Photo Credit


EUdict dictionary: Latin – English

concedere ( Italian) Origin & history From Latin concēdere, present active infinitive of concēdō . Verb concedere ( transitive) to grant, allow ( transitive) to concede (that); to admit ( transitive) to award, bestow Derived words & phrases concedersi concessale subconcedere concedere ( Latin)
Verb concēdēre
So we see that the motto on Trump’s Scottish Crest is “NEVER GIVE UP” or “NEVER CONCEDE”

DONALD TRUMP has finally been awarded a Scottish coat of arms after a four year battle to earn the insignia.

In 2008, the business tycoon fell foul of ancient heraldic laws when he used the unofficial emblem to promote his controversial highlands golf course.

The billionaire was warned by the Court of the Lord LyonScotland’s heraldic authority – that a law dating back to 1672 would disallow him to use the unregistered logo.

But he has today proudly unveiled the (new) official coat of arms for the Trump International Golf Links Scotland.

Mr Trump – who chose the Menie Estate, Aberdeenshire, to build his championship links course – is known for proudly speaking of Scottish roots, often referring to his Lewis-born mother.

Sarah Malone, executive vice-president of Trump International- Scotland, said a lot of thought had gone into creating the emblem, which will officially represent the Scottish brand.

“The coat of arms brings together visual elements that signify different aspects of the Trump family heritage and importance of this project,” she said.


The Lion Rampantmakes reference to Scotland and the stars to America.

Three chevronels are used to denote the sky, sand dunes and sea– the essential components of the site- and the double-sided eagle represents the dual nature and nationality of Trump’s heritage.


“Janus is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, doorways, passages, and endings. He is usually depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past.”  wikipedia This post will convince you that they are working very hard to CHANGE our entire beings by polluting and/or altering our DNA. 

The eagle clutches golf balls making reference to the great name of golf, and the moto “Numquam Concedere’ is Latin for Never Give Up-Trump’s philosophy.”

She added: “We own a portfolio of outstanding golf courses and Trump International Golf Links, Scotland- a championship links course in the home of golf- is set to be the jewel in the crown.”

Despite the Court of the Lord Lyon’s 700-year-old history, heraldry is still a big business.

Between 1975 and 2000, 5,000 emblems were registered and added to the official public record.

Work on Mr Trump’s course -which he claims is the best in the world- is now complete and 3,0000 golf enthusiasts have already signed up to play on the prestigious course.

But last week, the controversial course came under fire when the clubhouse – which is yet to be built – was handed the Zit Award for Scotland’s worst building.

Critics have likened it to a “Victorian asylum” and an “ugly monstrosity” but Aberdeenshire Council are set to approve the plans.

The single-storey building, which will be made of Scottish granite,received immediate complaints from the public when it was first revealed last October.

A report to councillors revealed more than 800 letters of objection were lodged which raise concerns about the scale and design of the building.

But despite hundreds objections, the Aberdeenshire Council Formatine area committee will rule on plans for the clubhouse at Ellon later today.

Credit…Left, Tom Jamieson for The New York Times; right, Chang Lee/The New York Times

LONDON — At the Trump National Golf Club outside Washington, which hosted the Senior P.G.A. Championship this weekend, the president’s coat of arms is everywhere — the sign out frontthe pro shop, even the exercise room.

The regal emblem, used at President Trump’s golf courses across the United States, sports three lions and two chevrons on a shield, below a gloved hand gripping an arrow.

A different coat of arms flies over Mr. Trump’s two golf resorts in Scotland. The lions on the shield have been replaced by a two-headed eagle, an image the company has said represents the “dual nature and nationality” of Mr. Trump’s Scottish and German roots.

But this emblem was not just about honoring his heritage.

The British are known to take matters of heraldry seriously, and Mr. Trump’s American coat of arms belongs to another family. It was granted by British authorities in 1939 to Joseph Edward Davies, the third husband of Marjorie Merriweather Post, the socialite who built the Mar-a-Lago resort that is now Mr. Trump’s cherished getaway

Credit…Tom Jamieson for The New York Times

In the United States, the Trump Organization took Mr. Davies’s coat of arms for its own, making one small adjustment — replacing the word “Integritas,” Latin for integrity, with “Trump.”

Joseph D. Tydings, a Democrat and former United States senator from Maryland who is the grandson of Mr. Davies, learned that Mr. Trump was using the emblem, at least at Mar-a-Lago, when he visited the property. Mr. Trump had never asked permission.

“There are members of the family who wanted to sue him,” said Mr. Tydings, a lawyer who wears his family’s coat of arms on a ring. “This is the first I’ve ever heard about it being used anywhere else.”

Mr. Trump tried to bring the American version to Scotland a decade ago.

He used the emblem on promotional materials when he started marketing a new golf course development in Aberdeenshire, on Scotland’s east coast. But the materials ran afoul of the coat-of-arms authorities in Scotland — a uniquely British problem.

alt=”Joseph D. Tydings, a former senator who is the grandson of Mr. Davies, learned that Mr. Trump was using the emblem when he visited Mar-a-Lago.” />

Credit…Jared Soares for The New York Times

Mr. Trump hadn’t registered the emblem under the Lyon King of Arms Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 1672. The Court of the Lord Lyon has jurisdiction over the use and misuse of coats of arms.

Back then (a decade ago, when he decide to bring his course to Scottland), Mr. Trump also tried to trademark the emblem in Britain. But the application was rejected by the trademark office.

By 2012, when the golf course in Aberdeenshire opened, the new coat of arms had appeared. The same one is used at Mr. Trump’s course in Ayrshire, on Scotland’s west coast, which he bought in 2014.That year, Mr. Trump trademarked the redesigned emblem.

Britain’s trademark office would not initially acknowledge the earlier application by Mr. Trump. It provided a copy last month only after The New York Times made a Freedom of Information request, and would not say why the application was rejected, citing a law restricting its ability to release information.

Clive Cheesman is a herald at the College of Arms, which oversees coats of arms in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. He said that when Mr. Trump tried to trademark the crest in Britain, it got his organization into “some difficulty.”
Credit…Tom Jamieson for The New York Times

The College of Arms, which oversees coats of arms in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, provided more detail. The emblem originally submitted in 2007 by Mr. Trump to Britain’s trademark office matched one that had been granted to Mr. Davies, an American of Welsh descent who once served as ambassador to the Soviet Union.

“It couldn’t be a clearer-cut case, actually,” said Clive Cheesman, one of the college’s heralds, who oversee coats of arms, their design and their use.

“A coat of arms that was originally granted to Joseph Edward Davies in 1939 by the English heraldic authority ended up being used 10 or 15 years ago by the Trump Organization as part of its branding for its golf clubs,” said Mr. Cheesman, a lawyer by training. “This got them into difficulty.”

