to Rencontres

However, all these projects have been envisaged as international efforts, with funds, people and technology coming from multiple national governments. In this scenario, it’s unclear how many of them will be interested in participating in two projects with similar goals.

Benedikt did not respond to a request for comment. But Wang Yifang, director of the institute leading the CEPC, told The Wire that “the world may not be able to accommodate two circular colliders”.

When asked of the way forward, he only added, “This issue can be solved later.”

Moreover, “different people have different interests” among the FCC’s and CEPC’s abilities, Raniwala said, “so there is no easy answer to where should India invest or participate.” India is currently an associate member at CERN and has no plans for a high-energy accelerator of its own.

To the FCC’s credit, it goes up to a higher energy, is backed by a lab experienced in operating large colliders and already has a working international collaboration.

Additionally, many Chinese physicists working in the country and abroad have reservations about China’s ability to pull it off. They’re led in their criticism by Chen-Ning Yang, a Nobel laureate.

But in the CEPC’s defence, the cost Yang is opposed to – a sum of $20 billion – is for the CEPC as well as its upgrade. The CEPC’s construction will also begin sooner, in around 2022, and it’s possible China will be looking for the first-mover advantage.


If built, the International Linear Collider would investigate some of the biggest mysteries in physics on the smallest of scales

By Daniel Garisto on 

Japan Inches Forward with Plans to Host Next Big Particle Collider
Karatsu in Japan’s Saga Prefecture shows the Sefuri mountain area where ground surveys were conducted as part of joint efforts by local governments, businesses and academia in the nation’s island of Kyushu to lure the International Linear Collider, the next-generation accelerator. Credit: Getty Images

Particle physicists love speed. They hope that, some years from now, they’ll have a brand-new machine capable of colliding particles stupefyingly fast—99.999999999 percent of the speed of light. Planning such a collider, though, has been a much slower process.*

One contender is the International Linear Collider (ILC), a $7-billion, 20-kilometer-long machine that would be built in Japan. The ILC’s prospects have always been uncertain—a trend that continued last March, when Japanese officials announced that they would not commit to fund it. Without a firm decision, headlines described the ILC as “stuck in limbo—and some physicists despaired that it was the Japanese government’s way of saying no.

A year later, at a meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) on February 20, 2020, Japanese officials again did not commit to funding the ILC. Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reiterated that it would “discuss the ILC project with the U.S. and European counterparts while having an interest in the project.” What the tepid bureaucratic language obscures is a slow march of progress.

Domestically, the ILC finally cleared the Science Council of Japan (SCJ), a scientific advisory group to the Japanese government which had been holding it up for years. “The SCJ process is over and MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) can move forward,” says Hitoshi Murayama, deputy director of the Linear Collider Collaboration and a theoretical physicist at the University of California, Berkeley.

On the international side, Japan has begun formal discussions with France, Germany, the U.K. and the U.S. about cost-sharing for the ILC. While the U.S. has signalled that it is ready to support the ILC, none of the European countries Japan has spoken with are currently prepared to promise financial support.

This summer MEXT will release a roadmap that points out a path for Japanese science over the next few years. If the ILC is included in the roadmap’s projects, it will have cleared another hurdle. In its postmeeting recommendations, ICFA advocated Japan transitioning from preplanning to a preparatory stage within a year.

Timing is critical: the next few years will determine the fate of the ILC and the field of particle physics. Even as MEXT formulates a roadmap for Japan, other nations are drawing up their plans—which may or may not include the ILC. The European Strategy Group (a special task force convened every five years by CERN) will release its report about which projects to prioritize in May; physicists in the U.S. will begin to sketch out their own particle physics roadmap next April. Whether the ILC is built depends in no small part on its plans being ready in time.


When electrons turn as they accelerate, they emit photons, bleeding off energy in a process called synchrotron radiation. In traditional circular colliders, this loss limits the particles’ maximum energy. Enter linear colliders: as their name suggests, they accelerate and collide particles in a straight path, avoiding synchrotron radiation so that electrons can reach higher energies.

The goal of the ILC would be to pick up where the LHC left off: with the Higgs boson. The Higgs, which was predicted in the 1960s and discovered at the LHC in 2012, is central to the mechanism that gives other elementary particles mass. Until its discovery, the Higgs was also the last missing piece of the vaunted Standard Model of particle physics, a unified description of all known fundamental particles and forces (except for gravity). Questions about the Higgs still remain—physicists want to know if it’s a “vanilla” Higgs, or if it exhibits unusual phenomena that could point the way to new physics.

Whereas the LHC collided protons to investigate the Higgs, the ILC would collide electrons with their antimatter counterparts, positrons. Unlike protons, which are made of a jumble of quarks and gluons, electrons and positrons are “fundamental”—just themselves. This produces “cleaner” collisions, minimizing the “noise” from unwanted secondary particles that could obscure the signals physicists seek to more deeply probe the Higgs.

From there the hope is that in such clean collisions, physicists could spot ultrarare events—following them like bread crumbs through a maze to reach the promised land of new physics beyond the Standard Model.  (Why don’t they just ask AI?)

The SCJ recognized this importance, writing that “there is no doubt that the search for ‘new physics beyond the Standard Model’ is the most important task” for particle physics. But that alone was not enough to give such an expensive project priority. Other experiments such as Hyper-Kamiokande, a recently approved massive neutrino detector with a lesser price tag of $600 million, have proved more appealing.

If the ILC is eventually built, it will have supporters in Japanese industry and politics to thank. Both communities see the particle collider as a political and economic coup for the country. Additionally, because of its planned location, the ILC also represents a revitalization effort in the Tohoku region, which is still recovering from the devastating 2011 earthquake-induced tsunami and associated nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant.

But even ardent supporters of the ILC must contend with the fact that it is not the only path forward in particle physics. Several emerging technologies—such as muon accelerators, energy-recovery linear accelerators and plasma wakefield acceleration—could offer equivalent or superior performance at lower costs, potentially undercutting the rationale for building future colliders like the ILC with conventional technology.

Internationally, the ILC is also in competition with other proposed colliders. Ongoing incremental upgrades to the LHC are underway at CERN and are planned to continue into the 2030s. Beyond the LHC, CERN has plans to build either its own linear collider, the CLIC, or the Future Circular Collider, a behemoth with a 100-kilometer-wide ring, or both devices. Led by Yifang Wang, physicists in China are also at work planning what would be that nation’s first major collider: the Circular Electron Positron Collider.

But dueling collider plans aren’t necessarily bad, according to Wang. “I think healthy competition is actually good,” he says. “If the ILC is approved, certainly it proves that the scientific interest is there and there is international support with this kind of science.

There is no guarantee that any of these machines will uncover any new physics. Investigating the Higgs could well be a subatomic wild goose chase, only useful insofar as it tells researchers where not to look. Or it could reveal new physics beyond the scope of our current understanding of the universe.

In either case, particle physicists are prepared to do whatever it takes. “This is a very special particle, unlike any we’ve studied in the past,” Murayama says about the Higgs. “This one, in particular, should be studied to death.”  (Yes, but whose death?)

*Editor’s Note (2/27/20): This sentence was revised after posting. It originally gave a figure of 0.99999999999 percent.


China making good progress in building world’s largest supercollider: scientist

By Deng Xiaoci Source:Global Times
Published: 2020/5/25 11:28:24
A sketch of the future Circular Electron Positron Collider. Photo: Courtesy of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of High Energy Physics

Research and development for the first batch of key equipment for the world’s most powerful electron collider, the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), in China, has made solid progress, according to a leading scientist on the project Sunday.

Wang Yifang, director of the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), under the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, who is also a deputy to the National People’s Congress, made the comments to the Global Times on the sidelines of the ongoing national two sessions in Beijing. The overall development of the CEPC project is moving forward smoothly, with some of the first batch of equipment reaching design standards.

Klystron is among the first batch of key equipment for the super-sized collider, which scored a 60 percent efficiency in the prototype test earlier this year, reaching world advanced levels, up from below 50 percent, according to Wang.

Wang’s team aims to produce an even better version of the klystron with 80 percent efficiency this year.  (What does that mean?)

The location for the CEPC has yet to be determined, Wang noted.

The CEPC project will reportedly cost 35 billion yuan ($5.05 billion) and will have a circumference of 100 kilometers, with center-mass energy of up to 240 giga electron-volts, both setting a world record.

Chinese scientists are eyeing the completion for CEPC construction by 2030, Global Times previously learned from IHEP.

