I was compelled to dive deeper into this issue.

Even if you do not have any children or your children are all grown, you could still benefit greatly from viewing this entire post.  There is some very interesting information within.

What follows is what I found.


First, let’s look at the name of the infection and break it down: 

What is a Cronobacter infection?
Cronobacter are bacteria that can live in dry places. The bacteria are usually found in powdered baby formula, powdered milk, and herbal teas. An infection can be serious if you have a weak immune system, such as from HIV or cancer. Older adults may also develop a serious infection. An infection can cause inflammation around the brain, blood poisoning, or an intestine infection.

crono- – Wiktionary
crono– ” in Dicionario da Real Academia Galega, Royal Galician Academy. Italian [Etymology From Ancient Greek χρόνος (khrónos, “time”) .
Prefix  crono-  chrono- (relating to time)
-bacter – Wikipedia
Bacter is a new Latin (i.e. Modern Latin) term coined from bacterium, which in turn derives from the Greek βακτήριον, meaning small staff (diminutive of βακτηρία ). Consequently, it formally means “rod”.
-bacter Definition & Meaning |
Bacter– is a combining form used like a prefix meaning ” bacteria ,” microscopic single-celled organisms. It is very occasionally used in scientific terms, especially in biology and pathology. Bactercomes from Greek baktḗria, meaning “staff, cane.” Discover how the word for “staff” came to denote microorganisms at our entry for bacterium.
bacteria | Etymology, origin and meaning of bacteria by etymonline
Oct 26, 2020 bacillus (n.) 1877, medical Latin, from Late Latin bacillus “wand,” literally “little staff,” diminutive of baculum “a stick, staff, walking stick,” from PIE *bak- “staff” (also source of Greek bakterion; see bacteria) + instrumentive  suffix -culo.
So literally the name Cronobacter means the wand or staff of KRONOS!!  TIME!
sakazakii, with C. sakazakii as the type species. The genus was named for Cronos, the Titan of Greek myth, who devoured his children as they were born (Figure). Francisco Goya (1746–1828), Saturn Devouring His Son, 1819–1823, oil mural transferred to canvas, via Wikimedia Commons.  Etymologia: Cronobacter sakazakii – PMC – NCBI 


Cronobacter sakazakii is a bacterium within the family Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was called “yellow-pigmented Enterobacter cloacae” until 1980(right about the time they started playing with the DNA of bacteria especially ecoli; see my posts on CRISPR) when it was renamed Enterobacter sakazakii. RecentlyE. sakazakii has been re-classified as 6 species within the genus Cronobacter.1  All of these organisms cause a rare infection, primarily in low birth weight neonates (newborn children, less than two months old) who are immunocompromised. A review article summarizing literature from 1960 through 1999 revealed only 31 cases in neonates, infants and children.2 In subsequent years, only a few more cases were observed. Infection has most commonly been associated with consumption of contaminated infant formula subjected to temperature abuse.


Necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition characterized by variable injury or damage to the intestinal tract, causing death of intestinal tissue. The condition most often occurs in premature newborns, but it may also occur in term or near-term babies. Signs and symptoms may include abdominal distension, bloody stools, vomiting bile-stained fluid, and pneumatosis intestinalis (gas in the bowel wall) identified on abdominal x-ray. Affected infants occasionally have temperature instability, lethargy, or other findings of sepsis. The exact cause of NEC is unknown.

Definition of  necrotizing – nec·​ro·​tiz·​ing | \ ˈne-krə-ˌtī-ziŋ  \
causing or undergoing necrosis necrotizing infections necrotizing tissue

Necrotize Definition & Meaning |
Medical necrotize [ nek-r uh-tahyz ] verb (used without object), nec·ro·tized, nec·ro·tiz·ing. to undergo necrosis. verb (used with object), nec·ro·tized, nec·ro·tiz·ing. to cause necrosis in (a tissue, an organ, etc.). Also especially British, nec·ro·tise . Origin of necrotize 1870-75; necrot (ic) + -ize Words nearby necrotize

necrosis – nə-krōĕ-′sĭs, n
  1. Death of cells through injury or disease, especially in a localized area of a tissue or organ.
  2. A disease of the grape, attributed to Bacillus vitivorus.
  3. In pathology, the death of a circumscribed piece of tissue.
What does entero– mean? Entero– is a combining form used like a prefix meaning “intestine.The intestines are the long tract of the digestive system that runs from the stomach to the anusEntero– is often used in medical terms, especially in anatomy and pathology. Entero– comes from the Greek énteron, meaning “intestine.”
Colitis is an inflammation of the lining of the colon. Many conditions can cause colitis. If a person has colitis, they will have abdominal pain, discomfort, and diarrhea.


“Classifications are theories about the basis of natural order, not dull catalogues compiled only to avoid chaos.”  Stephen Jay Gould, Wonderful Life (1989), 98.

Enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative bacillus, is a rare cause of bloodstream and central nervous system infections.  In 2007, following extensive study, it was proposed that the original taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii be revised, to consist of five new species moved to a new genus, identified as “Cronobacter”. (1)  A review of the what, the how, and the why the change was first proposed, and why it was eventually approved, provides an insight into the related scientific process of taxonomy at work, involving this notorious neonatal pathogen.

