As I was researching the NASA OSIRIS asteroid adventures, I came across these headlines about the Japanese precursors.   TURNS OUT JAPAN GETS FIRST CREDIT FOR ROCK COLLECTING FROM AN ASTEROID. But, if we kick up a little dust of our own, we discover that there is a lot more going on here.  
It does appear that these space projects are joint efforts now and that there is a confederation of all the industrialized nations, when it comes to Antarctica and “Outer Space” at least.  Just like they have all conspired to keep what happens in Antarctica secret, what is really happening in space is not what they want you to believe. 
Everything that happens begins in the spirit.  To know the truth about anything one must discover the spiritual aspects of it.  That is what I am called to do.  Follow the leading of the Holy Spirit to unravel the spiritual side of things. 
There is a lot of information here, take your time and really let it all sink in  God may show you even deeper truths.  Don’t just pass this by due to the time involved to review it.  Understand that it takes time, research, study to show yourself approved.   Each and every detail that they present to you, and even more so the ones they keep hidden, are very vital to their plan.  Remember that they speak in numbers, symbols and images.  
I hope you enjoy the posts in this series.  More importantly I hope you receive sparks of truth that cause you too look deeper in all things.
If you have not seen my post on NASA’s OSIRIS REx, you can find it here:

Season of the Wolf – OSIRIS-Rex / OSIRIS APEX


Image: Jaxa logo
**PLEASE NOTE**  **THE PENTAGRAM**      IN THE LOGO  creates multiple vectors.

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is the Japanese national air and space agency. Through the merger of three previously independent organizations ,[Japan’s Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), and National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)].  JAXA was formed on 1 October 2003  .Wikipedia

Acronym:  JAXA (ジャクサ)
Owner: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology** (Government of Japan)
Established: October 1, 2003

Building block of life found in sample from asteroid Ryugu

dark rocks in a white container

A sample of material collected from the asteroid Ryugu. (Image credit: JAXA)

One of the four nucleobases of RNA has been discovered in samples retrieved from the asteroid Ryugu, providing the strongest evidence yet that the organic building blocks for life on Earth came from space.

In December 2020, Hayabusa2, a mission of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), delivered by capsule and parachute 0.19 ounces (5.4 grams) of  asteroid material from Ryugu to expectantly waiting scientists on Earth. 

Analysis of these samples have shown them to be the  most primitive materialever studied in a laboratory, dating back to before the planets formed 4.5 billion years ago. The isotopic composition of gases contained in those materials revealed that Ryugu formed much farther out from the sun, close to the orbit of  Neptune,  compared to its present location near Earth.

Related: Facts about asteroid Ryugu, the twirling space rock visited by Hayabusa2

Now, new research has culminated in the discovery of concentrations of uracil in the samples. Uracil is a nucleobase, one of four (along with adenine, guanine and cytosine) that make up ribonucleic acid, or RNA, which is used by cells to communicate genetic information. The concentration of uracil was greater (32 parts per billion) in the sample taken from deep below Ryugu’s surface than in the shallower sample (11 parts per billion), indicating that cosmic rays and ultraviolet light from the sun may have degraded the amount of uracil nearer the surface.

Ryugu’s composition indicates that it belongs to the same family of asteroids as a type of carbon-rich meteorite  known as CI chondrites, of which only five have been recovered on Earth so far. Previously, three nucleobases had been detected in the CI meteorites, while all five nucleobases (the four for RNA, plus thymine, which replaces uracil in DNA) have been found in a different type of meteorite, CM chondrites.

However, the lead researcher of the new study, Yasuhiro Oba of Hokkaido University in Japan, told Space.com that “one could not completely exclude the possibility that they were terrestrial contaminants,” referring to the meteorite nucleobases.

But the discovery of uracil in two samples from Ryugu confirms that nucleobases are indeed present in pristine asteroidal material dating back to the earliest days of the solar system.

The discovery of biologically relevant molecules such as nucleobases in the most pristine extraterrestrial materials without any terrestrial contaminations guarantees that they are really present in extraterrestrial environments,” said Oba.

The discovery is incredibly important for astrobiologists. It is a step along the road to understanding the origin of life, and whether the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth can be repeated elsewhere in the universe.

When asked whether it means that the building blocks of RNA and DNA came to Earth from space, Oba said “Absolutely, yes — there is no doubt that extraterrestrial materials were falling to the early Earth.”

Related: Asteroid Ryugu is rich in organic molecules that can be building blocks of life

An image of the asteroid Ryugu taken by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft.

An image of the asteroid Ryugu taken by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. (Image credit: JAXA, University of Tokyo, Kochi University, Rikkyo University, Nagoya University, Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji University, University of Aizu and AIST)

So it seems that RNA and DNA initially formed on Earth from nucleobases brought here by asteroid impacts and meteorite falls long ago. However, there is another possibility, which is that RNA and DNA molecules may have formed in space themselves before being delivered to the young Earth. The question mark here is that biochemists currently do not fully understand what conditions are required for RNA and DNA to form on asteroids.