The conceptual design for the CEPC passed international inspections in September 2019. Scientists from the US, Europe and Japan have participated in designing the project, and will work on the building process and conduct research with the collider.

The Large Hadron Collider, the Swiss project near Geneva, is currently the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider and reportedly the largest machine in the world.

In a bid to maximize the project’s service life, scientists are mulling upgrading the electron positron collider in around 2040 into a proton collider, Wang noted.

By then, the center-mass energy for the CEPC will have reached about 100 tera electron-volts, seven times as powerful as the Switzerland’s project, Wang said.

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has brought risks of suspension and delay in implementing procurement contracts for some equipment for large-scale projects due to adjustments in budgeting plans. Wang suggested that legal entities engaged in major project construction should be allowed to raise funds through multiple channels or borrow other funds to ensure that construction tasks are completed on schedule…

…A delay of the project would not only prolong the construction time, but also adds to the total costs and lead to loss of opportunities in international competition, he said.

Wang revealed that another IHEP project, the cosmic ray observation station on an area equivalent to 200 soccer fields in the wilderness of Daocheng, Southwest China’s Sichuan Province, 4,400 meters above sea level, has been affected by budget cuts.



First published at 00:44 UTC on February 15th, 2020.

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The fascinating developments at CERN have been something we’ve kept an eye on for several years on this channel. In this video, I discuss the latest in the news surrounding CERN and the Large Hadron Collider, as well as revisit some of the ideas concerning wormholes and whirlwinds.
#CERN #Bible #Wormholes

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The new chip bestiary

With AI workloads set to dominate the future, there’s an uncertainty around the hardware that’s aiming to dethrone the GPU

Silicon wafer used to make quantum chipsIntel

This feature appeared in the January issue of DCD Magazine

In 1971, Intel, then a manufacturer of random access memory, officially released the 4004, its first single-chip central processing unit, thus kickstarting nearly 50 years of CPU dominance in computing.

In 1989, while working at CERN, Tim Berners-Lee used a NeXT computer, designed around the Motorola 68030 CPU, to launch the first website, making the machine used the world’s first web server.

CPUs were the most expensive, the most scientifically advanced, and the most power-hungry parts of a typical server: they became the beating hearts of the digital age, and semiconductors turned into the benchmark for our species’ advancement.

Intel’s domination

Few might know about the Shannon limit or Landauer’s principle, but everyone knows about the existence of Moore’s Law, even if they have never seated a processor in their life. CPUs have entered popular culture and, today, Intel rules this market, with a near-monopoly supported by its massive R&D budgets and extensive fabrication facilities, better known as ‘fabs.’

But in the past two or three years, something strange has been happening: data centers started housing more and more processors that weren’t CPUs.

It began with the arrival of GPUs. It turned out that these massively parallel processors weren’t just useful for rendering video games and mining magical coins, but also for training machines to learn – and chipmakers grabbed onto this new revenue stream for dear life.

Back in August, Nvidia’s CEO Jen-Hsun ‘Jensen’ Huang called AI technologies the “single most powerful force of our time.” During the earnings call, he noted that there were currently more than 4,000 AI start-ups around the world. He also touted examples of enterprise apps that could take weeks to run on CPUs, but just hours on GPUs.

A handful of silicon designers looked at the success of GPUs as they were flying off the shelves, and thought: we can do better. Like Xilinx, a venerable specialist in programming logic devices. The granddaddy of custom silicon, it is credited with inventing the first field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) back in 1985.

Applications for FPGAs range from telecoms to medical imaging, hardware emulation, and of course, machine learning workloads. But Xilinx wasn’t happy with adopting old chips for new use cases, the way Nvidia had done, and in 2018, it announced the adaptive compute acceleration platform (ACAP) – a brand new chip architecture designed specifically for AI.

“Data centers are one of several markets being disrupted,” CEO Victor Peng said in a keynote at the recent Xilinx Developer Forum in Amsterdam. “We all hear about the fact that there’s zettabytes of data being generated every single month, most of them unstructured. And it takes a tremendous amount of compute capability to process all that data. And on the other side of things, you have challenges like the end of Moore’s Law, and power being a problem.

“Because of all these reasons, John Hennessy and Dave Patterson – two icons in the computer science world – both recently stated that we were entering a new golden age of architectural development.”

He continued: “Simply put, the traditional architecture that’s been carrying the industry for the last 40 to 50 years is totally inadequate for the level of data generation and data processing that’s needed today.”

It is important to remember that it’s really, really early in AI,” Peng later told DCD. “There’s a growing feeling that convolutional and deep neural networks aren’t the right approach. This whole black box thing – where you don’t know what’s going on and you can get wildly wrong results, is a little disconcerting for folks.”

A new approach

Salil Raje, head of the Xilinx data center group, warned: “If you’re betting on old hardware and software, you are going to have wasted cycles. You want to use our adaptability and map your requirements to it right now, and then longevity. When you’re doing ASICs, you’re making a big bet.”

Another company making waves is British chip designer Graphcore, quickly becoming one of the most exciting hardware start-ups of the moment.

Graphcore’s GC2 IPU has the world’s highest transistor count for a device that’s actually shipping to customers – 23,600,000,000 of them. That’s not nearly enough to keep up with the demands of Moore’s Law – but it’s a whole lot more transistor gates than in Nvidia’s V100 GPU, or AMD’s monstrous 32-core Epyc CPU.

“The honest truth is, people don’t know what sort of hardware they are going to need for AI in the near future,” Nigel Toon, the CEO of Graphcore, told us in August. “It’s not like building chips for a mature technology challenge. If you know the challenge, you just have to engineer better than other people.

“The workload is very different, neural networks and other structures of interest change from year to year. That’s why we have a research group, it’s sort of a long-distance radar.

“There are several massive technology shifts. One is AI as a workload – we’re not writing programs to tell a machine what to do anymore, we’re writing programs that tell a machine how to learn, and then the machine learns from data. So your programming has gone kind of ‘meta.’ We’re even having arguments across the industry about the way to represent numbers in computers. That hasn’t happened since 1980.

“The second technology shift is the end of traditional scaling of silicon. We need a million times more compute power, but we’re not going to get it from silicon shrinking. So we’ve got to be able to learn how to be more efficient in the silicon, and also how to build lots of chips into bigger systems.

“The third technology shift is the fact that the only way of satisfying this compute requirement at the end of silicon scaling – and fortunately, it is possible because the workload exposes lots of parallelism – is to build massively parallel computers.”

Toon is nothing if not ambitious: he hopes to grow “a couple of thousand employees” over the next few years, and take the fight to GPUs, and their progenitor.

– Cerebras

Then there’s Cerebras, the American start-up that surprised everyone in August by announcing a mammoth chip measuring nearly 8.5 by 8.5 inches, and featuring 400,000 cores, all optimized for deep learning, accompanied by a whopping 18GB of on-chip memory.

Deep learning has unique, massive, and growing computational requirements which are not well-matched by legacy machines like GPUs, which were fundamentally designed for other work,” Dr. Andy Hock, Cerebras director, said.

(SO, when the fallen angels first came to earth, and created their progeny here, they had voracious appetites for flesh and consumed everything in sight.  Today, they are back, but now their appetite is for data, they will require YOUR ENTIRE SOUL, not your body.  YOUR mind (thoughts), Your heart (emotions) YOUR SPIRIT (your eternal soul) to become part of their AI existence, the web, the hive.)

Huawei, as always, is going its own way: the embattled Chinese vendor has been churning out proprietary chips for years through its HiSilicon subsidiary, originally for its wide array of networking equipment, more recently for its smartphones.

For its next trick, Huawei is disrupting the AI hardware market with the Ascend line – including everything from tiny inference devices to Ascend 910, which it claimed is the most powerful AI processor in the world. Add a bunch of these together, and you get the Atlas 900, the world’s fastest AI training cluster, currently used by Chinese astronomy researchers.

And of course, the list wouldn’t be complete without Intel’s Nervana, the somewhat late arrival to the AI scene. Just like Xilinx and Graphcore, Nervana believes that AI workloads of the future will require specialized chips, built from the ground up to support machine learning, and not just standard chips adopted for this purpose.

AI is very new and nascent, and it’s going to keep changing,” Xilinx’s Salil Raje told DCD.

“The market is going to change, the technology, the innovation, the research – all it takes is one PhD student, to completely revolutionize the field all over again, and then all of these chips become useless. It’s waiting for that one research paper.”