Initially, taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms, identifying and naming species, and organizing them into systems of classification.  At least 1.7 million species of living organisms have been discovered, and the list grows longer every year.   Ideally, classification should be based on homology (homology: n. a similarity often attributable to common origin.) , i.e., the shared characteristics that have been inherited from a common ancestor.  Until recent decades, the study of homologies was limited to anatomical structures and pattern of embryonic development.  However, since the birth of molecular biology, homologies can now also be studied at the level of proteins and DNA. (2)

More specifically, E. sakazakii is a rare, but life-threatening cause of neonatal meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. In general, E. sakazaii kills 40-80 % of infected newborns diagnosed with this type of severe infection. (5) E. sakazakii meningitis may lead to cerebral abscess or infarction with cyst formation and severe neurologic impairment. E. sakazakii can cause a variety of infections, though central nervous system infection has been most commonly described. (6)  For infants, infection typically manifests through signs of sepsis in the first week of life: irritability or lethargy, temperature instability, and feeding intolerance.  Meningitis often produces overwhelming infection that rapidly moves through cerebral hemorrhage, infarct, necrosis, liquefaction, and eventually, cyst formation. (7)

E. sakazakii invasive infections occur more frequently in infants than in older children. (9) The neonate’s immature immune system may increase the risk of acquiring an E. sakazakii infection. (10) In a study of E. sakazakii cases over a 47 year period, investigators found that the median age at infection onset was two days and 94% of cases were less than 28 days old. (11)

While the reservoir for E. sakazakii is unknown in many cases, a growing number of reports have established powdered infant formula as the source and vehicle of infection.  In several investigations of outbreaks of E. sakazakii infection that occurred among neonates in neonatal intensive care units, investigators were able to show both statistical and microbiological association between infection and powdered infant formula consumption.  These investigations included cohort studies which implicated infant formula consumed by the infected infants. In addition, there was no evidence of infant-to-infant or environmental transmission; all cases had consumed the implicated formula.  The stomach of newborns, especially of premature babies, is less acidic than that of adults: a possible important factor contributing to the survival of an infection with E. sakazakii in infants.  (13)

The first cases attributed to this organism occurred in 1958 in England (Urmenyi and Franklin, 1961). Since then, up to July 2008, around 120 documented cases of E. sakazakii infection, and at least 27 deaths, have been identified from all parts of the world in the published literature and in reports submitted by public health organizations and laboratories. (12)

E. sakazakii used to be previously known as a “yellow pigmented Enterobacter cloacae”, until 1980.  E. sakazakii was first defined as a novel species in 1980, when it was introduced as a new species based on differences in DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical reactions, and antibiotic susceptibility. The bacteria was named sakazakii in honour of the Japanese microbiologist, Riichi Sakazaki, when the species was first designated in 1980. (15)  Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) then became identified as one of sixteen distinct species in the genus Enterobacter, within the Enterobacteriaceae family. (14)


before vowels enter-, word-forming element meaning “intestine,” from Greek enteron “an intestine, piece of gut” (see enteric).

Entero | Spanish to English Translation – SpanishDict
1. (complete) a. whole. Se comió una hamburguesa entera a la edad de dos. He ate a whole hamburger at the age of two. b. entire. La comunidad entera salió a la calle a celebrar. The entire community came out to the streets to celebrate. 2. (unbroken) a. intact. El florero llegó entero. The vase arrived intact. b. in one piece  Es un milagro que haya llegado entero después de pasar por ese camino lleno de baches. It’s a miracle that it got here in once piece after coming down that road full of potholes.

They called it Enterobacter because the intestines passes through the WHOLE body from your mouth to pooper.  Entero means WHOLE. Take a look at what these poor babies suffer!  These people are monsters!

Cloaca – Wikipedia
Cloaca. In animal anatomy, a cloaca ( / kloʊˈeɪkə / kloh-AY-kə ), plural cloacae ( / kloʊˈeɪsi / kloh-AY-see or / kloʊˈeɪki / kloh-AY-kee ), is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals

From the beginning, however, many different biogroups were defined as E. sakazakii, with the existence of these divergent geno- and biogroups suggesting that E. sakazakii could in fact represent multiple species. (14)  Accordingly, in 2007, a research group clarified the taxonomic relationship among the various E. sakazakii strains, by using sophisticated new means of viewing and analyzing the bacteria.  Iverson et al were thus able to distinguish numerous separate species.  Their work resulted in the proposal of an alternative classification of E. sakazakii into a new genus, Cronobacter. (16)

The new techniques used by the research group provide clear proof of the substantial advances made in molecular biology, and included f-AFLP, automated ribotyping, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization. (14)  F-AFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism) is a means to genotype bacteria, by selecting pre-adapted fragments of DNA and amplifying them to easily detectable and accurately sizeable concentrations.  Automated ribotyping is a genotyping method that can be used to generate genetic fingerprints of bacterial isolates.  Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing provides a means to compare a stable part of the genetic code (the 16S rRNA gene) amongst different bacteria.  The technique of DNA-DNA hybridization provides genetic comparisons amongst the total genome of two species.