The White House referred questions to the Trump Organization, which did not respond to requests for comment.

Credit…Jared Soares for The New York Times

The (Trump) organization has trademarked the Davies coat of arms in the United States, which has far less attachment to such symbols. It is used on the company’s website and is a prominent branding detail of Mr. Trump’s many American golf courses and resorts— emblazoned on golf ballsshirts and bottles of body lotion.

When the Trump Organization created a Civil War memorial at the golf course near Washington commemorating a battle and a “river of blood” that never occurred, a plaque marking the fictitious event was embossed with the coat of arms.

Mr. Tydings, 89, was close to Ms. Post, his step-grandmother, whom he referred to as “Mommy-da.” He spent much of his youth at Mar-a-Lago. His grandfather, Mr. Davies, was a lawyer and diplomat, also serving as ambassador to Belgium and as a special envoy for President Harry S. Truman.

Mr. Tydings, who still practices law, said that several years ago he talked some of his cousins out of suing Mr. Trump, because he knew it would be an endless and costly exercise.

Credit…Julio Cortez/Associated Press

“I just told the other members of my family that you can’t win on this,” he said. “You’ll borrow for two generations to sue him.”

“I know Trump very well,” he added. Mr. Tydings was a senior partner at Finley, Kumble, a giant firm in its day that represented Mr. Trump and other owners of the fledgling United States Football League in an unsuccessful suit against the N.F.L.

“I knew him and the way he operates,” Mr. Tydings said. “And the way he operates, you don’t sue Trump, because you’ll be in court for years and years and years.” (Naturally, this is the practice of ALL wealthy people.  They tie you up in court by any means necessary to run you out of money. No one can fight a court battle without money. That is the way it is set up, to protect the rich. They want to act like this is something specific to Trump. What a joke.)

There is one historical parallel between Mr. Trump and Mr. Davies.

Both men were controversially pro-Russian.Mr. Davies, who played an important role as a go-between for President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Soviets, has been criticized for being taken in by Stalin’s propaganda machine.

Mr. Tydings was asked what Ms. Post and his grandfather would make of Mr. Trump.

Ms. Post, he said, “would be pleased that everything is the same” at Mar-a-Lago, “except for the Trump name and portraits.”

His grandfather, he added, “would be rolling over in his grave to think he was using his crest.”

A version of this article appears in print on May 29, 2017, Section B, Page 1 of the New York edition with the headline: A Coat of Arms Said ‘Integrity.’ Now It Says ‘Trump.’. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe


Coat of Arms & Family Crests Store

Trump Coat of Arms / Trump Family Crest

‘The surname of TRUMP was derived from the Old French word ‘trompeor’ a name given to one who played the trumpet. The name was brought into England from France. The name is also spelt TRUMPER, TRUMPEUR, TRUMPOUR and TRUMPUR. The earliest of the name on record appears to be Adam Trumpur, who was documented in 1253 in County Essex. William Trompour was documented in 1320 in London, and John le Trumpour appears in 1327 in County Surrey. Edwin Trumpeur of Yorkshire, was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Surnames as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. They were not in use in England or in Scotland before the Norman Conquest, and were first found in the Domesday Book. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. Clare Trumper…was listed 1644, and George Elliott and Diana Trumper were married at St. George’s, Hanover Square, London in 1789.  Source

MacCleod Family Coat of Arms

Frederick Christ (Fred) Trump was born on October 11, 1905, in New York City. He died on June 25, 1999, in New Hyde Park, New York.
Mary Anne MacLeod was born on May 10, 1912, in Isle of Lewis, Scotland. She died on August 7, 2000, in New Hyde Park, New York.
Fred Trump and Mary MacLeod were married in January 1936 in New York City. They had the following children:

i. Maryanne Trump: Born April 5, 1937, in New York City.

ii. Fred Trump Jr.: Born in 1938 in New York City and died in 1981.

iii. Elizabeth Trump: Born in 1942 in New York City.

iv. Donald John Trump.

v. Robert Trump: Born in August 1948 in New York City.  Source


Symbol of constant movement to reach enlightenment.

The Greek triskelion is an ancient symbol. Its name comes from the Greek word Triskeles meaning three legs. It dates back to the Neolithic era and is found on the entrance of Newgrange, Ireland. It has been used in the Celtic culture since 500 BC. It is also an ancient symbol of Sicily. This symbol dates back to when Sicily was a colony of Greece. It depicts the head of the Gorgon with snakes for hair from which radiate three legs bent at the knee.

The Greek triskelion is three interwoven spirals. It can be depicted as spirals or human legs.

One meaning attributed to the Greek triskelion is movement as the spirals represent motion. Another meaning involves groups of three. For instance, the three spirals could represent spirit/mind/body, Father/Son/Holy Ghost, Power/Intellect/Love, etc.

In modern times the Greek triskelion is seen on the seal of the United States Department of Transportation. It is also used by the Irish Air Corps. The flag of Sicily features a triskelion. It has been used in television series such as Star Trek, Merlin, Teen Wolf, and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

The triskeles proper, composed of three human legs, is younger than the triple spiral, found in decorations on Greek pottery especially as a design shown on hoplite shields, and later also minted on Greek and Anatolian coinage. An early example is found on the shield of Achilles in an Attic hydria of the late 6th century BCE.[13] It is found on coinage in Lycia
TheTrump coat of arms was granted after a four year battle
THE REAL REASON WHY THERE WAS A MAJOR FIGHT OVER THIS PARTICULAR COAT OF ARMS.  THIS particular Coat Of Arms is probably THE most important Coat of Arms in Existence.  

Norman Origin

The family derives its name from the district of the Forest of Lyons, north of the town of Lyons-la-Forêt in Haute Normandie, where the family seat was the Castle of Lyons. During the first decades of the 12th century, Henry I of England built a new castle in the district, the Château de Lyons-la-Forêt, where he died in 1135.[2][3][4]

The family name was originally ‘de Lyons’ (‘of [the Castle and Forest] of Lyons’). Later the ‘de’ was removed from the name of the family, producing merely ‘Lyons’; some branches subsequently removed the ‘s’ from the end of the word, producing ‘Lyon’.
Coat of Arms

Technically, the original arms of the family are described as, ‘Sable, a chevron between three lions sejant-guardant argent’. The crest is described as ‘On a chapeau gules, turned up ermine, a lion’s head erased argent’. The motto of the family is ‘Noli irritare leones’ (‘do not provoke the lions’).[1]

Here is a comparison of the LYON Family crest, the Davies Family Crest and the TRUMP Family Crest.

the Lyon family

History of a unique family which eventually produced the Queen of England and the Commonwealth.Home The Lyon family Genealogy Book Contact & info. The Lyon family . 1066 – 2015. Brief summary of the Lyon story – 3 minutes + A Most Amazing Family-the book. Sir John Lyon born 1289 at Warkworth, Northamptonshire.