Muon – 

The muon –   Symbol =  μ      (/ˈmjuːɒn/; from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass. It is classified as a lepton. As with other leptons, the muon is not known to have any sub-structure – that is, it is not thought to be composed of any simpler particles.

The muon is an unstable subatomic particle with a mean lifetime of 2.2 μs, much longer than many other subatomic particles. As with the decay of the non-elementary neutron (with a lifetime around 15 minutes), muon decay is slow (by subatomic standards) because the decay is mediated only by the weak interaction (rather than the more powerful strong interaction or electromagnetic interaction), and because the mass difference between the muon and the set of its decay products is small, providing few kinetic degrees of freedom for decay. Muon decay almost always produces at least three particles, which must include an electron of the same charge as the muon and two types of neutrinos.

Like all elementary particles, the muon has a corresponding antiparticle of opposite charge (+1 e) but equal mass and spin: the antimuon (also called a positive muon).
Muons are denoted by
 and antimuons by   μ+
. Muons were formerly called “mu mesons“, but are not classified as mesons by modern particle physicists (see § History), and that name is no longer used by the physics community.

Muons have a mass of 105.66 MeV/c2, which is about 207 times that of the electron, {\displaystyle m_{e}}. More precisely, it is 206.768 2830(46) {\displaystyle m_{e}}.[1]

Due to their greater mass, muons accelerate more slowly than electrons in electromagnetic fields, and emit less bremsstrahlung (deceleration radiation). This allows muons of a given energy to penetrate far deeper into matter because the deceleration of electrons and muons is primarily due to energy loss by the bremsstrahlung mechanism. For example, so-called “secondary muons”, created by cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere, can penetrate the atmosphere and reach Earth’s land surface and even into deep mines.

Because muons have a greater mass and energy than the decay energy of radioactivity, they are not produced by radioactive decay. However they are produced in great amounts in high-energy interactions in normal matter, in certain particle accelerator experiments with hadrons, and in cosmic ray interactions with matter. These interactions usually produce pi mesons initially, which almost always decay to muons.

As with the other charged leptons, the muon has an associated muon neutrino, denoted by 
μ, which differs from the electron neutrino and participates in different nuclear reactions.

English word muon comes from English meson, English mu (The 12th letter of the Modern Greek alphabet.).  Source: from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As you will see below, Muon comes from the root Meson.  If you are familiar with the spell of spelling, the magic of language, you know that vowels are interchangeable.  So, though they may protest… Meson and Mason are really the same word.   If you notice throughout this post, the terminology for the accelerators is often related to BUILDING.  Who are the BUILDERS?  Masons.  Who are the Masons?   Freemasons are the Knights Templar/MAGI/PROGENY of the FALLEN.  

Muon etymology history?

Muon detailed word origin explanation

meson English (eng) (now specifically, particle) An elementary particle that is composed of a quark and an antiquark, such as a kaon or pion. (Mesons composed of rarer quarks are much heavier.). (obsolete) A member of a group of subatomic particles having a mass intermediate between electrons and protons. (The most easily detected mesons fit this definition.).
mu English (eng) The 12th letter of the Modern Greek alphabet.
mu-meson English (eng) (dated) A muon (kind of subatomic particle).
muon English (eng) An unstable elementary particle in the lepton family, having similar properties to the electron but with a mass 209 times greater

Mason vs Meson – What’s the difference?

mason | meson |

As nouns the difference between mason and meson

is that mason is a freemason while meson is .

As a proper noun mason is for a stonemason.

Other Comparisons: What’s the difference?


English/ Noun

  • One whose occupation is to build with stone or brick; also, one who prepares stone for building purposes.
  • A member of the fraternity of Freemasons. See Freemason.

Verb/ (en verb)

  • To build stonework or brickwork about, under, in, over, etc.; to construct by masons; — with a prepositional suffix; as, to mason up a well or terrace; to mason in a kettle or boiler.


English/ Noun

  • (rare, outside, entomology) The mesial plane dividing the body into similar right and left halves.

Noun/(en noun)

  • (obsolete) A member of a group of subatomic particles having a mass intermediate between electrons and protons. (The most easily detected mesons fit this definition.)
  • (now specifically, particle) An elementary particle that is composed of a quark and an antiquark, such as a kaon or pion. (Mesons composed of rarer quarks are much heavier.)

Meson (software)

Meson  Software: (/ˈmɛ.sɒn/)[2] is a software tool for automating the building (compiling) of software. The overall goal for Meson is to promote programmer productivity.[3] Meson is free and open-source software written in Python, under the Apache License 2.0.[4]


Being written in Python, Meson runs natively on Unix-like operating systems, including macOS, as well as Microsoft Windows and on other operating systems.

Meson supports the CC++CUDADObjective-CFortranJavaC#Rust and Vala languages,[5] and has a mechanism for handling dependencies called Wrap.

Meson supports GNU Compiler CollectionClangMicrosoft Visual Studio and others.


Meson is similar to CMake in preparing files for another building tool such as ninja or Cargo [6] on Linux, MSBuild on Windows or Xcode on macOS (CMake produces files for all including make and ninja but excluding Cargo in contrast). The user then invokes the backend buildsystem. Because only out-of-tree (source folder) builds are supported, it requires the user to create a build directory for this backend buildsystem and its outputs. The basic usage difference is that CMake defaults to make as a backend instead of ninja, but cmake -G Ninja behaves like Meson in this regard.


The syntax of Meson’s build description files (the Meson language) borrows from Python, but is not Python: It is designed such that it can be reimplemented in any other language[7] – the dependency on Python is an implementation detail.

The Meson language is intentionally not Turing complete, and can therefore not express an arbitrary program.[7] Instead, arbitrary build steps beyond compiling supported languages can be represented as custom targets.

The Meson language is strongly typed, such that builtin types like library, executable, string, and lists thereof, are non-interchangeable.[8] In particular, unlike Make, the list type does not split strings on whitespace.[7] Thus, whitespace and other characters in filenames and program arguments are handled cleanly.  Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Photo Credit: Yourube

Particle accelerators are the closest things we have to time machines, according to Stephen Hawking.

In 2010, physicist Stephen Hawking wrote an article for the UK paper the Daily Mail explaining how it might be possible to travel through time. We would just need a particle accelerator large enough to accelerate humans the way we accelerate particles, he said.

A person-accelerator with the capabilities of the Large Hadron Collider would move its passengers at close to the speed of light. Because of the effects of special relativity, a period of time that would appear to someone outside the machine to last several years would seem to the accelerating passengers to last only a few days. By the time they stepped off the LHC ride, they would be younger than the rest of us.

Hawking wasn’t actually proposing we try to build such a machine. But he was pointing out a way that time travel already happens today. For example, particles called pi mesons are normally short-lived; they disintegrate after mere millionths of a second. But when they are accelerated to nearly the speed of light, their lifetimes expand dramatically. It seems that these particles are traveling in time, or at least experiencing time more slowly relative to other particles


Mesons are intermediate mass particles which are made up of a quark-antiquark pair. Three quark combinations are called baryons. Mesons are bosons, while the baryons are fermions. There was a recent claim of observation of particles with five quarks (pentaquark), but further experimentation has not borne it out.   Source

Felicia Ferret investigates the boundaries of one of here latest runs, the opening in a vacuum pipe in the Meson Lab. She will draw the string held by Wally Pelczarski (designer in the Main Ring Section) through the vacuum pipe so that a swab can be attached and also pulled through, cleaning out unwanted construction particles. August 1971 (Photo by Tim Fielding, Fermilab) Atlas Obscura

In the 1970s, scientists at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory employed a ferret named Felicia to clean accelerator parts.

From 1971 until 1999, Fermilab’s Meson Laboratory was a key part of high-energy physics experiments at the laboratory. To learn more about the forces that hold our universe together, scientists there studied subatomic particles called mesons and protons. Operators would send beams of particles from an accelerator to the Meson Lab via a miles-long underground beam line.

To ensure hundreds of feet of vacuum piping were clear of debris before connecting them and turning on the particle beam, the laboratory enlisted the help of one Felicia the ferret.

Ferrets have an affinity for burrowing and clambering through holes, making them the perfect species for this job. Felicia’s task was to pull a rag dipped in cleaning solution on a string through long sections of pipe.