E. sakazakii has thus now been reclassified as 6 separate species in the new genus, Cronobacter,  gen. nov., within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The new species are presently Cronobacter sakazakii; C. turicensis; C. malonaticus; C. muytjensii and C. dublinensis; the sixth species is identified simply as genomospecies I, as currently it includes only two representative strains. (19)

The name Cronobacter was appropriately derived from Greek mythology.  E. sakazakii constitutes a microbiological hazard in the infant food chain, with historic high mortality in neonates.  Accordingly, it was named after the Greek mythological god, Cronos. (17). Cronos was the son of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaea (Earth), being the youngest of the 12 Titans. He eventually became the king of the Titans, and took for his consort his sister Rhea.  Rhea bore him a number of children, including Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon.  Cronos, however, had been previously warned by his parents that he would be overthrown by his own child.  Accordingly, he swallowed all those children.  When Zeus was born, however, Rhea hid him in Crete, and tricked Cronus into swallowing a stone instead. Zeus grew up, forced Cronus to disgorge his brothers and sisters, waged war on Cronus, and was victorious. (18)

It was proposed that these species be moved to the new genus, “Cronobacter”, in order to facilitate their identification for the diagnosis of infection and the microbiological monitoring of food products.  (20)  All these species have been linked retrospectively to clinical cases of infection in either infants or adults, and therefore all these species should be considered pathogenic. (21)  The correct and more detailed identification of these organisms will improve the understanding of the broader epidemiology of the members of the new genus.
It is also important, however, that this reclassification of species not be detrimental to health protection measures already in place, and that all these risk organisms continue to be recognized. (22)  As the genus Cronobacter is synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii, current identification schemes developed for E. sakazakii remain applicable for the Cronobacter genus.  The reclassification of E. sakazakii to the new genus Cronobacter will not require the modification of dedicated culture-based laboratory isolation and detection protocols. All currently valid laboratory methods will continue to facilitate the recognition of all of the organisms defined within the new taxonomy.  (23)  Furthermore, the reclassification does not require any change to the regulatory framework currently in place. (24)

I was intrigued by the second part of the name Cronobacter sakazakii.  They often write it as just C. sakazakii.  What does that mean?  I wondered. I went to search it out on the internet.  I came up with nothing.  It kept taking me back to Cronobacter.  There are many things, entities, companies with the name… but no etymology and no definition.  I challenge you to look for yourself.  If you find anything, please send it to me.  sakazakii

So I started to break it down to see if I could find anything related to it, or accidently hit on the root of the word.   Here is what I found.

Upper Paleolithic cave near the city of Kutaisi, in the Georgian SSR. It was investigated by R. Schmidt and L. Kozlovskii in 1914 and fully excavated and studied by G. K. Nioradze
in 1936 and 1937.
Finds at Sakazhia included numerous remains of fauna, for example, wisent, deer, elk, wild boar, horse, cave bear, and lion, and items made from bone and horn, such as awls and implements resembling lances and hoes. Also discovered were numerous flint implements, for example, spearheads flaked on both sides, end  scrapers and burins  of various forms, arrow- heads, knives and points of the Gravette type, and microliths.  Fragments of a human skull were also found. The finds at Sakazhia
resemble the Upper 
Paleolithic remains of the eastern Mediterranean region 

Next thing I hit on was the following: 

Sasaki Kojirō (佐々木 小次郎, also known as Ganryū Kojirōc. 1575 – April 13, 1612)  was a possibly fictional or fictionalized Japanese swordsman
Sasaki Kojirō went by the fighting name of Ganryū (巌流, “Large Rock style”), which was also the name of the kenjutsu school he had founded. It is said that Sasaki studied the Chūjō-ryu of sword fighting from either Kanemaki Jisai or Toda Seigen. Toda Seigen was a master of the kodachi. If Sasaki had indeed learned Chūjō-ryu from Seigen, he would have been his master’s sparring partner. Due to his master’s use of the kodachi, Sasaki used a nodachi, or a long katana, against him, therefore eventually excelling in its use. It was after defeating his master’s younger brother that he left and founded the Ganryū. The first reliable account of his life states that in 1610, because of the fame of his school and his many successful duels, including once in the late 1500s when he fended off three opponents with a tessen, Sasaki was honored by Lord Hosokawa Tadaoki as the chief weapons master of the Hosokawa fief in the north of Kyūshū. Sasaki later became skilled in wielding a nodachi, and used one he called monohoshizao (“The Laundry-Drying Pole”) as his strongest main weapon. 

Sasaki’s favored weapon during combat was a straight-edged nodachi with a blade-length of over 90 cm (2 feet, 11.5 inches). As a comparison, the average blade-length of the regular katana are usually 70 cm (2 feet, 3 inches) but rarely longer.  It was called monohoshizao  (Clothes/Laundry-Drying Pole, 物干し竿, often translated into English as “The Drying Pole“). Despite the sword’s length and weight, Kojirō’s strikes with the weapon were unusually quick and precise.