Another possibility is that uracil and other nucleobases may pre-date the formation of our solar system. They may have been formed in deep space via photochemical reactions — the action of ultraviolet light on organic molecules — on ices in interstellar clouds from which the solar system, and other planetary systems including their asteroids, formed. The basic stuff of life as we know it on Earth could potentially be spread across the galaxy. If nucleobases are common in the universe, then any hypothetical alien life  may also possibly use RNA and DNA.

One clue could be in the additional discovery of two types of organic compound called an imidazole in the Ryugu samples. An imidazole is part of the molecular structure of uracil. One type of imidazole called 4-ICA was found with a similar concentration as the uracil in the samples, whereas 2-ICA had a lower concentration. The 4-ICA imidazole can form during chemical reactions involving poisonous hydrogen cyanide, which is a common icy ingredient in interstellar clouds.

Oba said that the Ryugu samples have now been exhausted, and future searches for more nucleobases in asteroidal material will have to wait for NASA’s OSIRIS-REx  mission to bring at least 60 grams worth of samples from asteroid 101955 Bennu  back to Earth in September 2023.

“Since we will have larger sample amounts than Ryugu, we expect to find [a] more diverse suite of nucleobases and other related molecules in the Bennu samples,” said Oba.


The Japanese name for the deep-sea dwelling giant oarfish is ryūgū-no-tsukai (リュウグウノツカイ), literally lit. “messenger/servant of Ryūgū” or Messenger from the Sea God’s Palace“. [47] This real species of fish may have been the origins of the mythical jinjahime [ ja], which also claimed to be a “messenger/servant of Ryūgū“.


Jinja hime


Translation: shrine princess
Alternate names: hime uo (princess fish)
Habitat: deep lakes and oceans

Appearance: A jinja hime is a serpentine creature roughly six meters long. It has two horns on its head, a long tail, a dorsal fin, and flippers. Its face is that of a human woman. It resembles a ningyo, the Japanese mermaid.

BehaviorJinja hime spend most of their lives underwater, and as a result rarely interact with humans. They are the servants of Ryūgū, the palace of the sea dragon king.

Origin: Jinja hime was first sighted in Hizen Province (present-day Saga and Nagasaki Prefectures) in 1819 by the Edo period scholar Katō Ebian. He recorded the encounter in his book Waga koromo. According to Katō, he encountered a fish-like creature on a beach in Hizen. The creature spoke to him: “I am a messenger from Ryūgū, called jinja hime. For the next seven years there will be a bumper crop. After that, there will be an epidemic of cholera. However, those who see my picture will be able to avoid hardship, and instead will have long life.” After delivering her prophecy, the jinja hime disappeared into the sea. Katō printed an illustration of the jinja hime in Waga koromo so that all could see it and be protected.

The news of the jinja hime and her prognostication became so popular that it spawned numerous copycat stories across Japan. Not long after the sighting of jinja hime, stories about other yokai with foresight, such as kudan and amabie, began popping up all over Japan. Jinja hime is thought to be the basis for all of these stories.

The giant oarfish strongly resembles the size and description of jinja hime. Its name in Japanese is ryūgū no tsukai, which means “servant of Ryūgū.”


Note the Glassy finish on this fish that appears here to be a beautiful shade of blue. Note the magenta horns at the top of the head. The appearance of this fish is almost mystical.

The giant oarfish was first discovered in 1772 by Norwegian biologist Peter Ascanius . It’s formal scientific title is Regalecus glesne, but the fish is also known as king of the herring, Pacific oarfish, streamer fish and ribbon-fish. This rare oarfish was found barely alive in 2007 off of East Cape of Baja Mexico

From Glesnæs, in Glesvær (a place near Bergen in Norway).
Middle English word glesne comes from Proto-Germanic *glasą (Glass.), Proto-Germanic – īnaz
Check out the video from Tik Tok, below.  It is really cool.  You can get a great view of the size of this fish.  It is likely already dead.  It does not appear to be struggling or putting up a fight.


“It’s formal scientific title is Regalecus glesne”

Etymology . From Latin regalis (” royal “) + -cus. Proper noun . Regalecus m. A taxonomic genus within the family Regalecidae – the oarfishes. Hypernyms

Middle English word glesne comes from Proto-Germanic *glasą (Glass.), Proto-Germanic – īnaz

glæsen Old English (ang) Grey (in colour). Made of glass.