Although Felicia’s work was eventually taken over by a specially designed robot, she played a unique and vital role in the construction process—and in return asked only for a steady diet of chicken livers, fish heads and hamburger meat.  SOURCE




A question of scale

In our everyday lives, we experience three spatial dimensions, and a fourth dimension of time. How could there be more? Einstein’s general theory of relativity tells us that space can expand, contract, and bend. Now if one dimension were to contract to a size smaller than an atom, it would be hidden from our view. But if we could look on a small enough scale, that hidden dimension might become visible again. Imagine a person walking on a tightrope. She can only move backward and forward; but not left and right, nor up and down, so she only sees one dimension. Ants living on a much smaller scale could move around the cable, in what would appear like an extra dimension to the tightrope-walker.  (It may appear like another dimension, but it would not be another dimension.)

How could we test for extra dimensions? One option would be to find evidence of particles that can exist only if extra dimensions are real. Theories that suggest extra dimensions predict that, in the same way as atoms have a low-energy ground state and excited high-energy states, there would be heavier versions of standard particles in other dimensions. These heavier versions of particles – called Kaluza-Klein states – would have exactly the same properties as standard particles (and so be visible to our detectors) but with a greater mass. If CMS or ATLAS were to find a Z- or W-like particle (the Z and W bosons being carriers of the electroweak force) with a mass 100 times larger for instance, this might suggest the presence of extra dimensions. Such heavy particles can only be revealed at the high energies reached by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).  (There is another dimension…we know that because the bible talks about it.  There is the spiritual dimension, in which dwell the Angels.)

A little piece of gravity?

Some theorists suggest that a particle called the “graviton” is associated with gravity in the same way as the photon is associated with the electromagnetic force. If gravitons exist (and IF GRAVITY EXISTED), it should be possible to create them at the LHC, but they would rapidly disappear into extra dimensions. Collisions in particle accelerators always create balanced events – just like fireworks – with particles flying out in all directions. A graviton might escape our detectors, leaving an empty zone that we notice as an imbalance in momentum and energy in the event. We would need to carefully study the properties of the missing object to work out whether it is a graviton escaping to another dimension or something else. This method of searching for missing energy in events is also used to look for dark matter or supersymmetric particles. (No wonder scientist are so nutty, they live in lala land.  Always dealing in ifs and maybes.)

Microscopic black holes

Another way of revealing extra dimensions would be through the production of microscopic black holes”.  (so here we should recognize their intention to create black holes.  The size is irrelevant.  We don’t have any way to know if black holes are real.  If it is possible to create one, we have no idea what will happen.  It could destroy earth, it could destroy the universe, it could destroy space.  Why on earth do we allow them to play with something with so high a risk?)  What exactly we would detect would depend on the number of extra dimensions, the mass of the black hole, the size of the dimensions and the energy at which the black hole occurs. If micro black holes do appear in the collisions created by the LHC, they would disintegrate rapidly, in around 10-27 seconds. (they have no way of knowing that.  No way of KNOWING what ANY black hole would do)  They would decay into Standard Model or supersymmetric particles, creating events containing an exceptional number of tracks in our detectors, which we would easily spot. Finding more on any of these subjects would open the door to yet unknown possibilities.  (YOU BETTER HEAR WHAT THE ARE SAYING.   They have EVERY INTENTION of pushing the limits, with NO REGARD to possible consequences.)


The World Doesn’t Need a New Gigantic Particle Collider

It would cost many billions of dollars, the potential rewards are unclear—and the money could be better spent researching threats such as climate change and emerging viruses

By Sabine Hossenfelder on 

The World Doesn't Need a New Gigantic Particle Collider
The CMS detector, one of four major particle detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. Credit: Lionel Flusin Getty Images

This is not the right time for a bigger particle accelerator. But CERN, the European physics center based in Geneva, Switzerland, has plans—big plans. The biggest particle physics facility of the world, currently running the biggest particle collider in the world, has announced it aims to build an even bigger machine, as revealed in a press conference and release today.

With that, CERN has decided it wants to go ahead with the first step of a plan for the Future Circular Collider (FCC), hosted in a ring-shaped tunnel 100 kilometers, or a bit over 60 miles, in circumference. This machine could ultimately reach collision energies of 100 tera-electron-volts, about six times the collision energy of the currently operating Large Hadron Collider (LHC). By reaching unprecedentedly high energies, the new collider would allow the deepest look into the structure of matter yet, and offer the possibility of finding new particles.

Whether the full vision will come into existence is still unclear. But CERN has announced it is of “high priority” for the organization to take the first step on the way to the FCC: finding a suitable site for the tunnel and building a machine to collide electrons and positrons at energies similar to that of the LHC (which however uses protons on protons). The decision whether CERN will then move forward to the high energy collisions between protons will only come after several more years of study and deliberation.

This first step has also been dubbed a “Higgs factory”, because it is especially designed to produce large amounts of Higgs bosons. The Higgs boson, discovered at CERN in 2012, was the final missing particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. With the new machine, particle physicists want to measure its properties, and the properties of some previously discovered particles, in more detail. (Japan is considering building a linear collider with a similar purpose as CERN’s Higgs factory, but the committee working on the idea made no definitive decision in their last year’s report. China is considering a circular collider similar in scope and size to CERN’s full FCC plan, but a decision is not expected until next year.)

But CERN’s plan, if fully executed, would cost tens of billions of dollars. Exact numbers are not available because budget estimates put forward by CERN usually do not include the cost of operation. Going by the running costs for the Large Hadron Collider, those costs for the new collider would probably amount to at least $1 billion per year. For a facility that may operate for 20 years or more, this is comparable to the construction costs.

These are eye-popping numbers, no doubt. Indeed, particle colliders are currently the most expensive physics experiments in existence. Their price tag is higher than that of even the next most expensive type of experiments, telescopes on satellite missions.

The major reason the cost is so high is that that, since the 1990s, there have only been incremental improvements in collider technology. As a consequence, the only way to reach higher energies today is building bigger machines. (and bigger and bigger and bigger and bigger. and more, and more, and more and more.) It is the sheer physical size—the long tunnels, the many magnets need to fill it, and all the people needed to get that done—that makes particle colliders so expensive.  (and what gets scientist so excited.  Bigger, Better, Faster)

But while the cost of these colliders has ballooned, their relevance has declined. (If they ever had a usefulness, it has long since been rendered null and void.) When physicists started building colliders in the 1940s, they did not have a complete inventory of elementary particles, and they knew it. New measurements brought up new puzzles, and they built bigger colliders until, in 2012, the picture was complete. The Standard Model still has some loose ends, but experimentally testing those would require energies at least ten billion times higher than what even the FCC could test. The scientific case for a next larger collider is therefore presently slim.

Of course, it is possible that a next larger collider would make a breakthrough discovery. Some physicists hope, for example, it could offer clues about the nature of dark matter or dark energy.

Yes, one can hope. But there is no reason why the particles that make up dark matter or dark energy should show up in the new device’s energy range. And that is assuming they are particles to begin with, for which there no evidence. Even if they are particles, moreover, highly energetic collisions may not be the best way to look for them. Weakly interacting particles with tiny masses, for example, are not something one looks for with large colliders.

And there are entirely different types of experiments that could lead to breakthroughs at far smaller costs, such as high precision measurements at low energies or increasing the masses of objects in quantum states. Going to higher energies is not the only way to make progress in the foundations of physics; it’s just the most expensive one.

In this situation, particle physicists should focus on developing new technologies that could bring colliders back in a reasonable price range and hold off digging more tunnels. The most promising technology on the horizon is a new type of “wake field” acceleration that could dramatically decrease the distance necessary to speed up particles, and hence shrink the size of colliders. Another game-changing technology would be room-temperature superconductors that could make the strong magnets that colliders rely on more efficient and affordable.

Looking into these new technologies is also among CERN’s priorities. But as the strategy update reveals, particle physicists have not woken up to their new reality. Building larger particle colliders has run its course. It has today little scientific return on investment, and at the same time almost no societal relevance. Large scientific projects tend to generally benefit education and infrastructure, but this is not specific to particle colliders. And if it those side effects are what we are really interested in, then we should at least put our money into scientific research with societal relevance.

Why, for example, do we still not have an international center for climate predictions, which by current estimates would cost “only” $1 billion spread over 10 years? That’s peanuts compared to what particle physics sucks up, yet vastly more important. Or why, you may have wondered recently, do we not have a center for epidemic modeling?

It’s because too much science funding is handed out on the basis of inertia. In the past century, particle physics has grown into a large, very influential and well-connected community. They will keep on building bigger particle colliders as long as they can, simply because that’s what particle physicists do, whether that makes sense or not.