His favorite technique was both respected and feared throughout feudal Japan. It was called the “Turning Swallow Cut” or Tsubame Gaeshi (燕返し, “Swallow Reversal / Return“), and was so named because it mimicked the motion of a swallow‘s tail during flight as observed at Kintaibashi Bridge in Iwakuni. This cut was reputedly so quick and precise that it could strike down a bird in mid-flight. There are no direct descriptions of the technique, but it was compared[by whom?] to two other techniques current at the time: the Ittō-ryū‘s Kinshi Cho Ōken and the Ganryū Kosetsu To; respectively the two involved fierce and swift cuts downward and then immediately upwards. Hence, the “Turning Swallow Cut” has been reconstructed as a technique involving striking downward from above and then instantly striking again in an upward motion from below. The strike’s second phase could be from below toward the rear and then upward at an angle, like an eagle climbing again after swooping down on its prey. Sasaki created this technique around 1605.

As I read about Sakazhia and  Sasaki Kojirō  my mind immediately went to the scripture “sharper than any two edged sword.

For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.  Hebrews 4:12

Now, I am sure that some of you will find it hard to accept that scientists have created bacteria to which infants would be susceptible, that was designed to kill them in the first weeks of life.  But, look at their own words!  They said they named the bacteria after a Greek god who swallowed his own children.  Come on people. They are telling you straight out.  But, they say the best place to hide a secret is in plain sight!  They are convinced that you will not be able to accept what they place before you because it is too outrageous for your mind to receive.


Other infant formula makers besides Abbott have faced Cronobacter contamination and operational deficiencies, documents show

·14 min read

The pathogen that prompted those concerns, Cronobacter sakazakii, can be widely found in the environment — but in infants, it can be deadly.

Its discovery inside Abbott’s Sturgis, Michigan, plant promptedmassive voluntary formula recall in February, after four babies who had consumed Abbott’s formula contracted a Cronobacter infection. Two of the infants subsequently died, although Abbott maintains there has not been conclusive evidence that its formula caused the infant illnesses, since none of the Cronobacter strains found at their plant matched the two samples genetically sequenced from the sickened infants.

Ultimately, it was the combined findings of Cronobacter inside Abbott’s plant — along with a pattern of serious operational deficiencies and consumer complaints — which led to its closure.  (If there were serious operation deficiencies why didn’t FDA close down the plant?  Why was it just a voluntary plant recall/plant shutdown?)

Abbott’s shutdown ricocheted across the country, exacerbating the supply shortage and forcing families to scramble for alternatives in the hyper-concentrated formula market. In the wake of Abbott’s recall, other companies jumped in to ramp up manufacturing to help mitigate the strain.

Yet within the last five years, those companies — Reckitt’s Mead Johnson, Gerber and Perrigo’s PBM — have also not been immune to operational and even contamination-related concerns.

Nearly a decade’s worth of Food and Drug Administration inspections obtained through the regulatory intelligence company Redica Systems and reviewed by ABC News have found the presence of Cronobacter in environmental sampling, in critical and high-hygiene areas, and even in finished product from some of these formula manufacturers’ American plants.

In some cases, investigators found crucial equipment in a state that could nurture the spread of potentially dangerous pathogens, according to inspection reports.

‘Rigorously managing the environment’

Cronobacter is exceptionally hardy, experts say. It is also “fairly common” in places like soil — but that’s exactly why “rigorously managing the environment” in formula factories and “taking proactive steps to prevent pathogens from creeping into our foods” are particularly important, food safety expert Scott Faber told ABC News.

Akin to a restaurant health inspector, the FDA performs no-notice inspections of U.S. manufacturing facilities to ensure companies are complying with manufacturing and cleanliness standards; they also perform inspections when alerted by a company that product contamination has been found — or when consumer complaints prompt a for-cause probe into whether the company is upholding an acceptable standard.

PHOTO: Normally fully stocked shelves of baby forumala are empty in a Target store in Queens, New York, June 23, 2022. (Universal Images Group via Getty Images, FILE)
PHOTO: Normally fully stocked shelves of baby forumala are empty in a Target store in Queens, New York, June 23, 2022. (Universal Images Group via Getty Images, FILE)

ABC News has reviewed FDA inspection documents for the three other domestic companies which, along with Abbott, have been responsible for roughly 90% of the country’s formula market.

The right set of circumstances can compound a perfect storm of risk factors for potentially dangerous pathogens to survive, experts say — and that’s especially worrisome when a contaminant like Cronobacter lurks where food is made for babies, who are among those most vulnerable to that germ.

“Especially for sensitive populations, that quality control is so important. You don’t want contamination to rise to a level where it becomes a problem,” Dr. Amy Edwards, a pediatrician and associate medical director for infection control at UH Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital in Ohio, told ABC News. “That’s why inspections are meant to be incredibly invasive — we have to get close enough to zero contamination levels to be safe.”

Mead Johnson

In August 2021, FDA investigators made a routine visit to Mead Johnson’s plant in Evansville, Indiana, where it has operated for more than a century. An inspection report notifying the company’s management of objectionable conditions, called a Form 483, was issued, after investigators found the plant’s data wasn’t recorded frequently enough to ensure proper sterility of their product.

FDA investigators said that company records indicated Cronobacter was found in one of the plant’s rooms, and that the area was subsequently sanitized. A plant operator was observed not washing his hands between glove changes, and not changing his gloves between touching non-food and food contact surfaces.

The employee was subsequently retrained, Mead Johnson told the FDA, according to inspection documents. But it was not the first time investigators had flagged concerns at one of Mead Johnson’s plants.