From Glesnæs, in Glesvær (a place near Bergen in Norway).
Used exclusively as a specific epithet (for a single species)  Regalecus glesne
Glesne name numerology is 8


Ryūgū-jō (竜宮城, 龍宮城, lit.”Dragon palace castle“) or Ryūgū (竜宮, 龍宮, lit.”Dragon palace“) is the supernatural undersea palace of Ryūjin or Dragon God in Japanese tradition. It is best known as the place in fairytale where Urashima Tarō was invited after saving a turtle, where he was entertained by the Dragon God’s princess Oto-hime and his minions, but when Urashima …


Dec 1, 2021  Hayabusa is a Japanese word that can be translated to mean “falcon.” The word is derived from the Japanese word for “bird of prey,” and typically refers to the Peregrine falcon. It refers to a bird with a speed of up to 325 kmph

Just like its namesake, Hayabusa is renowned for cutting through the air with extraordinary agility and performance. peregrine falcon preys on blackbirds

Its pronunciation is “hayato” or “hayabusa.” The hieroglyph means “strong and fast.”
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine,[3] and historically as the duck hawk in North America,[4] is a cosmopolitan bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop (high-speed dive),[5] making it the fastest bird in the world, as well as the fastest member of the animal kingdom.[6][7][8] According to a National Geographic TV program, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h (242 mph).[9][10] As is typical for bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being considerably larger than males.[11][12]Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life

Sexual dimorphism – Wikipedia
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where sexes of the same species exhibit different morphological characteristics, particularly characteristics not directly involved in reproduction. The condition occurs in most animals and some plants. Differences may include secondary sex characteristics, size, weight, color, markings, or behavioral or cognitive traits.

The peregrine’s breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions, very high mountains, and most tropical rainforests; the only major ice-free landmass from which it is entirely absent is New Zealand
. This makes it the world’s most widespread raptor,[13] and one of the most widely found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always naturally occurring, but one widely introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species. The peregrine is a highly successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean “wandering falcon”, referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. 

The peregrine falcon is a well-respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, versatility, and availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large. It has also been used as a religious, royal, or national symbol across multiple eras and areas of human civilization.

Cultural significance

Due to its striking hunting technique, the peregrine has often been associated with aggression and martial prowess. The Ancient Egyptian solar deity Ra was often represented as a man with the head of a peregrine falcon adorned with the solar disk.  Native Americans of the Mississippian culture (c. 800–1500) used the peregrine, along with several other birds of prey, in imagery as a symbol of “aerial (celestial) power” and buried men of high status in costumes associating to the ferocity of raptorial birds.[113] In the late Middle Ages, the Western European nobility that used peregrines for hunting, considered the bird associated with princes in formal hierarchies of birds of prey, just below the gyrfalcon associated with kings. It was considered “a royal bird, more armed by its courage than its claws”. Terminology used by peregrine breeders also used the Old French term gentil, “of noble birth; aristocratic”, particularly with the peregrine.[114]

The peregrine falcon is the national animal of the United Arab Emirates. The peregrine falcon has been designated the official city bird of Chicago.[117]

peregrine | Etymology, origin and meaning of peregrine by etymonline
also peregrin, type of large, spirited falcon, 1550s, short for peregrine falcon (late 14c.), from Old French faulcon pelerin (mid-13c.), from Medieval Latin falco peregrinus, from Latin peregrinus “coming from foreign parts,” from peregre (adv.) “abroad,” properly “from abroad, found outside Roman territory,” from per “aw ay” (see per) + agri,
peregrine – Wiktionary
5 days ago  peregrine ( comparative more peregrine, superlative most peregrine ) Wandering, travelling, migratory . The Romani are perpetually peregrine people. Not native to a region or country; foreign; alien. ( astrology, of a planet) Lacking essential debility. Extrinsic or from without; exotic. 
Falcon Symbolism & Meaning | Spirit, Totem & Power Animal
Jan 7, 2022 Falcon Symbolism & Meaning   The fierce Falcon has special symbolism and meaning in Egypt, where it represented the rising Sun. Many depictions of the Gods bore a Falcon head, most notably Ra the solar deity. As the “king” of birds, Falcon represents victory, rulership, and overcoming.

Ryukyu Kingdom: Castles, Customs, and China and Japan’s Rivalry

As far as Asian nations and their histories go, one of the most interesting places that grabs everyone’s attention is Japan. The islands of Japan were always home to many lords, kingdoms, and shogunates, all rising due to the certain separation of the islands themselves. But one of the islands of modern Japan was really unique – so much so that for a long time its inhabitants weren’t considered Japanese at all! That island is Okinawa, and the surrounding island chain called Ryukyu Islands. Often overlooked or jumbled within the overall history of Japan, this small chain of islands really deserves to have its story told. And that story is of the Ryukyu Kingdom!

This is a thrilling tale of an emerging island nation, of a kingdom rising from the sea  and creating its own place in the East Asian maritime trade, only to fade in the end. Join us as we explore some of the often overlooked pages of history – the story of the Okinawans and the Ryukyu Kingdom!