It’s about time society takes a more enlightened approach to funding large science projects than continuing to give money to those they have previously given money to. We have bigger problems than measuring the next digit on the mass of the Higgs boson.


You have to know that censorship is out of control in this global existence.  The elite that are running the show have full control.  They OWN 90% of the wealth in the world and they make the rules.  Anyone who tries to stand for truth becomes a target.  The SPIN DOCTORS jump right on any thing that goes against the politically correct agenda.  They will crucify this man’s character and take away his position.  

Alessandro Strumia: the data doesn’t lie — women don’t like physics

Alessandro Strumia was fired by the Cern research centre for his views on female scientists. But he says the statistics back him up

Strumia admits that he is ‘no good at politics’
Strumia admits that he is ‘no good at politics’

When Alessandro Strumia, an Italian professor of theoretical physics, stood up at the Cern research centre in September last year to give a talk dismissing claims of sexism within his heavily male branch of science, he realised he was venturing into a sensitive area. Quite how sensitive became clear as soon as he began to speak.

It was wrong to claim the domination of physics by men was a product of discrimination, Strumia, 49, told his sceptical audience, many of them young women. He dismissed those who argued the contrary as “cultural Marxists” out to promote a “victimocracy of minorities”. Matters were not helped by the caption he had written for one of his slides: “Physics was invented and built by men”.


CERN suspends physicist who claimed physics was ‘invented by men’, and that ‘somebody had to speak’   read the full article by clicking the link.

Linac 4 accelerator at CERN
The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) has suspended Alessandro Strumia.(Reuters: Denis Balibouse)
Officials at the world’s largest particle accelerator have suspended an Italian physicist pending an investigation into his “highly offensive” presentation on gender issues that raised new concerns about sexism in science.

A spokesman for the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), said Alessandro Strumia of the University of Pisa was out of line in his talk on Friday for a seminar on High Energy Theory and Gender.

The Geneva-area centre, where the subatomic particle known as the Higgs boson was confirmed in 2013, said it had no prior knowledge of the content of Professor Strumia’s presentation and cited its “attacks on individuals” as “unacceptable in any professional context”.

A CERN spokesman confirmed a slide presentation on Professor Strumia’s talk was found online, but said a recording was not immediately available. The slides featured charts, graphs and tables that are hard to understand out of context, but one quotation said “physics invented and built by men, it’s not by invitation”.

Professor Strumia told the Associated Press he wanted to debunk what he insists was a misconception, and said he does not believe men are better than women in physics.

“This workshop was continuously [saying] ‘men are bad, men are sexist, they discriminate against us’, lots of things like this,” he said.

I did a check to see if this was true … and the result was that was not true.

Noting the suspension, Professor Strumia lashed out at the Geneva centre, but expressed hope that it would come around to his way of thinking.

I believe CERN is making a mistake. They suspended me because it’s true … and it’s contrary to the political line. And I hope CERN will at some point understand, I hope this is just the first self-preservation instinct,” he said.

“Somebody had to speak.”

Globe of Science exhibition hall at CERN, Geneva
A CERN spokesman said Professor Strumia’s presentation was “unacceptable”.(Reuters: Denis Balibouse)
Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider experiment at CERN.(Reuters: Pierre Albouy)



People have no idea that there are many, many more expensive and dangerous colliders all around the world here are a couple more in the USA: 

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC /ˈrɪk/) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built. Located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York, and used by an international team of researchers, it is the only operating particle collider in the US.[1][2][3] By using RHIC to collide ions traveling at relativistic speeds, physicists study the primordial form of matter that existed in the universe shortly after the Big Bang.[4][5] By colliding spin-polarized protons, the spin structure of the proton is explored.

RHIC is as of 2019 the second-highest-energy heavy-ion collider in the world. As of November 7, 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has collided heavy ions of lead at higher energies than RHIC.[6] The LHC operating time for ions (lead-lead and lead-proton collisions) is limited to about one month per year.

In 2010, RHIC physicists published results of temperature measurements from earlier experiments which concluded that temperatures in excess of 345 MeV (4 terakelvins or 7 trillion degrees Fahrenheit) had been achieved in gold ion collisions, and that these collision temperatures resulted in the breakdown of “normal matter” and the creation of a liquid-like quark–gluon plasma.[7]

In January 2020, the US Department of Energy Office of Science selected the eRHIC design for the future Electron–ion collider (EIC), building on the existing RHIC facility at BNL.

The experiments

A view of gold ions collisions as captured by the STAR detector.

There is one detector currently operating at RHIC: STAR (6 o’clock, and near the AGS-to-RHIC Transfer Line). PHENIX (8 o’clock) took last data in 2016. PHOBOS (10 o’clock) completed its operation in 2005, and BRAHMS (2 o’clock) in 2006. A new detector sPHENIX is under construction in the old PHENIX hall and is expected to being taking data in 2023.

Among the two larger detectors, STAR is aimed at the detection of hadrons with its system of time projection chambers covering a large solid angle and in a conventionally generated solenoidal magnetic field, while PHENIX is further specialized in detecting rare and electromagnetic particles, using a partial coverage detector system in a superconductively generated axial magnetic field. The smaller detectors have larger pseudorapidity coverage, PHOBOS has the largest pseudorapidity coverage of all detectors, and tailored for bulk particle multiplicity measurement, while BRAHMS is designed for momentum spectroscopy, in order to study the so-called “small-x” and saturation physics. There is an additional experiment, PP2PP (now part of STAR), investigating spin dependence in p + p scattering.[18]

The spokespersons for each of the experiments are:

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

A view of FRIB looking southeast Michigan State University establishes and operates FRIB as a user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. FRIB will enable scientists to make discoveries about the properties of rare isotopes in order to better understand the physics of nuclei, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental interactions, and applications for society, including in medicine, homeland security and industry.

The Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB) will be a new scientific accelerator facility for nuclear science, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC), Michigan State University (MSU), and the State of Michigan. MSU establishes and operates FRIB as a user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. FRIB will provide intense beams of rare isotopes (that is, short-lived atomic nuclei not normally found on Earth). FRIB will enable scientists to make discoveries about the properties of rare isotopes to advance knowledge in nuclear physicsnuclear astrophysicsfundamental interactions of nuclei, and applications of rare isotopes for society. Construction of the FRIB conventional facilities began in spring 2014 and was completed in 2017. Final design of the technical systems is complete and technical construction is underway, having started in the fall of 2014. The total project cost is baselined at $730M with project completion in June 2022.1

On 11–12 July 2018, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams accelerated first beam in three of forty-six superconducting cryomodules (painted green). Beam in the warm radio-frequency quadrupole was previously accelerated in September 2017.


The FRIB cryogenic plant made its first liquid helium at 4.5 kelvin (K) on 16 November 2017. Photo courtesy of MSU Communications and Brand Strategy.


FRIB is expected to provide research opportunities for an international community of university and laboratory scientists, postdoctoral associates, and graduate students. FRIB will provide researchers with the technical capabilities to study the properties of rare isotopes, and to put this knowledge to use in various applications, including in materials sciencenuclear medicine, and the fundamental understanding of nuclear material important to nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship. More than 20 working groups specializing in experimental equipment and scientific topics have been organized through the Users Organization.

DOE-SC determined that the establishment of a Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a high priority for the future of U.S. nuclear science research. It is the first recommendation in the 2012 National Academies Decadal Study of Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of the Matter. The priority for completion is listed in the 2015 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science: Implementing Reaching for the Horizon by the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee.


DOE-SC announced the selection of Michigan State University to design and establish FRIB on December 11, 2008 after a rigorous merit review process including a written application, oral presentations, and site visits.[1]

The project earned Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) approval in September 2010 which established a preferred alternative and the associated established cost and schedule ranges.[2]

On August 1, 2013, DOE-SC approved the project baseline (CD-2) and the start of civil construction (CD-3a), pending a notice to proceed. Civil construction could not start under the continuing appropriations resolution, which disallowed new construction starts.[3]

January 18, 2014 the appropriations bill passed both houses of congress.

Following the passage of the FY2014 appropriation, DOE-SC issued a notice to proceed on January 22, 2014, allowing the start of civil construction.[4]

On February 25, 2014 the board of the Michigan Strategic Fund[5] met at Michigan State University and approved nearly $91 million to support the construction of FRIB.[6]

FRIB marked the official start of civil construction with a groundbreaking ceremony March 17, 2014. In attendance were representatives from the Michigan delegationState of MichiganMichigan State University, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Technical construction started in October 2014, following a CD-3b approval by DOE-SC.