Lugh, Celtic Sun God, Shining One, Celtic Mythology

The god Lugh whose name means “shining one” was a Celtic sun god.He was handsome, perpetually youthful, and full of life and energy. This energy manifests itself especially in the number of skills he had, according to legend, mastered. He was the patron god of Lugdunum (cur: Lyon, France) and a solar deity.


Master of All Skills; The Shining One

Also known as: Lug; Luc (Root of Lucifer, Lucern, Lucy)


Feast: 1 August

Lugh, Lord of Craftsmanship, Light, Victory and War, is a master builder, harper, poet, warrior, sorcerer, metalworker, cupbearer and physician. It’s hard to envision anything at which Lugh does not excel.  (Right as he is king of the Fallen.  The fallen who taught mankind the “CRAFTS”.  He was also the Head Musician in Heaven, and his body is a musical instrument.) 

Lugh was venerated throughout the ancient Celtic world. Modern scholars perceive him as especially significant because his veneration indicates the existence of pan-Celtic spiritual traditions. (Celts once ruled a huge swathe of continental Europe before being forced to the very edges of the continent.)  (Don’t kid yourself, they still rule.)

Lugh’s name is spelled variously depending on location. Lugh is the Irish spelling; in Wales he is Lleu Llaw Gyffes, the “Bright One of the Skillful Hand.” In Europe, he was called Lugos, meaning “raven.”

Favored people:

Lugh is the patron of artisans, crafts people, poets and artists. He also protects and guides physicians, soldiers and warriors of all kinds.


Lugh is described as shining, handsome, charming and witty. He has a silver tongue to match his skillful hands.

Attributes: Magical spear, harp

Bird: Raven

Animal: Lion; horse



The city was named in the 1st (43 b.c) century Lugdunum by its founder, the roman Munatius Plancus . Lugdunum is a latinization of the Gaulish *Lugudunon, meaning “Fortress (or hill since it was built on a hill) of Lugus( celtic god who romans identified as their Mercury)” or, alternately “Fortress of the champion’’.  The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatiaa name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum (and occasionally   Lugudunum[15]).[16] The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as “Desired Mountain” is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary.[17] In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon, after the Celtic god Lugus (‘Light‘, cognate with Old IrishLugh, Modern Irish ), and dúnon (hill-fort). It was established as the capital of the Roman french colony. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as “Primat des Gaules“. [20]

“high bishop, preeminent ecclesiastical official of a province,” having a certain jurisdiction, as vicar of the pope, over other bishops in his province, c. 1200, from Old French primat and directly from Medieval Latin primatem (nominative primas) “church primate,” noun use of Late Latin adjective primas “of the first rank, chief, principal,” from primus “first” (see prime (adj.)).

The Romans recognised that Lugdunum’s strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers (These places where two rivers meet or where one or more rivers meet the ocean/sea are VERY IMPORTANT SPIRITUALLY)  made it a natural communications hubThe city became the starting point of main Roman roads in the area, and it quickly became the capital of the province, Gallia LugdunensisThe words tend to change and simplify so over 1000 years lugdunum became Lyon , The name by which the city is known today.
Monte lyon = Riding a lion in french.   SO LYON TRANSLATES TO LION

The Croix-Rousse (Red Cross) district of Lyon is the hill in the northern part of the Presqu’îleor center of Lyon (map). Its name comes from a 16th century cross that was reddish brown in color.  The northern hill is La Croix-Rousse, known as “the hill that works” because it is traditionally home to many small silk (China Connection) workshops, an industry for which the city has long been renowned.[25]Here we see a signifyer of the French/Chinese connection.  One of many.

Liyon, Pronounced[ʎjɔ̃]ItalianLione, pronounced[liˈone]) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. Former capital of the Gauls at the time of the Roman Empire, Lyon is the seat of an archbishopric whose holder bears the title of Primate of the Gauls. Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk.  In the late 1400s and 1500s Lyon was also a key centre of literary activity and book publishing.  Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph. It is also known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights.  Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, and in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector.[12] Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews

Gard =  yard (n.2)  – measure of length, Old English  gerd  (Mercian), gierd (West Saxon) “rod, staff, stick; measure of length,” from West Germanic   *gazdijo, from Proto-Germanic *gazdjo “stick, rod” (source also of Old Saxon  gerda, Old Frisian ierdeDutch gard “rod;” Old High German garta, German gerte “switch, twig,” Old Norse gaddr “spike, sting, nail”), from PIE root *ghazdh-o- “rod, staff, pole” (source also of Latin hasta “shaft, staff“). The nautical yard-arm retains the original sense of “stick.”   SOURCE



Secrets of Trump’s 2nd Coat of Arms Revealed!

Trump’s 2nd Coat of Arms Includes Freemason double-headed phoenix!



The mass population is waking up to the fact that Donald Trump is a Scottish Rite Freemason and puppet for the ‘deep state’ satanic operations of the Freemason Luciferians. Even his coat of arms for the Trump International Golf Links of Scotland tells us so! (image shown  on left hand side, below.).

Do you notice that they have created the Three Lions in this new Trump Coat of Arms by stylizing the leafy decoration on the outside of the shield?   The lion at the top is openly a lion but there is one lion on each side just under the ribbon that holds the motto.   Do you see the creepy head in the center of the Coat of Arms?  What is that a dead Knight?  A weird dragon?  A very strangely distorted lion?  I am not sure.  There are two more of those too.  One on each side hidden in the fancy trim.  Can you see them?  There heads are looking downward.  


Featuring a double-headed phoenix, it took 4-years of battling with the Scotland’s heraldic authority, the Court of the Lord Lyon, until finally approved in 2012. The double-headed phoenix, as you may know, is one of the most prominent logos of freemasonry (image on right hand side, above).

It is highly significant to note that Trump created an additional coat of arms prominently displaying the Freemason double-headed phoenix! The Freemason double-headed phoenix also just so happens to bethe same insignia for Russia’s coat of arms(image shown above on the red shield)

Is he playing on both teams? After all, the Freemason’s have controlled society by divide and conquer manipulation and controlled ‘order out of chaos’ for ages. There is much more going on behind the scenes and the logos give it all away! This presentation breaks down the facts of these symbols and their spiritual significance – it is a must watch!

May 16th, 2023.