The medieval Ryukyu castles on the island of Okinawa, Japan are impressive testimony to the kingdom’s power and wealth from the 12th to 16th century CE. Notable castles include Shuri Castle, the royal residence, and four excellent examples of medieval fortresses built in the Okinawa style: Nakijin, Zakimi, Katsuren, and Nakagusuku. Another star attraction is the religious shrine at Seifa Utaki considered the place of creation in Ryukyu mythology. All of these monuments are collectively listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

The Ryukyu Kingdom

Shuri Castle Walls David Pursehouse (CC BY)

The Ryukyu Islands (Ryukyu Shoto) are an archipelago of around 70 islands located at the very southern end of Japan. The largest island by far is Okinawa and its name is sometimes used to refer to this whole group of subtropical islands. The islanders of Ryukyu were independent for most of their history which goes back some 30,000 years. With genetic and cultural connections to the ancient Jomon and Ainu, the islanders have also regarded themselves as distinct from the Japanese occupying the more northern islands. Even their language, although similar, is different from the Yamato spoken in the rest of Japan. Japan only formally claimed the Ryukyu islands as part of its territory during the Meiji period (1868-1912 CE) when they became the Okinawa Prefecture in 1879 CE. Prior to that, the archipelago enjoyed some seven centuries of independence or semi-autonomy.

Jōmon people – Wikipedia
Jōmon people (縄文 人, Jōmon jin) is the generic name of the Hunter-gatherer population which lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Jōmon period (c. 14,000 to 300 BCE).The Jōmon people constituted a coherent population but displayed geographically defined regional subgroups

Jomon Period – World History Encyclopedia
The Jomon Period is the earliest historical era of Japanese history which began around 14500 BCE, coinciding with the Neolithic Period in Europe and Asia, and ended around 300 BCE when the Yayoi Period began. The name Jomon, meaning ‘cord marked’ or ‘patterned’, comes from the style of pottery made during that time.

Ainu people – Wikipedia
The Ainu
 are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians. These regions are referred to as Ezo (蝦夷) in historical Japanese texts..

ainu | Etymology, origin and meaning of ainu by etymonline
Ainu people native to northern Japan and far eastern Russia, 1819, from the Ainu self-designation, literally “man, human.” Once considered to be Caucasian, based on their appearance; DNA testing has disproved this. Their language is an isolate with no known relatives


The Ryukyu islands had really come together from the 12th century CE when the three main central islands formed a trading unit which thrived on passing trade between Japan, ChinaKorea, and other parts of Southeast Asia. In this trade, such valuables as copper and swords were exchanged for silk, spices, and ceramics. The three main islands then formed the Sanzan or Three Kingdoms in 1322 CE, which, through the conquest of the other islands in the group, became the Ryukyu Kingdom under Sho Hashi in 1429 CE. It remained part of the Chinese tribute system and exchanged diplomatic missions with the governments of China, Korea, and Japan, maintaining its independence. The islands provided many ships for Japan and one inscribed bell from the period reads:By sailing our ships (maybe the FIRST maritime traders), we shall make Okinawa a bridge between countries” (Huffman, 49).


Eventually, as the Japanese military leaders managed to unify Japan, a much greater interest was taken in the distant Ryukyu group. In 1609 CE the islands were forcibly taken over by the Shimazu clan of Satsuma in 1609 CE, an action which was authorised by the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1867 CE). Okinawa would once more appear on the international stage, but for all the wrong reasons, with the fierce fighting there in the last year of the Second World War (1939-45 CE) which caused massive loss of life and material destruction. The islands were not formally returned to Japan until 1972 CE.

Seiden Hall, Shuri Castle 663highland (CC BY-SA)

Shuri Castle

Shuri castle is located just southeast of the city of Naha at the very southern end of Okinawa Island. The castle was built c. 1350 CE and became the royal, political and ceremonial centre of the Ryukyu islands. Built on a natural hill, the castle stands 120 metres (394 ft) above sea level and its buildings display a mix of Chinese and Japanese architectural elements combined with local materials such as limestone and coral.

The limestone fortification walls of the castle are in places an impressive 10 metres (33 ft) high and they stretch for a total length of 1,080 metres (3,543 ft). The main entrance is through the Kankaimon or ‘Welcome Gate’ which combines limestone with a wooden superstructure. Within the circuit walls are two courtyards, and the inner one has the two-storey Seiden Hall which was used for royal audiences (first floor) and rituals (second floor). Today the second floor contains replicas of the Ryukyu royal throne and crown.

The Seiden is the largest wooden building on the island and is flanked by a separate North and South Hall. The Seiden combines the typical sloping roofs of Japanese architecture with Chinese decorative elements such as dragons and an exterior of bright vermillion lacquer with inlays of gold and mother of pearl. Indeed, the dragon – associated with water in Asian mythology was especially popular and appears everywhere. It is perhaps no surprise that the medieval maritime lords of Ryukyu adopted the creature as their official symbol.

The nearby Sonohyan Shrine Stone Gate was built in 1519 CE, and it protects a sacred grove (utaki) which is considered to safeguard the most important protective spirit or kang of the castle and the island. Kings would offer a prayer to the spirit whenever they passed the shrine on leaving and returning to the castle.

In the outer grounds of the castle lies the Mausoleum of Tamaudun, which was built in 1501 CE. Safeguarding the remains of 18 Ryukyu kings, their consorts and relations, it is set into the limestone bedrock and has three chambers. The roof has figures of lion-dogs which act as guardians to the mausoleum.

The adjacent Shikinaen Garden, laid out in 1799 CE, and its accompanying villa was once the location of the royal residence of the island after it had moved from Shuri castle itself. The garden has a large pond with a central island reachable from the shore by an arched stone bridge.