In March 2017, FRIB achieved beneficial occupancy of civil construction, and technical installation activities escalated as a result.

In October 2017, the front end with the ion source and low-energy beam transport was completed. In 2017, the FRIB cryogenic plant was completed, and made its first liquid helium at 4.5 kelvin (K), or 4.5 degrees above absolute zero. Liquid helium makes FRIB’s accelerator cavities superconducting and will operate the superconducting linac. In July 2018, beams of argon and krypton were accelerated in the first three beam-accelerating superconducting cryomodules.

In August 2018, FRIB circulated liquid lithium and established lithium film in its charge stripper. FRIB is the first in the world to use liquid lithium as a charge stripper to remove electrons from its ion beams for efficient acceleration.

In December 2018, the first cryomodules in the linac were cooled to 2 K. FRIB is the first superconducting heavy-ion linac to operate at 2 K, which increases performance and reduces electricity use compared to operation at 4 K.

In February 2019, FRIB accelerated beams through the first 15 (of 46 total) cryomodules to 10 percent of FRIB’s final beam energy. With these beam tests, FRIB became the highest-energy superconducting heavy-ion linac. In August 2019, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) was conditioned above 100 kW, the CW power needed to achieve the FRIB mission goal of accelerating uranium beams. The RFQ prepares the beam for further acceleration in the linac.

In September 2019, the thickness of the liquid lithium film in the charge stripper was measured for the first time by an online electron-beam system. The electron beam traverses the lithium film simultaneously with the heavy-ion beam, allowing a continuous and online thickness measurement.

In October 2019, the cryomodules in the second folding segment of the linac were installed and cooled down.

Construction on two MSU-funded building additions was substantially completed in January 2020. The Cryogenic Assembly Building will be used for cryomodule maintenance and to perform cryogenic-engineering research. The High Rigidity Spectrometer and Isotope Harvesting Vault will house isotope-harvesting research equipment and provide space for experiments.

In March 2020, FRIB accelerated an argon-36 beam through 37 of 46 superconducting cryomodules to 204 MeV/nucleon or 57 percent of the speed of light, to the Key Performance Parameters required at project completion.

In June 2020, FRIB completed assembly and testing of all 46 baseline cryomodules, which contain the superconducting radio frequency resonators that accelerate FRIB’s heavy-ion beam while operating at temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero. FRIB is the nation’s first large superconducting linear accelerator with the majority of resonators produced domestically.

FRIB continues to operate its cryogenic plant at high efficiency. Since 2018, the FRIB cryogenic plant has operated nonstop to liquefy helium as low as 2 degrees above absolute zero. The state-of-the-art plant supplies refrigeration at 4.5 Kelvin (K) and 2 K to the FRIB linear accelerator, making FRIB the first heavy-ion linear accelerator to operate at 2 K. To fill a national workforce need, the MSU Cryogenic Initiative between FRIB and the MSU College of Engineering leverages FRIB to train the next generation of cryogenic engineers.

In September 2020, DOE designated FRIB as a DOE-SC User Facility. U.S. Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette visited the laboratory for the designation ceremony.

In March 2017, FRIB achieved beneficial occupancy of civil construction.

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Particle Accelerators Around the World

Please note that this list does not include accelerators which are used for medical or industrial purposes only.

Please visit also the WWW Virtual library of Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology, the Division of Physics of Beams of the American Physical Society, and the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group.

Sorted by Location


AGOR Accelerateur Groningen-ORsay, KVI Groningen, Netherlands
ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, Barcelona, Spain
ANKA Ångströmquelle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
ARRONAX Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology in Nantes Atlantique,Saint Herblain, France
BERLinPro Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
BESSY II Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
CeBeTeRad Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa, Poland
CEMHTI Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux : Haute Température et Irradiation, Orléans, France
CERN Centre Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire, Geneva, Suisse (LHCPS-DivisionSL-Division)
CMAM Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
CNA Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain
COSY Cooler Synchrotron, IKPFZ Jülich, Germany (COSY Status)
CYCLONE Cyclotron of Louvain la Neuve, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
DELTA Dortmunder ELekTronenspeicherring-Anlage, Zentrum für Synchrotronstrahlung der Technischen Universität Dortmund, Germany
DESY Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany (XFEL, PETRA III, FLASH, ILC, PITZ)
ELBE ELectron source with high Brilliance and low Emittance, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf e.V. (HZDR), Germany
ELETTRA AREA Science Park, Trieste, Italy
ELSA Electron Stretcher Accelerator, Bonn University, Germany (ELSA status)
ELU-6e Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Poland
ESRF European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France
ESSB ESS-Bilbao, Zamudio, Spain
GANIL Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds, Caen, France
GSI Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany
HISKP Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn, Germany (Isochron Cyclotron)
IHEP Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region, Russian Federation
INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy,
LNF – Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (DAFNEDAFNE beam test facility)
LNL – Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (TandemCN Van de GraaffAN 2000 Van de Graaff),
LNS – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, (Superconducting Cyclotron)
ISA Institute for Storage Ring Facilities (ASTRIDASTRID2ELISA), Aarhus, Denmark
ISIS Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford, U.K.
JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russian Federation (NICA)
JYFL Jyväskylän Yliopiston Fysiikan Laitos, Jyväskylä, Finland
MLL Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium: Accelerator of LMU and TU Muenchen, Munich, Germany
MAMI Mainzer Microtron, Universität Mainz, Germany
MAX IV Lund University, Sweden
MPI-HD Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany
MIC Microanalytical center at JSI, Ljubljana, Slovenia
MLS Metrology Light Source, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
PITZ Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen, Germany
RUBION Zentrale Einrichtung für Ionenstrahlen und Radionuklide, Universität Bochum, Germany
S-DALINAC Superconducting Darmstadt linear accelerator, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany
SLS Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen, Switzerland
TSL The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden

North America

88″ Cycl. 88-Inch Cyclotron, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, CA
ALS Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, CA (ALS Status)
ANL Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (Advanced Photon Source APS, Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System ATLAS)
BATES Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (NSLS IIRHIC)
CAMD Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University
CENPA Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, USA
CESR Cornell Electron-positron Storage Ring, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
CHESS Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
CLS Canadian Light Source, U of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
CNL Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, University of California Davis, CA
FNAL Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , Batavia, IL
FSU John D. Fox Superconducting Accelerator Laboratory, Florida State University, USA
IAC Idaho accelerator center, Pocatello, Idaho
ISNAP Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame University, USA
IUCF Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana
JLab aka TJNAF, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly known as CEBAF), Newport News, VA
LAC Louisiana Accelerator Center, U of Louisiana at Lafayette, Louisiana
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory
MIBL Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory, University of Michigan
NSCL National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee
OUAL John E. Edwards Accelerator Laboratory, Ohio University, USA
PBPL Particle Beam Physics Lab (Neptune-Laboratory, PEGASUS – Photoelectron Generated Amplified Spontaneous Radition Source)
RPI The Gaerttner LINAC Laboratory, MANE School of Enginering, USA
SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, (SLC – SLAC Linear electron positron Collider, SSRL – Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory)
SNS Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
SRC Synchrotron Radiation Center, U of Wisconsin – Madison
SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland
TAMU Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, USA
TRIUMF Canada’s National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
TUNL Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, USA
UMASS University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory, USA
UNAM Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
WMU Van de Graaff Accelerator at the Physics Department of the Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan
WNSL Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, USA

South America

CAB LINAC at Centro Atómico Bariloche, Argentina
LAFN Laboratório Aberto de Física Nuclear, São Paulo, Brazil
LNLS Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas SP, Brazil
RIBRAS Radioactive Ion Beam in Brasil, São Paulo, Brazil
TANDAR Tandem Accelerator, Buenos Aires, Argentina


BEPC, BEPC II Beijing Electron-Positron Collider, Beijing, China
HLS Hefei Light Source, Univ. of Science & Technology of China, Hefei city, China
INDUS Centre for Advanced Technology CAT, INDORE, India
KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (“Koh-Ene-Ken”), Tsukuba, Japan (KEK-B12 GeV proton synchrotron)
PAL Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Korea
RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (“Rikagaku Kenkyusho”), Hirosawa, Wako, Japan
SESAME Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, Jordan (under construction)
SPring-8 Super Photon ring – 8 GeV, Japan
SSRF Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai, China
TPS Taiwan Photon Source, Hsinchu, Taiwan
UAC Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India
VECC Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta, India
VEPP Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia (VEPP-3VEPP-4MVEPP-2000)


iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa


ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, Australia
ANU Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
AS Australian Synchotron, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
MARC Micro-Analytical Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Australia

Sorted by Accelerator Type


Stretcher Ring/Continuous Beam facilities


Synchrotron Light Sources, Storage Rings






Light and Heavy Ions




Remark: This is not a list of high-energy physics experiments or laboratories, but a list of particle accelerators and accelerator laboratories.