“The illusion of freedom will continue for as long as it’s profitable to continue the illusion. At the point where the illusion becomes too expensive to maintain, they will take down the scenery, move the tables and chairs out of the way, then they will pull back the curtains and you will see the brick wall at the back of the theater.” – Frank Zappa

“The past was erased, the erasure was forgotten, the lie became the truth.” – George Orwell

“There is more stupidity than hydrogen in the universe, and it has a longer shelf life.” ? Frank Zappa

“A single person who stops lying can bring down a tyranny” Alexandr Solzhenitsyn




An in-depth look at both of Trump’s coat of arms is featured in this astounding video lesson that will literally blow your mind. This is jaw-dropping information! Make sure to share it once you understand it – everyone who wants to understand who Trump really is needs to see this!

THE HISTORY OF GOLF, definitely is connected with the DRUIDS/MAGI/SCANDINAVIAN/GERMAN roots.  Here we also find another connection to ASIA.  Not surprising as we already have covered the fact that the Gauls/DRUIDS/Scandianavian/German/Norse come from INDO-CHINESE roots.  But, this is excellent confirmation.


Premiered Jan 7, 2022

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Origin of the Word Golf

golf (n.)

mid-15c., Scottish gouf,usually taken as an alteration of Middle Dutch colfcolve “stick, club, bat,” from Proto-Germanic *kulth- (source also of Old Norse kolfr “clapper of a bell,” German Kolben “mace, club, butt-end of a gun”). The game is from 14c., the word is first mentioned (along with fut-bol) in a 1457 Scottish statute on forbidden games (a later ordinance decrees, “That in na place of the realme thair be vsit fut-ballis, golf, or vther sic unprofitabill sportis” [Acts James IV, 1491, c.53]). Despite what you read on the internet, “golf” is not an acronym (this story seems to date back no earlier than 1997). Golf ball attested from 1540s; the motorized golf-cart from 1951.
Golf is highly addictive, and apparently they have known that for sometime.  Check out this poem:Golf widow is from 1890.

Oh! who a golfer’s bride would be,
Fast mated with a laddie
Who every day goes out to tee
And with him takes the caddie.
[“The Golf Widow’s Lament,” in Golf magazine, Oct. 31, 1890]

The Word GOLF is connected to the Ancient God BA’AL.   See my post:




(Part 2: The early European History)

It is generally agreed that the term golf was borrowed from Middle Dutch colf or colve (a stick or bat used in a ball game called kolven), and that it were the Scots who added the unique element to the game that differentiates it from all other club-and-ball sports, namely the hole. But where and when exactly golf originated is still a mystery and the problem of the missing link has not been solved yet, unless one admits the (plausible) asian origin of the game.
Some sport historians have suggested that golf evolved from several earlier sports involving a ball and a club or mallet, that pre-existed in Europe and the whole Mediterranean basin.

One of the most ancient mentions of such a sport dates from Middle Egypt (2,600 BC) The image below stems from the tomb of Kheti In Beni Hasan (a governor during the 11th Dynasty).

Image from the Tomb of Kheti (Beni Hasan BH 17) -2600 B.Cl

Image from the Tomb of Kheti (Beni Hasan BH 17) – 2600 B.C.The tomb shows everyday scenes from the Middle Kingdom, with pleasures of music, dancing and games with depictions like the one below representing two persons playing a game with clubs and a round object – it is unclear whether the round object is a ball or a ring, but the shape of the sticks is very familiar-. The name of the game is unknown but the fact that it was pictorally represented seems to prove its popularity. Most probably, the game was “exported” by the Egyptians to the Mediterrenean area, at that time, a flourishing marketplace.

Athens National Museum – 1300 B.C.

The ancient Greeks also had a stick-and-ball type of sport, probably adopted from the Egyptians. The picture below shows Greek athletes playing a game between field hockey and golf.

Later, the Roman developed a sport called “PAGANICA” or “Paganicus”, that was quite popular. Unfortunately, no images are known of the ancient Romans playing this game but the basic rules are more or less known. The game was played with a bent wooden stick and a ball made of leather (probably filled with feathers or with air). However, even if we can find some resemblance with the ancient golf balls, it seems that Paganica balls were bigger, in the range of 5,5 inches (15 cm) of diameter. The objective was to hit a pre-selected target (a tree, a rock or something similar) or, according to other sources, there were two teams playing in opposite directions like in Hockey. Most probably different versions (and names) of the game co-existed. The Roman scribe Catullas, for example, refers to a similar game called pangea….

What is sure is that as the Roman Empire and the Romans expanded towards the North of Italy and Northern Europe, Paganica was also introduced to these Northern countries. It probably became the ancient root of several other sports played with sticks (or clubs) and balls being described later.

A game called Bandy has its oldest record is a 13th century painted glass window in the Canterbury cathedral where a boy is holding a curved stick in one hand and a ball in the other. Shakespeare also mentionned Bandy in “Romeo and Juliet” – “The Prince expressly hath forbidden Bandying in the Verona streets”. The name of the game is derived from the Teutonic word “bandja” meaning a “curved stick”. The Irish equivalent of Bandy is called HURLEY.


Robert Browning in his “History of Golf” of 1955, suggests that golf is possibly an offshoot of the Celtic/Gaelic hurley and may have originated in a form of practice indulged in by hurley players journeying across country to play an “away” match – a theory of considerable merit.  

One of these games was called “CAMBUCA” (or Cambuta) played in England in the 1300’s. Similarly to Paganica, this game was played with a bent club and with a leather ball (filled with feathers) . The scope of the game was to strike the ball till reaching a specific goal marked on the ground. Alternative sources describes this game as a competition between opponents with one attacking and one defending, even if, most probably, this rules belong to an Irish game of the 14th century called CAMANACHD. Its origin may come from the Celts game of “SHINTY” whose have also been lost.

Hurling, Shinty and Bandy have all been played on both grass and ice, but as the climate in Great Britain and Ireland is relatively mild the grass version dominated.



 In 1353 appears the first recorded reference to “CHOLE”, a popular cross country game being played in Northern France (where it was sometimes also called SOULE) and Belgium between the 13th and the 15th century. While chole players used wooden bended clubs and traditional leather filled balls, the game was more similar to hockey, as it was played with one common ball by two different teams, with the objective to achieve a specific target (a gate, a door or even a couple of rocks).

The two teams were playing one against another in the sense that, first, one team was shooting the ball in one direction (the chole) and after it was the task of the other team to countershoot the ball (the decholade) in the opposite direction. Each team had a “chole” made of a sequence of 3 consecutive strokes before the ball belonged to the opponents for their “dechole” that consists in one single stroke (aimed to shot the ball as far as possible from the goal and in a difficult area). The game was played in open fields usually using natural hazards as part of the difficulty to reach the objective.

1421 – A Scottish regiment aiding the French against the English at the Siege of Bauge is introduced to the game of chole. Hugh Kennedy, Robert Stewart and John Smale, three of the identified players, are credited with introducing the game in Scotland.