In late 2017, seven investigators visited Mead Johnson’s plant in Zeeland, Michigan, after the company had alerted the FDA that two finished batches of Enfamil formula — batches that had already been exported from the country — tested positive for Cronobacter. An FDA inspection revealed that Cronobacter had been found “in critical and high hygiene areas of the processing environment on 26 occasions” between mid-January and late August 2017, documents obtained by ABC News show.

FDA investigators also said they found Cronobacter specifically in areas that risked leading to “potential contamination” of “food contact surfaces.”

The potential problems the FDA discovered at the plant were addressed in time for later inspections — but food safety experts told ABC News these issues can become a serious problem if not immediately dealt with.

Cronobacter is an environmental pathogen — it’s everywhere,” food safety attorney Bill Marler said. “But it’s really, really bad to have it in infant formula.”

Mead Johnson’s plant had “multiple wall leaks,” nonconformity reports reviewed by the FDA said, as well as “equipment condensation” in areas where positive Cronobacter samples were later found.

“Leaks are the bane of infection control,” Edwards said. “Water is life; if you’re not controlling your water, then you are not controlling your bacteria.”

The Zeeland facility submitted a corrective action plan, promising “increased frequency of cleaning the areas where positive results were identified, evaluation and inspection of equipment” and “repairs to equipment and the facility as needed.”

FDA investigators followed up with the Zeeland plant in spring 2018. The facility had retooled its sanitization procedures, implemented dryer inspections, and made repairs to flooring, water infiltration and caulking.

MORE: Baby formula maker Abbott reopens Michigan plant amid shortage

Returning in March 2019, investigators noted the plant’s environmental monitoring program had identified and mitigated several instances of Cronobacter in various areas of the plant.

In a statement to ABC News, Reckitt, of which Mead Johnson is a division, maintained that the company manufactures their formula “using the highest standards for quality and safety,” adding that whenever the FDA finds an issue they “immediately develop and implement an action plan to address the issue.”

Reckitt said they “regularly review and enhance” their facilities’ manufacturing processes “and invest in new technologies and equipment,” adding that their “robust operating protocols meet or exceed the highest regulatory standards,” which they employed while “safely” increasing infant formula amid the shortage.

An FDA spokesperson, when asked for comment regarding their investigators’ findings of Cronobacter at multiple formula companies’ facilities, said the agency “takes its responsibility seriously” to ensure the rigorous safety of American foods, and that the agency is reexamining whether more can be done.

PHOTO: First Lady Jill Biden, joined by Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, delivers remarks after a shipment of infant formula, sent in through Operation Fly Formula, arrived at Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Va., May 25, 2022. (Stefani Reynolds/AFP via Getty Images)
PHOTO: First Lady Jill Biden, joined by Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, delivers remarks after a shipment of infant formula, sent in through Operation Fly Formula, arrived at Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Va., May 25, 2022. (Stefani Reynolds/AFP via Getty Images)

Based on a “close look at recent and historical findings” from inspections, the FDA spokesperson said, “We will be looking at what additional strategies could be employed to better prevent microbial contamination during the production of powdered infant formula,” adding the agency is “conducting an evaluation” of their response to the formula crisis “to determine what additional steps should be taken to ensure the maximum effectiveness of agency programs and policies related to infant formula and medical food.”

Nevertheless, said the spokesperson, “It is important to note that it’s a firm’s responsibility to ensure the consistent quality and safety of the products they produce.”

“We are most interested in how aggressively a firm addresses and responds to potential contamination,” the FDA spokesperson said.

Steven Lynn, the former director of the FDA’s pharmaceutical Office of Manufacturing and Product Quality, told ABC News that manufacturers’ oversight “must be robust to assure no adulterated product reaches the vulnerable infant population they serve.”

MORE: Baby formula timeline: Plant posed a risk last fall

“It sounds easy, but it’s not,” said Lynn, an expert on good manufacturing practices. “Problems can and do occur. That’s a fact of life.”

Lynn, who reviewed the inspection documents obtained by ABC News, noted that there appear to be “problematic similarities” among some of the formula manufacturers’ lapses in quality control, including “issues with inadequate process controls, including cleaning, sampling and ultimately controlling the production environment to assure there is no microbial contamination,” he said.

Lynn said that FDA investigators did what they were supposed to do: identify deficiencies for the companies to fix.

“The key is making sure the issues are thoroughly investigated, and then implementing robust solutions to correct and prevent them from reoccurring in the future,” in order to ensure that “safe formula is on the market,” Lynn said.


In August 2021, FDA investigators made a routine visit to Nestlé Nutrition’s Gateway facility in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, which makes Gerber products. They found “dirty scoops used during the previous production day” lying on a stainless steel table in one of the raw material rooms, and “debris” on the floor.

It was determined that some cleaning activities were resulting in water getting “trapped in cracks in the floor” and “onto equipment located on lower decks.”

In addition, Cronobacter was detected in an in-process powder sample of infant formula.

The finished lot of that product was immediately destroyed.

FDA investigators discussed their findings and suggested remedies with management, but did not issue a Form 483 at that time, according to inspection documents reviewed by ABC News.