Accelerators Around the World

NEC has provided over 240 accelerator systems, as well as other systems, components, and services, in over 50 countries around the world. Customers use our systems to conduct business and research on both privately and publicly funded projects. Below is a list of some of our systems and information about the laboratories that use them. If link or contact information for any laboratory listed below is missing or out of date, please contact us or our representatives for more information.

Standard Pelletron accelerator systems are listed with their model number, such as 20UR or 5SDH. Other systems include high voltage decks without a Pelletron accelerator component, as well as former belt-driven Van de Graaff accelerators that have been retrofitted by NEC with a Pelletron chain-based charging system conversion. Systems specifically designed for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) are noted in parentheses, including our standard line of low energy AMS systems such as SSAMS, CAMS, and XCAMS. Additional system configurations noted in parentheses, such as 5S-MR10 and MAS1700, are designed specifically for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). An asterisk (*) next to the year of installation specifies that the system has since been moved from its original location to its current facility.

Our list is constantly being updated as new NEC accelerator systems are commissioned and existing systems are moved, modified, or decommissioned. If your accelerator laboratory is not currently on this list and you would like it listed, or if the listed information for your laboratory is out of date or incomplete, please contact us with your laboratory information


List of accelerators in particle physics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments. Some early particle accelerators that more properly did nuclear physics, but existed prior to the separation of particle physics from that field, are also included. Although a modern accelerator complex usually has several stages of accelerators, only accelerators whose output has been used directly for experiments are listed.

Early accelerators

These all used single beams with fixed targets. They tended to have very briefly run, inexpensive, and unnamed experiments.


Accelerator Location Years of
Shape Accelerated Particle Kinetic
Notes and discoveries made
9-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1931 Circular H+
1.0 MeV Proof of concept
11-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1932 Circular Proton 1.2 MeV
27-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1932–1936 Circular Deuteron 4.8 MeV Investigated deuteron-nucleus interactions
37-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1937–1938 Circular Deuteron 8 MeV Discovered many isotopes
60-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1939-1962[1] Circular Deuteron 16 MeV Discovered many isotopes.
88-inch cyclotron Berkeley Rad Lab, now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1961–Present Circular (Isochronous) Hydrogen through uranium MeV to several GeV Discovered many isotopes. Verified two element discoveries. Performed the world’s first single event effects radiation testing in 1979, and tested parts and materials for most US spacecraft since then.
184-inch cyclotron Berkeley Rad Lab 1942-1993 Circular Various MeV to GeV Research on uranium isotope separation
Calutrons Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN 1943- “Horseshoe” Uranium nuclei Used to separate Uranium 235 isotope for the Manhattan project. After the end of World War II used for separation of medical and other isotopes.
95-inch cyclotron Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory 1949–2002 Circular Proton 160 MeV Used for nuclear physics 1949 – ~ 1961, development of clinical proton therapy until 2002
JULIC Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany 1967–present Circular Proton, deuteron 75 MeV Now used as a preaccelerator for COSY and irradiation purposes

[1] The magnetic pole pieces and return yoke from the 60-inch cyclotron were later moved to UC Davis and incorporated into a 76-inch isochronous cyclotron which is still in use today[1]

Other early accelerator types

Accelerator Location Years of
and size
Notes and discoveries made
Linear particle accelerator Aachen University, Germany 1928 Linear Beamline Ion 50 keV Proof of concept
Cockcroft and Walton’s
electrostatic accelerator
Cavendish Laboratory 1932 See Cockroft-
Walton generator
Proton 0.7 MeV First to artificially split the nucleus (Lithium)
Betatron Siemens-Schuckertwerke, Germany 1935 Circular Electron 1.8 MeV Proof of concept


Accelerator Location Years of
Shape and size Accelerated
Kinetic Energy Notes and discoveries made INSPIRE link
Cosmotron BNL 1953–1968 Circular ring
(72 meters around)
Proton 3.3 GeV Discovery of V particles, first artificial production of some mesons INSPIRE
Birmingham Synchrotron University of Birmingham 1953–1967 Proton 1 GeV
Bevatron Berkeley Rad Lab 1954-~1970 “Race track” Proton 6.2 GeV Strange particle experiments, antiproton and antineutron discovered, resonances discovered INSPIRE
Bevalac, combination of SuperHILAC linear accelerator, a diverting tube, then the Bevatron Berkeley Rad Lab ~1970-1993 Linear accelerator followed by “race track” Any and all sufficiently stable nuclei could be accelerated Observation of compressed nuclear matter. Depositing ions in tumors in cancer research. INSPIRE
Saturne Saclay, France 3 GeV INSPIRE
Synchrophasotron Dubna, Russia December 1957 – 2003 10 GeV INSPIRE
Zero Gradient Synchrotron ANL 1963–1979 12.5 GeV INSPIRE
U-70 Proton Synchrotron IHEPRussia 1967–present Circular ring
(perimeter around 1.5 km)
Proton 70 GeV INSPIRE
Proton Synchrotron CERN 1959–present Circular ring
(628 meters around)
Proton 26 GeV Used to feed ISR (until 1984), SPSLHCAD INSPIRE
Proton Synchrotron Booster CERN 1972–present Circular Synchrotron Protons 1.4 GeV Used to feed PSISOLDE INSPIRE
Super Proton Synchrotron CERN 1976–present Circular Synchrotron Protons and ions 450 GeV COMPASSOPERA and ICARUS at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso INSPIRE
Alternating Gradient Synchrotron BNL 1960-present Circular ring
(808 meters around)
Proton (unpolarized and polarized), deuteron, helium-3, copper, gold, uranium 33 GeV J/ψmuon neutrinoCP violation in kaons, injects heavy ions and polarized protons into RHIC INSPIRE
Proton Synchrotron (KEK) KEK 1976–2007 Circular ring Proton 12 GeV
COSY Juelich, Germany 1993–present Circular ring (183.47 m) Protons, Deuterons 2.88 GeV The legacy of the experimental hadron physics programme at COSY INSPIRE
ALBA Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya 2011–present Circular ring (270 m) Electrons 3 GeV

Fixed-target accelerators

More modern accelerators that were also run in fixed target mode; often, they will also have been run as colliders, or accelerated particles for use in subsequently built colliders.

High intensity hadron accelerators (Meson and neutron sources)

Accelerator Location Years of
Shape and size Accelerated Particle Kinetic Energy Notes and discoveries made INSPIRE link
High Current Proton Accelerator Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (originally Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) Los Alamos National Laboratory 1972–Present Linear (800 m)
Circular (30 m)
Protons 800 MeV Neutron materials research, proton radiography, high energy neutron research, ultra cold neutrons INSPIRE
PSI, HIPA High Intensity 590 MeV Proton Accelerator PSI, Villigen, Switzerland 1974–present 0.8 MeV CW, 72 MeV Injector 2,590 MeV Ringcyclotron Protons 590 MeV, 2.4 mA, =1.4 MW Highest beam power, used for meson and neutron production with applications in materials science INSPIRE
TRIUMF Cyclotron TRIUMF, Vancouver BC 1974–present Circular H- ion 500 MeV World’s largest cyclotron, at 17.9m INSPIRE
ISIS neutron source Rutherford Appleton LaboratoryChilton,OxfordshireUnited Kingdom 1984–present H- Linac followed by proton RCS Protons 800 MeV INSPIRE
Spallation Neutron Source Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2006–Present Linear (335 m)
Circular (248 m)
Protons 800 MeV –
1 GeV
Produces the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. INSPIRE
J-PARC RCS Tōkai, Ibaraki 2007–Present Triangular, 348m circumference Protons 3 GeV Used for material and life sciences and input to J-PARC main ring INSPIRE