Another, simpler, version of Chole was “CROSSE” also being played in France.

In the 15th century, another popular game in England (mainly London and its suburbs) was called “PALL MALL” (pronounced pal-mal or pell-mell) or palle maille. The name comes from the pallamaglio, which literally means “ball-mallet”. The object was to strike a boxwood ball of about 1 foot (30cm) in circumference (about the same size as a modern croquet ball) with a heavy wooden mallet from one pre-determined place to another, sometimes as far as neighboring villages near London.

Pall mall was popular in Italy, France and Scotland, and spread to England in the 17th century. The name “pall mall” refers not only to the game, but also to the mallet used and the alley in which it was played. It is considered by some as the precusor to croquet.

Old English Sports, Pastimes and Customs, published 1891
Medal “Kolven”

A variant of Pall Mall became increasingly popular in the South of France was JEU DE MAIL. This one was played with straight wooden clubs that had a sort of hammer shape at one hand calledmail” (i.e. wooden mallet). The scope of the game was to shot a wooden ball (!) till a specific target, normally an arc, located at ½ miles or longer from the starting point with the minimum number of strokes. As in modern golf, this was one of the few ancient sports where each player was playing with his own individual ball for the whole game. See below picture for reference: The Jeu de Mail was very popular at its time. The book written by A. Robb (Historical Gossip about Golf and Golfers), offers a very detailed description of the game that resembles modern golf quite a lot with the exception that the target is never a hole but a designated mark on the ground. The clubs, hammered shaped, were designed to cope with bad lies as on one end they had a sort of flat shape to give the club with some loft in case of needs.

It is worth mentioning that this game was still played in some small villages of southern France untill last century.

Delft-style Tile illusrating “Kolven”

It is chronicled that two teams of four, equipped with wooden clubs, hit wooden balls over a ‘course’ measuring 2,5 miles. The targets were outside doors with the objective for each team to score a “goal” in the lowest number of strokes. The fact that this game was part of a “local celebration” is a sign that “kolf” should have been a popular game at that time.

The game of Kolven appears in many Dutch paintings, pottery, tiles, suggesting its popularity at that time. Its popularity remains very strong even today as is not uncommon to see players in the Northern part of Holland. At origin it was an indoor game but it soon developed also as an outdoor sport being played on ice (on frozen channels, small lakes and rivers) or on kolf courts specifically confined for the game.

Some golf historians claim that the origin of golf as well as of the word “golf” itself originate from kolf. Van Hengels and J.A. Brongers, considered two of the most acknowledgeable Dutch golf historians, based their theory on the frequent trading exchanges between Holland and Scotland in medieval times and reinforced their theory claiming that there is “golf evidence” dating back to 1300 – in documents, paintings and sketches, even before the first record of golf in Scotland.

However, there is also proof of the opposite.

First of all, the dutch kolf is played with the objective to hit a specific post with the fewest possible strokes. The game could be played either in teams (one against another) or by single individuals but only with one common ball. Moreover, it was played in a confined area (outside or inside), indicating similarities with hockey rather than with golf. Futhermore, a book dating from 1795, the Statistical Account of Scotland, clearly described the game kolf as different from golf. This proves that, already in those years, Scottish people were very clear about the differences between golf and kolf. It is worth remembering that the word “golf” was first recorded in 1457, in an act of the Scottish Parliament, when the sport was banned because it interfered with military practices (such as archery…).



Stefan’s Florilegium
Golf-Med-Era-art – 12/3/09

“The Royal and Ancient Sport – Golf in the Medieval Era” by Baron Giles Leabrook.

The modern concept of a golf course would be alien to the ancient golfers. Now we find set holes, and a set number of them, whereas in the past golfers would play whatever number of holes suited them, often repeating several, and following erratic routes over the course. As time past, the locals devised a generally accepted path to each hole, and with traffic increasing the grass was trodden down over these routes. This provided an excellent surface to strike the ball from, and was the start of the modern fairway.

Nowadays bunkers are deep sand traps, cunningly placed to snare the unwary and frighten the unskilled. They started with sheep-scrapes in sandy hollows, made by the animals to shelter against the cutting Scottish wind. On ancient courses they occurred naturally, randomly and while a bother to the golfers were nothing compared to fiendish placement of modern bunkers, designed to maximize the player’s woe. In fact it was only in the 20th century that an effective club was designed to use in the bunker: the sand wedge. Since then sand traps have become monstrous and punitive.

In fact, nothing that we think of as golf course architecture existed in the 1600’s, and precious little in the 1700’s. Certainly the old putting greens bore no resemblance to the large, rolling, billiard table smooth surfaces that we are used to. The first recorded rules of golf in 1744 state that the ball is to be teed for driving to the next hole within a club length of the hole just used. As green sizes and teeing distance increases after that, it is easy to assume that greens had varied little up to that date. They were small; less than 5 yards in diameter, and while well trod and hard were not at all manicured like modern greens. Because players often scraped the turf in driving, the area around the hole was scarred and pitted, so any stroke like the modern putt was impossible. The trick then was in the approach, lofting the ball so close to the hole that it could coaxed in over the rough ground. Associations or clubs of golfers did not exist, or were not incorporated, and would not come into being until 1744. There were no clubhouses, although numbers of taverns and inns nearby compensated for that. There were no professional golfers or tournaments, and the first notice of a match for a purse was in 1724. However, it is inconceivable that the canny Scots were not wagering on their prowess from the very start of the game.

As played today golf has many points that differ with its medieval ancestor, although the substance of the game remains the same. The object is still the fewest strokes into the hole. The clubs and balls have similar sizes and weights, although materials differ. Most importantly, golf is still one of the most friendly and courteous games played today, with ancient laws steeped in honour and tradition, reaching down to us from the middle ages. Recreating medieval golf is easy. If you do not have access to leagues of open country for the game of chole, then golf on modern courses with modern equipment in period costume is fun. Especially if followed by a solid Scottish feast! The extreme reproduction of golf is to make period clubs and balls. If you do that, be careful that you only use one era of equipment at a time, as modern clubs damage the featheries, and modern balls damage the old style clubs. Only play the balls in fine weather, as rain will ruin your precious featherie. Always play off a soft, grassy lie to protect the clubs and balls. Find a simple flat public course with few trees, bunkers and especially lakes. Many courses will be happy to have a little spectacle of ancient golf, if they aren’t busy. Wear modern shoes and gloves, they are much better for your feet, ankles and hands, and make the game easier. Above all, have fun, knowing that you recreate a royal and ancient game, that has thrived for over 500 years.