Shuri Castle was, unfortunately, destroyed during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 CE, but an extensive reconstruction programme was carried out, first on the Shikinaen villa from 1975 CE and then the rest of the site from 1992 CE.

Seifa Utaki

Katsuren Castle, Okinawa kanegen (CC BY)

Not a castle but an important site on Okinawa is Seifa Utaki, which translates as ‘supreme sacred place.’ It is located in the southeast of Okinawa, near the town of Chinen, and was the main religious centre of the Ryukyu group. The religion practised in the archipelago, like many other aspects of its culture, was a mix of ideas from Japan, China, and its own heritage. Animism and ancestor worship combined into unique rituals performed at such sites as Seifa Utaki where elements of nature and the landscape were very much a part of the whole experience.

The high priestesses of Seifa Utaki were appointed from 1429 CE and were directly related to the Ryukyu king. The sacred site was only open to women and, once ritually purified, only they could access a rock face which dripped water from stalactites. This water was considered sacred as it sprang from the spot where, in Ryukyu mythology, the gods first stepped foot on Okinawa and then, several generations later, created humans. The water collected by the priestesses was used in rituals and for divination. Many of the ceremonial areas at the site share their names with buildings at Shuri castle.

The ‘Gusuku’ Fortresses

Zakimi Castle Walls, Okinawa Almighty Franklinstein (CC BY-SA)

Of the many ‘Gusuku’ or Okinawan fortresses that were constructed across the island, four outstanding examples which survive today are Nakijin, Zakimi, Katsuren, and Nakagusuku Castles. Constructed between the 12th and 15th century CE, their impressive walls are a record of both the wealth of the island and the necessity for its people to defend themselves against rival islands within the group and, once the Three Kingdoms had formed in the early 14th century CE, against outsiders. They are also evidence of the very high building skills of the Okinawans as many of the fortification walls of these castles have elegant curves and precisely dressed blocks of limestone. As an extra defensive measure, the walls are often sloping as they rise, making them even more difficult to climb. Gates are seamlessly incorporated into the walls using arches.

The oldest of the four castles is Katsuren, built in the 12th century CE. Perched impressively on a hill, the castle’s walls form four enclosures. As at other castles, there are remains of stone shrines or utaki. The most important at Katsuren is a large rounded stone which is thought to be the focal point of worship to the castle’s protective kang spirit.

Zakimi castle was built in the 15th century CE and is credited to the efforts of one of the unifying warlords of the Ryukyu kingdom, Gosamaru (d. 1458 CE). Some sections of the outer walls rise to 13 metres (43 ft) in height. The walls were laid out to form two compounds, and they show the typical Okinawan features of arched gateways, curves and well-dressed blocks.

Nakagusuku castle was first built in the 14th century CE and then modified by Gosamaru. Its relative proximity to Katsuren castle to the north is indicative of the great rivalry which existed between the lords of these two castles.

Finally, Nakijin castle, built between the 13th and 15th century CE, is a massive complex covering more than 14 acres. One of its larger compounds may have been used to keep and train horses. The now ruined castle still looms from its hill on the east coast of Okinawa and excavations at the site have revealed fragments of Chinese pottery, illustrating the Ryukyu islands’ long and international trading history.

Okinawa State Flag Okinawa/Is that a Dragon? Japan’s Nation Flag w/Japan Superimposed


Kyushu, Japan


Usa, city, Ōita ken (prefecture), northern KyushuJapan; it lies 24 miles (39 km) northwest of the prefectural capital Ōita. The city developed around the site of the first and most famous of shrines dedicated to the Shintō god Hachiman, Usa Hachiman Shrine, which dates to about 717–724. An annual festival is held on March 18, and the Shinkōsai festival, with a procession of portable shrines (mikoshi), is held from July 31 to August 2. The city’s industries turn out machinery, textiles, and rice products (such as ame, or rice jelly), and the region grows rice, vegetables, and mandarin oranges. Pop. (2005) 60,809; (2010) 59,008.

Shimazu clan  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shimazu clan
Maru ni Jū-monji (Kutsuwa) inverted.svg

The Shimazu clan mon
Home province Satsuma
Parent house Sasa Rindo.svg Minamoto clan (Seiwa Genji)
Founder Shimazu Tadahisa
Final ruler Shimazu Tadashige
Current head Shimazu Nobuhisa
Founding year 12th century (ca. 1196 AD)
Dissolution still extant
Ruled until 1947, Constitution of Japan renders titles obsolete

The Shimazu clan (Japanese島津氏HepburnShimazu-shi) were the daimyō of the Satsuma han, which spread over SatsumaŌsumi and Hyūga provinces in Japan.

The Shimazu were identified as one of the tozama or outsider daimyō families[1] in contrast with the fudai or insider clans which were hereditary vassals or allies of the Tokugawa clan.