MORE: Abbott, FDA were warned about formula plant a year before recall

A Gerber spokesperson told ABC News that their infant formulas go through up to 500 quality and safety checks, “many of which are above and beyond regulatory requirements.”

If we find Cronobactor or any other contaminant in the product, that is when we take the most extreme reaction,” Scott Fitz, vice president of technical and production for Gerber, told ABC News.

All the product in that batch is blocked, and all the batches around that product are blocked,” he said, adding that the company thoroughly investigates the contaminant’s origins and destroys any impacted product.

“Given the sensitive consumer we’re dealing with, we can’t take the chance of it getting to shelf,” Fitz said. “This isn’t about regulation, it’s about doing what’s right.”

PBM Nutritionals

After a routine visit in August 2019, the FDA issued a Form 483 identifying a cold storage temperature regulation deficiency at the Milton, Vermont, plant of PBM Nutritionals, a subsidiary of Perrigo, which makes store-brand formulas for retailers like Walmart and Amazon.

Investigators found that some of the facility’s data was not specific enough “to ensure there is no significant growth of microorganisms of public health significance” in their storage tanks. Documents provided by the company to the FDA noted a recent roof leak had overwhelmed the drainage system, and that, upon inspection, environmental sample swabs tested positive for Cronobacter before additional cleaning.

In a statement to ABC News, Perrigo said they are “proud” of their compliance track record, adding that the Cronobacter within the plant had been found by their own self-monitoring, rather than by FDA investigators.

“Our facilities in Vermont and Ohio are in good regulatory standing and remain compliant with all FDA processes and procedures,” they said.

Perrigo said they had hired independent experts “a few years ago” to “enhance” their manufacturing processes and protective measures. The company said the experts found their “aging equipment could lead to concerns in the future,” so they invested approximately $110 million in improving formula plant quality, and hired an additional 100 quality and sanitation personnel.

MORE: FDA audited over baby formula crisis

Perrigo said that they had addressed the FDA’s observation regarding cold storage.

“Our quality control process is a continuous improvement process, and any concerns found are promptly addressed,” the company said.

Everybody knows what the persistent problems are that cause bacterial contamination in product,” said Marler, the food safety attorney. “It’s cracks, water, old equipment. It’s when companies stop realizing they’re producing food that is going into the bodies of babies and they start thinking about it as a widget, as a commodity.”

Patrick Stone, a former FDA investigator, says factories that make infant formula should be held to a higher quality-control standard than other mass market food products. But too often, he said, “it actually takes an outbreak or something to happen before people wake up and say …. ‘Why is this happening?'”

Abbott Nutrition

After inspecting Abbott’s Sturgis facility earlier this year, FDA chief Dr. Robert Califf described the “shocking” and “egregiously unsanitary conditions” investigators had found.

“Standing water; cracks in the key equipment that present the potential for bacterial contamination to persist, particularly in the presence of moisture; leaks on the roof; a previous citation for inadequate hand washing,” Califf testified before Congress in May. “Many signs of a disappointing lack of attention to the culture of safety, in this product that is so essential to the lives of our most precious people.”

Investigators discovered five strains of Cronobacter from environmental sampling of Abbott’s plant, and Abbott ultimately agreed to shutter the facility and recall the formula.

Food safety experts ABC spoke with emphasized the importance of establishing — and adhering to — a proactive protocol for rooting out risk factors, before they snowball.

“You don’t wait for the accident to happen before you build a stoplight,” said Faber, the food safety expert. “You probe your factory for where pathogens could be lurking, and then adopt critical controls to eradicate them.

PHOTO: The Abbott manufacturing facility in Sturgis, Mich., May 13, 2022. (Jeff Kowalsky/AFP via Getty Images)
PHOTO: The Abbott manufacturing facility in Sturgis, Mich., May 13, 2022. (Jeff Kowalsky/AFP via Getty Images)

“If we’re seeing any of the conditions found at Sturgis in other plants, we need to ask whether that philosophy has been sufficiently embraced,” he said.

“Abbott has a zero-tolerance policy for Cronobacter in our plants, which is why we took the steps we did at Sturgis,” an Abbott spokesperson said. “Our highest priority is getting babies safe, quality formula they need.”

Further complicating the matter is that Cronobacter infection is listed as a reportable illness by only one U.S. state: Minnesota, where the first of the four infants was reported infected after consuming Abbott’s formula last September.

Because there are no national requirements that Cronobacter be reported, doctors and labs are not required to report cases to their local health department — which leaves the FDA to rely on consumer complaints and health care providers for on-the-ground data regarding infections.

“Until you increase that oversight, you’re going to limp from mini-outbreak to mini-outbreak,” Marler said.

A ‘stringent enough’ system?

In August 2017, a few months before the FDA found Cronobacter inside Mead Johnson’s Zeeland plant, a two-week old infant from Illinois was declared brain dead after being diagnosed with a Cronobacter infection. The infant had consumed “multiple lots of Enfamil Newborn Premium ready-to-feed liquid milk product at the hospital, and some product was sent home with the parents,” FDA inspection reports say.

But FDA sampling of the available formula was negative for Cronobacter.

Reckitt told ABC News they “cooperate fully with the FDA to investigate consumer complaints,” underscoring that their formula had never conclusively been proven as the cause of an illness.