History of golf From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Origin and history

The Xuande Emperor of the Ming dynasty playing chuiwan

The MacDonald boys playing golf, attributed to William Mosman. 18th century, National Galleries of Scotland.

While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game’s ancient origins are unclear and much debated.

Some historians[3] trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game.[4]

Others cite chuiwan (捶丸; “chui” means striking and “wan” means small ball)[5] as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.[6] Ming Dynasty scroll by the artist Youqiu dating back to 1368 entitled “The Autumn Banquet” shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.[5] The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages.[7]

Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England and chambot in France.[7] The Persian game chowkan is another possible ancient origin, albeit being more polo-like. In addition, kolven (a game involving a ball and curved bats) was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier.


Golf course

Aerial view of the Golfplatz Wittenbeck in MecklenburgGermany

A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground that is set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairwayrough and other hazards, and the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin (normally a flagstick) and cup.

The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a “dogleg”, in reference to a dog’s knee. The hole is called a “dogleg left” if the hole angles leftwards and “dogleg right” if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole’s direction may bend twice; this is called a “double dogleg”.

A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes.[17][18]

Early Scottish golf courses were primarily laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches.[19] This gave rise to the term “golf links”, particularly applied to seaside courses and those built on naturally sandy soil inland.[20]

The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892. The course is still there today.[21]


1571 Book, “Biblia dat is, de gantsche Heylighe Schrift, grondelic ende trouwelick”, reference for the game of Kolf

In 1597 the crew of Willem Barentsz played “colf” during their stay at Nova Zembla, as recorded by Gerrit de Veer in his diary:

In December 1650, the settlers of Fort Orange (near present-day Albany, New York) played the first recorded round of kolf (golf) in America. The Dutch settlers played kolf year round. During the spring, summer and fall it was played in fields. In the winter it was played on ice with the same rules. Then on December 10, 1659, the ruler passed an ordinance against playing golf in the streets of the same city.

On a Monday in December of 1650 a party of men came to his [Steven Jansz] house [house with attached tavern] to drink after having played a round of “kolf” for brandy … Sometime during the drinking session Teunis Jansz Seylemaecker (Sailmaker) accused Steven Jansz’ wife Maria [Tavern Keeper] of having ‘wiped out two strokes at once’ although she had tapped [poured] two “roamers” [green wine glasses] of brandy. Apparently the losers of the match were required to pay the wager to Maria upon arrival at the tavern. She then recorded the amount with chalk on a piece of slate as credit toward the brandy to be consumed by the winners. Each stroke on the slate probably represented two ‘roemers’ of brandy, or a round for the two men on the winning team.” Eventually, the two of the men Philip Pietersz Lademaecker and Steven [Jansz] began fighting, the two other players which included Gijsbert Cornelisz joined. Gijsbert and Steven ended up killing each other over the accusations, but managed to apologize to each other before dying.[12]

Early golf in Scotland

The modern game of golf is generally considered to be a Scottish invention. A spokesman for the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, one of the oldest Scottish golf organisations, said “Stick and ball games have been around for many centuries, but golf as we know it today, played over 18 holes, clearly originated in Scotland.[14][15] The word golf, or iScots gowf  [gʌuf], is usually thought to be a Scots alteration of Dutch “colf” or “colve” meaning “stick, “club“, “bat“, itself related to the Proto-Germanic language *kulth- as found in Old Norse kolfr meaning “bell clapper” (ah, that is interesting. Bells are related and symbolic of BAAL. See my article on Belgium), and the German Kolben meaning “mace or club”.[16] 

MACE (bludgeon)

mace is a blunt weapon, a type of club or virge that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful strikes. The mace was chiefly used for blows struck upon the head of an enemy.[1] A mace typically consists of a strong, heavy, wooden or metal shaft, often reinforced with metal, featuring a head made of stone, bone, copper, bronze, iron, or steel.

The head of a military mace can be shaped with flanges or knobs to allow greater penetration of plate armour. The length of maces can vary considerably. The maces of foot soldiers were usually quite short (two or three feet, or sixty to ninety centimetres). The maces of cavalrymen were longer and thus better suited for blows delivered from horseback. Two-handed maces could be even larger.

Maces are rarely used today for actual combat, but many government bodies (for instance, the British House of Commons and the U.S. Congress), universities and other institutions have ceremonial maces and continue to display them as symbols of authority. They are often paraded in academic, parliamentary or civic rituals and processions.  Source

The Dutch term Kolven refers to a related sport where the lowest number of strokes needed to hit a ball with a mallet into a hole determines the winner; according to the “Le grand dictionnaire françois-flamen” printed 1643 is stated the Dutch term to Flemish: “Kolf, zest Kolve; Kolfdrager, Sergeant; Kolf, Kolp, Goulfe.”[17]

The first documented mention of golf in Scotland appears in a 1457 Act of the Scottish Parliament, an edict issued by King James II of Scotland prohibiting the playing of the games of gowf and futball as these were a distraction from archery practice for military purposes.[18] Bans were again imposed in Acts of 1471 and 1491, with golf being described as “an unprofitable sport”. Mary, Queen of Scots was accused by her political enemies of playing golf after her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was murdered in 1567.[vague] George Buchanan subsequently wrote that she had been playing “sports that were clearly unsuitable to women”. Golf was banned again by parliament under King James IV of Scotland, but golf clubs and balls were bought for him in 1502 when he was visiting Perth, and on subsequent occasions when he was in St Andrews and Edinburgh.[19]

An entry in the Town Council Minutes of Edinburgh for 19 April 1592 includes golf in a list of pursuits to be avoided on the Sabbath.[20]

The account book of lawyer Sir John Foulis of Ravelston records that he played golf at Musselburgh Links on 2 March 1672, and this has been accepted as proving that The Old Links, Musselburgh, is the oldest playing golf course in the world. There is also a story that Mary, Queen of Scots played there in 1567.[21][22]

James VII of Scotland, while still Duke of Albany, was said to have played the first international golf contest in 1681 when he participated in a game against two English courtiers as part of a bet over rights to claim the game for Scotland or England. His teammate was said to be one John Paterson, who received as payment, enough money to build a mansion on the area of Edinburgh now known as Golfers Land.[23]

Then there is golf, which, some folks will tell you, is a metaphor for life. And even more, they will explain that it is a valid path to enlightenment with links to Eastern spiritualityparticularly Buddhism.

If you doubt this, check out the list of best-selling golf books on Amazon: Zen Golfalmost always tops the list, while amongst the most popular sports novels are The Legend of Bagger Vance (a literal retelling of the Bhagavad Gita set against a golf match) and Golf in the Kingdomby Esalen Institute founder Michael Murphy, in which a fictionalized version of the author sets off for an Indian ashram but is waylaid on the links of Scotland, where he meets his own Zen master in the form of a golf pro named Shivas Irons.