Grave of Shimazu family at Mount Kōya. Samurai of the Satsuma clan, during the Boshin War period (1868–1869)


Ryukyu Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ryukyu Kingdom
Anthem: “Ishinagu nu uta” (石なぐの歌)[1]
The Ryukyu Kingdom at its maximum extent (present-day Okinawa Prefecture and the Amami Islands)

The Ryukyu Kingdom at its maximum extent (present-day Okinawa Prefecture and the Amami Islands)
Capital Shuri
Common languages Ryukyuan languages (indigenous), Classical ChineseClassical Japanese
Ethnic groups


Ryukyuan religionShintoBuddhismConfucianismTaoism
Government Monarchy
King (國王)
• 1429–1439
Shō Hashi
• 1477–1526
Shō Shin
• 1587–1620
Shō Nei
• 1848–1879
Shō Tai
Sessei (摂政)
• 1666–1673
Shō Shōken
Regent (國師)
• 1751–1752
Sai On
Legislature Shuri cabinet (首里王府), Sanshikan (三司官)
• Unification
5 April 1609
• Reorganized into Ryukyu Domain
27 March 1879
Currency RyukyuanChinese, and Japanese mon coins[3]

Preceded by

Succeeded by
Empire of Japan
Satsuma Domain
Ryukyu Domain
Today part of Japan

The Ryukyu Kingdom[a] was a kingdom in the Ryukyu Islands from 1429 to 1879. It was ruled as a tributary state of imperial Ming China by the Ryukyuan monarchy, who unified Okinawa Island to end the Sanzan period, and extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands and Sakishima Islands. The Ryukyu Kingdom played a central role in the maritime trade networks of medieval East Asia and Southeast Asia despite its small size. The Ryukyu Kingdom became a vassal state of the Satsuma Domain of Japan after the invasion of Ryukyu in 1609 but retained de jure independence until it was transformed into the Ryukyu Domain by the Empire of Japan in 1872.[b] The Ryukyu Kingdom was formally annexed and dissolved by Japan in 1879 to form Okinawa Prefecture, and the Ryukyuan monarchy was integrated into the new Japanese nobility.

Ishinagu nu uta   Anthem of the Ryukyu Kingdom


“His Imperial Majesty’s Reign”

Nu is one of the eight deities of the Ogdoad representing ancient Egyptian primordial Chaos from which the primordial mound arose. Nun can be seen as the first of all the gods and the creator of reality and personification of the cosmos.


Mar 18, 2023 Japanese うた Noun [ edit] uta ( plural utas or uta ) A kind of Japanese poem. Anagrams [ edit] AUT, UAT, aut-, tau Chuukese [ edit] Verb [ edit] uta


Origins of the Kingdom

Royal seal of the Ryukyu Kingdom (首里之印)

In the 14th century, small domains scattered on Okinawa Island were unified into three principalities: Hokuzan (北山, Northern Mountain), Chūzan (中山, Central Mountain), and Nanzan (南山, Southern Mountain). This was known as the Three Kingdoms, or Sanzan (三山, Three Mountains) period.[citation needed] Hokuzan, which constituted much of the northern half of the island, was the largest in terms of land area and military strength but was economically the weakest of the three. Nanzan constituted the southern portion of the island. Chūzan lay in the center of the island and was economically the strongest. Its political capital at Shuri, Nanzan was adjacent to the major port of Naha, and Kume-mura, the center of traditional Chinese education. These sites and Chūzan as a whole would continue to form the center of the Ryukyu Kingdom until its abolition.[citation needed]

Many Chinese people moved to Ryukyu to serve the government or to engage in business during this period[citation needed]. At the request of the Ryukyuan King, the Ming Chinese sent thirty-six Chinese families from Fujian to manage oceanic dealings in the kingdom in 1392, during the Hongwu emperor‘s reign. Many Ryukyuan officials were descended from these Chinese immigrants, being born in China or having Chinese grandfathers.[6] They assisted the Ryukyuans in advancing their technology and diplomatic relations.[7][8][9] On 30 January 1406, the Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs to serve in the Ming imperial palace. Emperor Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and did not deserve castration, and he returned them to Ryukyu, and instructed the kingdom not to send eunuchs again.[10]

These three principalities (tribal federations led by major chieftains) battled, and Chūzan emerged victorious. The Chūzan leaders were officially recognized by Ming dynasty China as the rightful kings over those of Nanzan and Hokuzan, thus lending great legitimacy to their claims. The ruler of Chūzan passed his throne to King Hashi; Hashi conquered Hokuzan in 1416 and Nanzan in 1429, uniting the island of Okinawa for the first time, and founded the first Shō dynasty. Hashi was granted the surname “Shō” (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shàng) by the Ming emperor in 1421, becoming known as Shō Hashi (Chinese: 尚巴志; pinyin: Shàng Bāzhì).[citation needed]

Shō Hashi adopted the Chinese hierarchical court system, built Shuri Castle and the town as his capital, and constructed Naha harbor. When in 1469 King Shō Toku, who was a grandson of Shō Hashi, died without a male heir, a palatine servant declared he was Toku’s adopted son and gained Chinese investiture. This pretender, Shō En, began the Second Shō dynasty. Ryukyu’s golden age occurred during the reign of Shō Shin, the second king of that dynasty, who reigned from 1478 to 1526.[11]