In the case of Abbott, too, no conclusive causation has been proven between the Cronobacter found at the Sturgis plant and infants’ illness or death. Nevertheless, FDA chief Califf noted in congressional testimony that “we cannot rule it out either, as the confluence of events is highly unusual. There is no dispute that the facility was unacceptably unsanitary.”

PHOTO: Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Robert Califf attends a hearing in Washington, April 18, 2022. (Xinhua News Agency via Getty Images, FILE)
PHOTO: Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Robert Califf attends a hearing in Washington, April 18, 2022. (Xinhua News Agency via Getty Images, FILE)

“There is some room for human error, but not for persistent human error,” said Edwards. the pediatrician. “You have to have your process in place. And you have to have a process for monitoring your process to make sure it’s always being followed.”

When several controls fail at once, it risks prompting an unfortunate domino effect and “raises important questions about whether our current regulatory system is stringent enough,” Faber said.

The FDA spokesperson told ABC News that the agency is assessing whether their annual surveillance inspections of formula facilities should include more environmental sampling going forward, albeit in a way that “minimizes any disruptions to the supply chain.”

In June, ABC News was first to report that the Health and Human Services’ Office of Inspector General had launched an audit into how the FDA responded leading up to the recall and closure of Abbott’s Sturgis plant.

The CDC says Cronobacter infections are rare, but serious in infantsnoting that powdered formula can be contaminated at a processing facility, or at home. Because Cronobacter can survive so well — on kitchen counters, on sinks, or in a manufacturing plant –– the CDC recommends that families using formula wash hands frequently around infants, thoroughly clean bottles, and safely store any powdered formula, or, if possible, use liquid formula.

“There are babies out there whose lives depend on formula. So what happens when the thing that you’re giving your baby is actually the thing that makes them sick?” Edwards said. “That is incredibly scary. For parents, for all of us.”

ABC News’ Eric M. Strauss contributed to this report.

Other infant formula makers besides Abbott have faced Cronobacter contamination and operational deficiencies, documents show originally appeared on


The main point to focus on from the above article is the fact that bacteria is ALL AROUND US.  That it is nearly impossible to protect ourselves completely.  Even when the product comes to the home free from Cronobacteria, it can pick it up during the prepartion process or in the environment around the formula between the preparing to the consuming of it.

One thing that you can do to help protect your infant is to assure that you sterilize the area where you are preparing the formula, the utensils, your hands, your clothing, the bottles and nipples, the container you mix it in and store it in.

My grandmother used to be such a stickler about germs in her kitchen.  She would wash her walls with bleach twice a year, wash her floors constantly and wipe down all her surfaces with bleach before she would prepare anything that was going to be canned or stored.

This generation is so casual.  They don’t even sterilize bottles anymore.  Dishwashers and microwaves changed the way parents think about baby care.  Young people are so used to instant everything.

I recommend that you take a look at the information in the following article and maybe print the pdf and put it up in your kitchen.


Find information for families during the infant formula shortage.

CDC’s investigation of Cronobacter infections in infants who consumed powdered infant formula from the Abbott Nutrition facility in Sturgis, MI, is now closed. No new cases have been identified. Get updates about FDA’s investigation.

mother bottle feeding her premature baby in the hospital nursery

Cronobacter infections are often reported among infants who have been fed powdered infant formula.

Getting sick from Cronobacter does not happen often, but infections in infants can be deadly. Cronobacter infections in infants less than 12 months old are often linked to powdered infant formula. If your baby is fed with powdered infant formula, you can take steps to protect your baby from sickness.

Cronobacter sakazakii is a germ found naturally in the environment.

These germs can live in dry foods, such as:

  • Powdered infant formula
  • Powdered milk
  • Herbal teas
  • Starches

Rare but Serious Illness in Infants

Cronobacter infections are rare, but they can be deadly in newborns. Infections in infants usually occur in the first days or weeks of life. About two to four cases are reported to CDC every year, but this figure may not reflect the true number of illnesses. That’s because most hospitals and laboratories are not required to report Cronobacter infections to health departments.

Cronobacter germs can cause a dangerous blood infection (sepsis). They can also make the linings surrounding the brain and spinal cord swell (meningitis).

Infants who are more likely to get sick include:

  • Infants 2 months and younger. These infants are most likely to develop meningitis if they get sick from Cronobacter.
  • Infants born prematurely.
  • Infants with weakened immune systems. Babies with this condition can’t fight germs as well because of illness or medical treatment, such as chemotherapy for cancer.

Cronobacter illness in infants will usually start with a fever and poor feeding, excessive crying, or very low energy.  Some infants may also have seizures. You should take an infant with these symptoms to a medical provider as soon as possible.

Cronobacter infection can also be serious for:

  • People 65 years and older.
  • People who have immune systems weakened due to illnesses or conditions, such as HIV, organ transplants, or cancer.
Powdered formula is not sterile and might have germs in it.

Powdered infant formula can be contaminated in homes or in processing facilities that make it.

In the home:

You can accidentally get Cronobacter in powdered formula after you open the container.  Cronobacter can live on surfaces in your home, such as a kitchen counter or sinks, and in water. Cronobacter could get into powdered formula if you place formula lids or scoops on contaminated surfaces and later touch the formula. It can also get into formula if you mix the formula with contaminated water or in a contaminated bottle.