During the past few months I have been interviewed several times on the subject of golf and spirituality, and nearly each time I am asked, “Why golf?” Which is a damn good question to which I think I have found the answer.

The difference between golf and most other mainstream sports is this: the ball doesn’t move unless you make it. There is no action to anticipate. No physical event to react to. No one is passing to you. Nobody is going to chase, tackle, or tag you. You never have to fight for the ball. And all of those are things that put you in a reactive state, where you are pulled from your thinking brain into your body — which has no thoughts. It’s easy to feel grounded when you don’t think.

In golf, however, there is almost nothing that makes you react other than your own actions. It’s just you, the ball, the course, and — perhaps most harrowing of all — your thoughts, which are often the single biggest obstacle standing between you and par. You see golfers implode on the course every day. Sit on any hole on any course and several times each day you will see one lousy shot send a seemingly rational, educated, and composed human being into a self-hating rant with a chorus of “YOU IDIOT!!! YOU SUCK!!! HOW CAN YOU MISS THAT PUTT!!! IDIOT!!! IDIOT!!!” Then think about the thousand free throws Michael Jordan missed (all more consequential than whether you bogey the 5th one Sunday morning) without even so much as a single: “Jordan, you’re awful.”

And in this way, golf is about something more. It’s about staring down what is often our worst self-defeating behavior in a quiet setting, which ought to be meditative and so seldom actually is. This is where the Buddhism comes in. It is through the undoing of these negative thought patterns that golfers find their way towards nirvana and from which even non-golfers can learn at least two lessons.

The first is to stop keeping score. I tried this one cold spring afternoon a few years back after an instructor had suggested I play one round without writing down the results of a single hole. Keeping the card in my pocket that day tested my willpower in ways that you cannot imagine. I have never wanted a drink or a late-night slice of cold pizza as much as I wanted to write down my bogey five on the first. But, I didn’t.

What I learned from the experience was liberating. It was inevitable that I would care about score, just as we all care about how much money we have in the bank or whether we’ll get that promotion at work. But, by detaching from the results and engaging with the journey (or in this case the game) you take an enormous amount of pressure off of your shoulders. You place yourself squarely in the moment. You take care of what is in front of you without scars from three-putting the last green and without thoughts of whether you’ll hit your next drive in the fairway. And the result is that you are free, you are present and — in typically Buddhist fashion — your scores actually improve the less you care about them. The same applies to just about anything that you do in your everyday life.

The other thing I took away was the related idea of loosening your grip. No less a spiritual figure than Johnny Miller, then NBC golf analyst and former U.S. and British Open champion, once said that only one in a thousand golfers grips the club lightly enough. After years of strangling my Callaway irons and swinging them like hell, I learned that he is absolutely right. The less grip pressure, the longer and more accurately your ball usually flies. It is a terrific lesson for Westerners (like myself), who so often seek to exert their will on things more important than golf, things like our children, our careers, our marriages, traffic, and just about anything else that engages us and that we care about. We think that the harder we try or the more force we apply — be it physical or mental — the better the result. Yet, so often the absolute opposite is the case. When you do less, loosen your grip, and give up the elusive need to control both actions and outcomes, you become free as well. It is the reason that people have faith in god, Christ, and other higher powers. It is something I thought that I’d never learn, yet I came to it through a sport I’d always associated with plaid pants and Pat Summerall.

Ultimately, the way we live today is best summed up by something Shivas Irons tells Michael Murphy during Golf in the Kingdom when the latter has just double-bogeyed and is disconsolate: “Ye try too hard and ye think too much.” We can all probably learn something from that.

I find it so disheartening to hear people talk about Eastern Relgion in this manner.  All of what that person shared is better found in the bible and in right relationship with the Creator.  You do not want to be yoked to BUDHA!

“Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”  Matthew 11:28-30

Blockbuster Anthropology
Cultural Analysis by Anthropologist Peter Wogan

Golf’s Spatial and Spiritual Dimensions

To understand how golf can bring about feelings of transcendence and awe, we need to look at the physical layout of the game and those intimate connections between the ball and player.

The Set-Up

The union with the ball begins with the set-up stance, in which the golfer stares down at the ball, head bowed, as if in prayer. Few other sports require such single-minded focus on a stationary ball. In sports like baseball, basketball, and football, the ball moves too fast for anyone to get a lock on it; in golf, every play begins with a mini-meditation on the ball.

Flickr North Central College Championship Flickr Rennett Stowe 

Watching the Shot

In the switch from the stationary set-up position to the swing and then the ball’s soaring flight, the golfer undergoes a sudden, radical shift in perspective—from head bowed to head raised, from a focus on earth to sky, low to high, abjection to transcendence. Having started off like a prayerful hunchback, the golfer soars like a bird.

Flickr Russ Glasson Flickr North Central College Long Shot

I say “the golfer soars like a bird” because the golfer is now intimately connected with the ball, as if it were his or her spirit double. The ball traveling through the air mimics the golfer’s mind and body so precisely that its flight path reveals microscopic, hidden tics in the swing that even the golfer often can’t consciously recognize. Once golfers see the ball going astray, they often apply “body English,” contorting their bodies up and down, to the right, left, and sideways, (thus the terminology warp and torque) as if the ball will feel obliged to change course, to please its human twin. Even golfers who suppress these spontaneous movements often still talk to their ball in such sincere tones that you could swear they somehow believe the ball can hear them. Whether mystical or maddening, it’s hard to deny the felt union between the golf ball and player.

Even pros sometimes still apply body English (

Of course, you sometimes see body English applied in other sports as well, and that’s for good reason: the same magical principle of “like produces like” appears around the world and throughout human history. This is what anthropologists call “sympathetic magic,” a long-standing, common type of magic found in everything from a love potion made with red flowers to induce a red heart, to bowlers who spontaneously jump to the left or right when they see their ball heading for the gutter. But golf takes this magical thinking to an extreme. By starting every shot with a stationary ball and putting such intense visual and mental focus on the ball’s flight path, golf makes sympathetic magic an absolutely central part of the sport.

Searching for the Ball

Once the ball lands, the player assumes yet a different relationship with it. The ball is now a tiny white dot in the distance, whether nestled far off in the grass, or, worse, out of sight in the woods, water, or sand. The player now experiences what novelist John Updike called the “intoxicating relativity” of golf, i.e., the constant changes in scale and spatial relations as the golfer and his or her ball move through the game. Updike writes, “As it moves through the adventures of a golf match, the human body, like Alice’s in Wonderland, experiences an intoxicating relativityhuge in relation to the ball, tiny in relation to the course, exactly matched to that of other players” (Golf Dreams, “The Bliss of Golf,” 1997, p. 147-150). Whatever you might think about Updike’s fiction, it’s fair to say his brief point about golf’s relativity is as insightful as his famous essay about Ted Williams’ final home run.