The kingdom extended its authority over the southernmost islands in the Ryukyu archipelago by the end of the 15th century, and by 1571 the Amami Ōshima Islands, to the north near Kyūshū, were incorporated into the kingdom as well.[12] While the kingdom’s political system was adopted and the authority of Shuri recognized, in the Amami Ōshima Islands, the kingdom’s authority over the Sakishima Islands to the south remained for centuries at the level of a tributarysuzerain relationship.[13]

Golden age of maritime trade

For nearly two hundred years, the Ryukyu Kingdom would thrive as a key player in maritime trade with Southeast and East Asia.[14][15] Central to the kingdom’s maritime activities was the continuation of the tributary relationship with Ming dynasty China, begun by Chūzan in 1372,[12][c] and enjoyed by the three Okinawan kingdoms which followed it. China provided ships for Ryukyu’s maritime trade activities,[16] allowed a limited number of Ryukyuans to study at the Imperial Academy in Beijing, and formally recognized the authority of the King of Chūzan, allowing the kingdom to trade formally at Ming ports. Ryukyuan ships, often provided by China, traded at ports throughout the region, which included, among others, China, Đại Việt (Vietnam), Japan, JavaKoreaLuzonMalaccaPattaniPalembangSiam, and Sumatra.[17]

Royal Seal of Ryukyu via WIkimedia Commons Seal from Qing China giving authority to the King of Ryukyu to rule.

I could not help but note the similarity to the Epstein Symbols that surrounded his island TEMPLE.


Japanese products—silver, swords, fans, lacquerwarefolding screens—and Chinese products—medicinal herbs, minted coins, glazed ceramics, brocades, textiles—were traded within the kingdom for Southeast Asian sappanwoodrhino horn, tin, sugar, iron, ambergris, Indian ivory, and Arabian frankincense. Altogether, 150 voyages between the kingdom and Southeast Asia on Ryukyuan ships were recorded in the Rekidai Hōan, an official record of diplomatic documents compiled by the kingdom, as having taken place between 1424 and the 1630s, with 61 of them bound for Siam, 10 for Malacca, 10 for Pattani, and 8 for Java, among others.[17]

The Chinese policy of haijin (海禁,sea bans“), limiting trade with China to tributary states and those with formal authorization, along with the accompanying preferential treatment of the Ming Court towards Ryukyu, allowed the kingdom to flourish and prosper for roughly 150 years.[18] In the late 16th century, however, the kingdom’s commercial prosperity fell into decline. The rise of the wokou threat among other factors led to the gradual loss of Chinese preferential treatment;[19] the kingdom also suffered from increased maritime competition from Portuguese traders.[12]

Japanese invasion and subordination

Around 1590Toyotomi Hideyoshi asked the Ryukyu Kingdom to aid in his campaign to conquer Korea. If successful, Hideyoshi intended to then move against China. As the Ryukyu Kingdom was a tributary state of the Ming dynasty, the request was refused. The Tokugawa shogunate that emerged following Hideyoshi’s fall authorized the Shimazu familyfeudal lords of the Satsuma domain (present-day Kagoshima Prefecture)—to send an expeditionary force to conquer the Ryukyus. The subsequent invasion took place in 1609, but Satsuma still allowed the Ryukyu Kingdom to find itself in a period of “dual subordination” to Japan and China, wherein Ryukyuan tributary relations were maintained with both the Tokugawa shogunate and the Chinese court.[12]

Occupation occurred fairly quickly, with some fierce fighting, and King Shō Nei was taken prisoner to Kagoshima and later to Edo (modern-day Tokyo). To avoid giving the Qing any reason for military action against Japan, the king was released two years later and the Ryukyu Kingdom regained a degree of autonomy.[20] However, the Satsuma domain seized control over some territory of the Ryukyu Kingdom, notably the Amami-Ōshima island group, which was incorporated into the Satsuma domain and remains a part of Kagoshima Prefecture, not Okinawa Prefecture.

The kingdom was described by Hayashi Shihei in Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu, which was published in 1785.[21]

In 1655, tribute relations between Ryukyu and Qing dynasty (the China’s dynasty that followed Ming after 1644) were formally approved by the shogunate. This was seen to be justified, in part, because of the desire to avoid giving Qing any reason for military action against Japan.[20]

Since Ming China prohibited trade with Japan, the Satsuma domain, with the blessing of the Tokugawa shogunate, used the trade relations of the kingdom to continue to maintain trade relations with China. Considering that Japan had previously severed ties with most European countries except the Dutch, such trade relations proved especially crucial to both the Tokugawa shogunate and Satsuma domain, which would use its power and influence, gained in this way, to help overthrow the shogunate in the 1860s.[22][23] Ryukyuan missions to Edo for Tokugawa Shōgun.