In a processing facility:

Cronobacter can also get into powdered infant formula in a processing facility in these ways:

  • If the manufacturer uses contaminated ingredients to make the formula.
  • If the formula powder touches a contaminated surface.

Follow These Five Guidelines to Protect Your Baby From Cronobacter

You may want to take extra precautions if your baby is younger than 2 months old, was born prematurely, or has a weakened immune system:

Gotta make sure germs have a zero chance

Wash your hands with soap and water, especially before preparing bottles and feeding your baby.

1. Breastfeed if you canBreastfeeding is one of the best things you can do for your baby’s health and development. Health officials and medical providers report very few cases of Cronobacter infection in infants fed only breast milk.

2. Clean, sanitize, and store feeding items such as baby bottles and breast pump parts safely. Help prevent germs from growing on these items and keep your baby’s milk safe. You can do this by carefully cleaning, sanitizing, and storing bottles and breast pump parts. Take apart bottles and breast pump equipment after use for thorough cleaning.

3. Keep hands clean! Always wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds during key times:

  • Before preparing and feeding bottles or food to your baby
  • Before touching your baby’s mouth
  • Before touching pacifiers or other things that go into your baby’s mouth
  • After using the toilet or changing diapers

If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Check the product label to be sure. Wash hands with soap and water as soon as possible after using hand sanitizer. Hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol kills Cronobacter. But hand sanitizer does not kill all types of germs. It may not work as well if hands are visibly greasy or dirty.

4. If you feed your baby with formula, consider using liquid formula when possible. Powdered infant formula is not sterile and might have germs in it. Using a liquid formula instead of powdered is especially important if your baby:

  • Is less than 2 months old
  • Was born prematurely, or
  • Has a weakened immune system.

Liquid infant formula is made to be sterile (without germs). This means liquid formula should not make your baby sick with Cronobacter infection when you follow the instructions on the container.

You do not need to warm infant formula before feeding, but some people like to warm their baby’s bottle. If you do warm the bottle, never use a microwave. Microwaves heat milk and food unevenly, resulting in “hot spots” that can burn your baby’s mouth and throat.

  • To warm a bottle, place it under warm running water. Keep the running water from getting into the bottle or on the nipple. Put a couple drops of infant formula on the inside of your wrist to make sure it is not too hot.
Powder milk and blue spoon on light background close-up.

Keep all surfaces and feeding items clean when preparing infant formula. This includes all countertops, feeding items (nipples, caps, rings, valves), and objects that may enter the baby’s mouth, such as pacifiers and teethers.

5. Prepare and store powdered infant formula safely. Make sure that your formula is not expired or recalled. The container should be in good condition with no dents, puffy ends, or rust spots. Keep powdered formula lids and scoops clean. Close containers of formula as soon as possible.

In most cases, it is safe to mix powdered infant formula following manufacturer’s instructions on the container. But, if your baby may be at higher risk, consider taking these extra steps to prepare your powdered formula with hot water (at least 158°F/70°C):

  1. Clean work surfaces, such as countertops and sinks, with soap and water, or use a disinfectant wipe or paper towel sprayed with cleaning product. Do not place feeding items directly in the sink, because germs in sinks or drains could contaminate these items.
  2. Wash hands with soap and water before preparing infant formula.
  3. Boil water and let it cool for about 5 minutes.
  4. Pour the water into a clean bottle or feeding cup.
  5. Add the exact amount of formula listed on the container.
  6. Carefully shake the capped bottle rather than stirring the mixture.
  7. If you plan to use the prepared formula right away, cool the formula to body temperature to ensure it is not too hot before feeding your baby. Run the prepared, capped bottle under cool water or place it into an ice bath. Do not let the cooling water get into the bottle or on the nipple.
  8. Before feeding the baby, test the formula’s temperature by putting a few drops on the inside of your wrist. It should feel warm, not hot.

Use prepared infant formula within 1 hour from start of feeding and within 2 hours of preparing it. If your baby does not finish the entire bottle of formula, throw away leftover formula.

If you do not plan to start feeding your baby with the prepared formula right away, put it in the refrigerator immediately. Use formula in the refrigerator within 24 hours. Throw out formula if you can’t remember how long you have kept it in the refrigerator.  Do not feed it to your baby. For more information, visit CDC’s Infant Formula Preparation and Storage webpage.


You can believe what I am about to tell you or not, that is up to you.  THE TRUTH is that most of the diseases we are seeing today are MAN MADE!  They are not naturally occurring and the DO NOT COME FROM GOD.

They are creating a wide variety of methods for culling the population.  Disease is just one on their list.  There are innumerable new diseases, bacteria and viruses.  There is no way that you will be able to protect yourself from all of them all the time.  If you are looking to Science to cure you… good luck with that.  Think about it.  If they are creating the diseases, why would they want to cure them?  

They only way to protect yourself and your loved ones from disease is to be under the protection of GOD ALMIGHTY!  He is well able.  Cover yourself and your family in prayer and the blood of Jesus/Yeshua EVERY DAY!   Look to GOD for your health and healing.  Seek the guidance of the HOLY SPIRIT in everything you do.