FlickR Erik Anestad

Although Updike is referring here to the tininess of the golfer’s body in relation to the course, his point also applies to the golfer’s spirit double, the ball itself, which is even tinier in relation to the course terrain. Here’s the way Updike puts it: “To see one’s ball gallop two hundred and more yards down the fairway, or see it fly from the face of an 8-iron clear across an entire copse of maples in full autumnal flare, is to join one’s soul with the vastness that, contemplated from another angle, intimidates the spirit, and makes one feel small.”  In other words, the ball induces a sense of the golfer’s place in nature and the universe—connected yet humbled, as in religious experiences.

Flickr Andreas Krappweis

If talk of the universe and religion still sounds like romantic hyperbole, remember that sheer scale can fundamentally change a person’s emotional experience, as anyone will attest who has ever felt awe and wonder at the grandness of the ocean, mountains, or stars, or just a beautiful, tall cathedral or large-canvass painting. Vast scale, in fact, is one of the quintessential aspects of awe, as social psychologists like Dacher Keltner have shown. Granted, seeing a golf ball fly is not the same as seeing the Grand Canyon for the first time. Most golfers only experience a tingly hint of awe when they’re on the golf course, especially if it’s one they’ve been on before. Golf only offers cultivated and controlled awe, but it’s still a kind of awe that induces a physical, if not spiritual, sense of humility.

I got interested in these golf questions for personal reasons. My father-in-law has been battling with Parkinson’s disease, trying to maintain his balance and coordination and dignity in the face of the disease’s relentless attack on his nervous system, and he has fought particularly hard not to let Parkinson’s take away his golf game, one of his greatest joys. Over the last decade, he made compromises. He accepted that his shots wouldn’t go as far as they used to. Sometimes he fell down on the golf course. But he refused to give up. He also insisted on teaching me how to play. In fact, the worse his shot got, the more determined he seemed to teach me how to hit the ball right. I still can’t say my shot has gotten very good, but I’ve felt as close to him on the golf course as anytime in the years we’ve known each other. And while walking through the grass and searching for my ball in the woods, I’ve had ample chances to reflect on golf’s mysteries and how this game gets inside you.

Of course, I try not to think about all these questions when I’m swinging. I just listen to my father-in-law’s advice (“hold the club gently, like you’re holding a bird…feet shoulder-width apart”), bow my head, swing, watch the ball fly—and hope it reaches its destination.

Turnberry Kintyre course, Scotland, (Flickr Englishpointer)

The game of golf was invented several hundred years ago in Scotland. When you think about it, the northern part of Great Britain is not the ideal place to play an outdoor sport. While on the links in that part of the world, I’ve been rained on, snowed on, baked in the sun and blown around the course by 40 mile per hour winds.

But golf also has some strange traditions. Here are 11 unusual aspects of the game.

 1. Lessons:

2. Etiquette: 

Golfers are obsessed with the etiquette of the game. Specifically, talking or moving about are not allowed when a golfer is addressing the ball, fixing ball marks on the greens is imperative, raking traps is a must, yelling “fore” when you hit a crappy shot is expected, you must tee off in the correct order (lowest score from previous hole goes first), never give anyone golf tips unless you are a 10 or less, absolutely no social media gadgets are permitted, do not wear a hat in the dining room, short shorts are unwelcomed and so much more.

3. Rules: 

There is an entire book of rules governing the game. Only ten are relevant; the others are arcane and/or esoteric. Some golfers are so serious about all this stuff that they never seem to have a good time. They are perennially concerned that the golf gods will smite them for violating a golf commandment.

4. Cheating: 

If you are playing a match or gambling, you must never cheat. But, if you are playing alone or with some friends and you are behind a tree, such that you may be injured, move the damn ball and avoid unnecessary medical expenses. I promise not to report you the golf police.

5. Ladies on the Course: 

Historically, golf has been a chauvinistic sport. For years, women were not permitted to play, which is really a dumb rule. In any case, so long as women (or men for that matter) play quickly, I have no issues regardless of their handicaps. Here are some tips for all high handicappers: if you cannot hit out of a sand trap, pick up and move on; do not practice while playing on the course; when you reach three over par, pick up your ball and go to the next tee; golf is not a coffee klatch, discussions about life, health, children, sex, politics, etc. should take place after the round is over.

6. Golf Elitism: 

Joining a golf club is like buying a coop apartment; you must be approved by a tribunal, so be on your best behavior. This process is degrading while you are being subjected to it, but after you are admitted into the club, it keeps out the riffraff, most of the time. However, there is not a legitimate reason to exclude people because of race, religion, color, sex or sexual preference.

7. Golf Fashion:

This is an oxymoron. Who designs these clothes, anyway? See Loudmouth clothes ( It is permissible and desirable to look like a dork or a clown on the course. I would never wherewore any golf clothes on the street. And, you must have the club’s logo on everything including your hat, your belt, your shirt, your golf bag, your golf balls and your underwear.

8. Speed of Play: 

When men play golf, they cannot wait to be finished. Rush, rush, rush. It is a sacrilege to spend more than four hours on the course. You are supposed to be having fun while playing, so why be in such a hurry to get home? To mow the lawn or do work?

9. Golf Arrogance: 

If you suck at golf, some people will not play with you and think less of you as a person; they are arrogant jerks. As if a low handicap makes you a superior person. Some great golfers act like they are God’s gift to the world. They hit a little white ball around a course with 18 holes on it. There are no Nobel prizes for golf.

10. Betting: 

Most golfers, not me, want to bet when they play golf. The challenge of the game is enough to keep me interested. I do not need any incentives to play harder. And besides, I lose all the time, and it pisses me off to give someone cash.

11. Caddies: 

Caddies are a strange lot. Their job is to find your ball when you hit it into the woods, read greens, say you are a great person and listen to all your whining and bitching. They do this to make a large tip.


For some real insight into other sports as well as Golf, check ou the following website:


Here are some places you can find more information on Heraldry.  

Myths and misconceptions are easily attached to the subject of heraldry, what else would you expect from a science and art form that so readily embraces fantastic beasts such as the unicorn or the dragon?  This page of Frequently Asked Questions should help you tackle some of those common myths and misconceptions.

A good place to start is to view this short video on heraldry recorded by one of Her Majesty’s officers of arms.


The Officers of Arms – College of Arms

Thomas Woodcock, C.V.O., B.A. (Durham), LL.B. (Cambridge), D.L., F.S.A. Garter King of Arms is the senior of the three English Kings of Arms. The office takes its name from the Order of the Garter….