Electron and low intensity hadron accelerators

Accelerator Location Years of
and size
Experiments Notes INSPIRE link
Antiproton Accumulator CERN 1980-1996 Design study INSPIRE
Antiproton collector CERN 1986-1996 Antiprotons Design study INSPIRE
Antiproton Decelerator CERN 2000–present Storage ring Protons and antiprotons 26 GeV ATHENAATRAPASACUSAACEALPHAAEGIS Design study INSPIRE
Low Energy Antiproton Ring CERN 1982-1996 Antiprotons PS210 Design study INSPIRE
Cambridge Electron Accelerator Harvard University and MITCambridgeMA 1962-1974[2] 236 ft diameter synchrotron[3] Electrons 6 GeV [2]
SLAC Linac SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 1966–present 3 km linear
50 GeV Repeatedly upgraded, used to feed PEP, SPEARSLC, and PEP-II. Now split into 1 km sections feeding LCLS, FACET & LCLS-II. INSPIRE
Fermilab Booster Fermilab 1970–present Circular synchrotron Protons 8 GeV MiniBooNE INSPIRE
Fermilab Main Injector Fermilab 1995–present Circular synchrotron Protons and antiprotons 150 GeV MINOSMINERνANOνA INSPIRE
Fermilab Main Ring Fermilab 1970–1995 Circular synchrotron Protons and antiprotons 400 GeV (until 1979), 150 GeV thereafter
Electron Synchroton of Frascati Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati 1959–? (decommissioned) 9m circular synchrotron Electron 1.1 GeV
Bates Linear Accelerator Middleton, MA 1967–2005 500 MeV recirculating linac and storage ring Polarized electrons 1 GeV INSPIRE
Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 1995–present 6 GeV recirculating linac (recently upgraded to 12 GeV) Polarized electrons 6-12 GeV DVCS, PrimEx II, Qweak, GlueX First large-scale deployment of superconducting RF technology. INSPIRE
ELSA Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany 1987–present Synchrotron and stretcher (Polarized) electrons 3.5 GeV Crystal Barrel INSPIRE
MAMI Mainz, Germany 1975–Present Multilevel racetrack microtron Polarized electrons 1.5 GeV accelerator A1 – Electron ScatteringA2 – Real PhotonsA4 – Parity ViolationX1 – X-Ray Radiation INSPIRE
Tevatron Fermilab 1983–2011 Superconducting circular synchrotron Protons 980 GeV INSPIRE
Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1974–Present Linear (120 m) Ions of all naturally occurring elements 2-11.4  MeV/u INSPIRE
Schwerionensynchrotron (SIS18) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1990–Present Synchrotron with 271 m circumference Ions of all naturally occurring elements U: 50-1000 MeV/u
Ne: 50-2000 MeV/u
p: 4,5 GeV
Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1990–Present Ions of all naturally occurring elements 0.005 – 0.5  GeV/u
J-PARC Main Ring Tōkai, Ibaraki 2009–Present Triangular, 500m diameter Protons 30 GeV J-PARC Hadron Experimental Facility, T2K Can also provide 8 GeV beam INSPIRE
Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) Indiana UniversityBloomington, Indiana (USA) 2004–Present Linear Protons 13 MeV[4] SANSSESAMEMIS LENS Website
Cornell BNL ERL Test Accelerator (CBETA)[5] Cornell University, Ithaca / NY (USA) 2019–Present Energy recovery linac with SRF cavities, 4 turns, and all beams in one fixed field alternating-gradient lattice of permanent magnets Electrons 150 MeV A prototype facility for Electron Ion Colliders INSPIRE


Electron–positron colliders

Accelerator Location Years of
and circumference
Experiments Notable Discoveries INSPIRE link
AdA LNF, Frascati, Italy; Orsay, France 1961–1964 Circular, 3 meters 250 MeV 250 MeV Touschek effect (1963); first e+e interactions recorded (1964) INSPIRE
Princeton-Stanford (ee) Stanford, California 1962–1967 Two-ring, 12 m 300 MeV 300 MeV ee interactions
VEP-1 (ee) INP, Novosibirsk, Soviet Union 1964–1968 Two-ring, 2.70 m 130 MeV 130 MeV ee scattering; QED radiative effects confirmed INSPIRE
VEPP-2 INPNovosibirsk, Soviet Union 1965–1974 Circular, 11.5 m 700 MeV 700 MeV OLYA, CMD multihadron production (1966), e+e→φ (1966), e+e→γγ (1971) INSPIRE
ACO LAL, Orsay, France 1965–1975 Circular, 22 m 550 MeV 550 MeV ρ0, K+K3C, μ+μ, M2N and DM1 Vector meson studies; then ACO was used as synchrotron light source until 1988 INSPIRE
SPEAR SLAC 1972-1990(?) Circular 3 GeV 3 GeV Mark IMark IIMark III Discovery of Charmonium states INSPIRE
VEPP-2M BINPNovosibirsk 1974–2000 Circular, 17.88 m 700 MeV 700 MeV NDSNDCMD-2 e+e cross sections, radiative decays of ρ, ω, and φ mesons INSPIRE
DORIS DESY 1974–1993 Circular, 300m 5 GeV 5 GeV ARGUSCrystal Ball, DASP, PLUTO Oscillation in neutral B mesons INSPIRE
PETRA DESY 1978–1986 Circular, 2 km 20 GeV 20 GeV JADE, MARK-J, CELLOPLUTOTASSO Discovery of the gluon in three jet events INSPIRE
CESR Cornell University 1979–2002 Circular, 768m 6 GeV 6 GeV CUSBCHESSCLEOCLEO-2CLEO-2.5CLEO-3 First observation of B decay, charmless and “radiative penguin” B decays INSPIRE
PEP SLAC 1980-1990(?) Mark II INSPIRE
SLC SLAC 1988-1998(?) Addition to
SLAC Linac
45 GeV 45 GeV SLD, Mark II First linear collider INSPIRE
LEP CERN 1989–2000 Circular, 27 km 104 GeV 104 GeV AlephDelphiOpalL3 Only 3 light (m ≤ mZ/2) weakly interacting neutrinos exist, implying only three generations of quarks and leptons INSPIRE
BEPC China 1989–2004 Circular, 240m 2.2 GeV 2.2 GeV Beijing Spectrometer (I and II) INSPIRE
VEPP-4M BINPNovosibirsk 1994- Circular, 366m 6.0 GeV 6.0 GeV KEDR[permanent dead link] Precise measurement of psi-meson masses, two-photon physics
PEP-II SLAC 1998–2008 Circular, 2.2 km 9 GeV 3.1 GeV BaBar Discovery of CP violation in B meson system INSPIRE
KEKB KEK 1999–2009 Circular, 3 km 8.0 GeV 3.5 GeV Belle Discovery of CP violation in B meson system
DAΦNE LNFFrascati, Italy 1999-present Circular, 98m 0.7 GeV 0.7 GeV KLOE Crab-waist collisions (2007) INSPIRE
CESR-c Cornell University 2002–2008 Circular, 768m 6 GeV 6 GeV CHESSCLEO-c INSPIRE
VEPP-2000 BINPNovosibirsk 2006- Circular, 24.4m 1.0 GeV 1.0 GeV SNDCMD-3 Round beams (2007)
BEPC II China 2008- Circular, 240m 1.89 GeV 1.89 GeV Beijing Spectrometer III
VEPP-5 BINPNovosibirsk 2015-
ADONE LNFFrascati, Italy 1969-1993 Circular, 105m 1.5 GeV 1.5 GeV
TRISTAN KEK 1987-1995 Circular, 3016m 30 GeV 30 GeV
SuperKEKB KEK 2016- Circular, 3 km 7.0 GeV 4.0 GeV Belle II

Hadron colliders

Accelerator Location Years of
and size
Experiments INSPIRE
Storage Rings
CERN 1971–1984 Circular rings
(948 m around)
Proton Synchrotron
CERN 1981–1984 Circular ring
(6.9 km around)
270-315 GeV UA1UA2 INSPIRE
Run I
Fermilab 1992–1995 Circular ring
(6.3 km around)
Run II
Fermilab 2001–2011 Circular ring
(6.3 km around)
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
polarized proton mode
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 2001–present Hexagonal rings
(3.8 km circumference)
Polarized Proton/
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
ion mode
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 2000–present Hexagonal rings
(3.8 km circumference)
3.85-100 GeV
per nucleon
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
proton mode
CERN 2008–present Circular rings
(27 km circumference)
6.5 TeV
(design: 7 TeV)
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
ion mode
CERN 2010–present Circular rings
(27 km circumference)
2.76 TeV
per nucleon

Electron-proton colliders

Accelerator Location Years of
and size
Experiments INSPIRE link
HERA DESY 1992–2007 Circular ring
(6336 meters around)
27.5 GeV 920 GeV H1ZEUSHERMES experimentHERA-B INSPIRE