The Ryukyuan king was a vassal of the Satsuma daimyō, after Shimazu’s Ryukyu invasion in 1609, the Satsuma Clan established a governmental office’s branch known as Zaibankaiya (在番仮屋) or Ufukaiya (大仮屋) at Shuri in 1628, and became the base of Ryukyu domination for 250 years, until 1872.[24] But the kingdom was not considered as part of any han (fief): up until the formal annexation of the islands and abolition of the kingdom in 1879, the Ryukyus were not truly considered de jure part of Edo Japan. Though technically under the control of Satsuma, Ryukyu was given a great degree of autonomy, to best serve the interests of the Satsuma daimyō and those of the shogunate, in trading with China.[22] Ryukyu was a tributary state of China, and since Japan had no formal diplomatic relations with China, it was essential that China not realize that Ryukyu was controlled by Japan. Thus, Satsuma—and the shogunate—was obliged to be mostly hands-off in terms of not visibly or forcibly occupying Ryukyu or controlling the policies and laws there. The situation benefited all three parties involved—the Ryukyu royal government, the Satsuma daimyō, and the shogunate—to make Ryukyu seem as much a distinctive and foreign country as possible. Japanese were prohibited from visiting Ryukyu without shogunal permission, and the Ryukyuans were forbidden from adopting Japanese names, clothes, or customs. They were even forbidden from divulging their knowledge of the Japanese language during their trips to Edo; the Shimazu family, daimyōs of Satsuma, gained great prestige by putting on a show of parading the King, officials, and other people of Ryukyu to and through Edo. As the only han to have a king and an entire kingdom as vassals, Satsuma gained significantly from Ryukyu’s exoticness, reinforcing that it was an entirely separate kingdom.

According to statements by Qing imperial official Li Hongzhang in a meeting with Ulysses S. Grant, China had a special relationship with the island and the Ryukyu had paid tribute to China for hundreds of years, and the Chinese reserved certain trade rights for them in an amicable and beneficial relationship.[25] Japan ordered tributary relations to end in 1875 after the tribute mission of 1874 was perceived as a show of submission to China.[26]

Annexation by the Japanese Empire

In 1872, Emperor Meiji unilaterally declared that the kingdom was then Ryukyu Domain.[27][28][29] At the same time, the appearance of independence was maintained for diplomatic reasons with Qing China[30] until the Meiji government abolished the Ryukyu Kingdom when the islands were incorporated as Okinawa Prefecture on 27 March 1879.[31] The Amami-Ōshima island group which had been integrated into Satsuma Domain became a part of Kagoshima Prefecture.

The last king of Ryukyu was forced to relocate to Tokyo, and was given a compensating kazoku rank as Marquis Shō Tai.[32][33][page needed] Many royalist supporters fled to China.[34] The king’s death in 1901 diminished the historic connections with the former kingdom.[35] With the abolition of the aristocracy after World War II, the Sho family continues to live in Tokyo.[36]

Dec 08, 2014

In November 1500, the ancient kingdom of Yuguguk (유구국, 琉球國), a chain of islands located far to the south and east of the Korean Peninsula, dispatched an envoy to the Joseon court. The envoy delivered a message to the Korean monarch.

It reads: “King Sangjin of the Jungsanwang Dynasty (中山王) in Yuguguk is writing this letter to the king of Joseon… We haven’t reached you for a while. It is desirable to send an envoy to cross the steep mountains and wide seas to pay tribute to Joseon. However, we didn’t know how to get there. We hope that you, a wise king, will show us generosity and accept these little gifts we send. We also hope you bring the book “Daejangjongyeong” (대장존경, 大藏尊經) to give our nation enlightenment and stability. We can’t have more respect for you.”

The ancient kingdom of Yuguguk refers to the Ryukyu Kingdom that existed on and around the island of Okinawa, now at the southern tip of modern-day Japan. A special exhibition showcasing the history and culture of the independent kingdom will be held at the National Palace Museum of Korea starting on December 9.

The crown of the Ryukyu King, from the Naha City Museum of History. The crown has an ornamental hairpin in the center.

The crown of the Ryukyu King, from the Naha City Museum of History. The crown has an ornamental hairpin in the center.

The exhibition will showcase around 200 relics that help visitors better understand the history and culture of the Ryukyu Kingdom. On display are 33 national treasures and six important cultural properties. Among them are some relics used by the royal family of the Sho Dynasty (尙), including the crown and official garments of the Ryukyu king, as well as a number of receptacles used during rituals and ceremonies. In addition to the craftworks such as royal lacquer ware and pottery, the exhibition will have on display historical books, paintings and traditional musical instruments.

A range of Japanese institutes and organizations joined together to make this special exhibition, including the Naha City Museum of History, the Okinawa Prefectural Museum & Art Museum, the Urasoe Art Museum, the Tokyo National Museum and the Kyushu National Museum, among others.

The royal crown, garments and ceremonial receptacles are expected to draw the most attention. Produced in the 18th century, the crown of the Ryukyu king was known to have been worn during official events such as Lunar New Year and the reception of foreign diplomats. The colorful ornaments are especially eye-catching, along with the hairpin. Also on display are articles made of bingata cloth, an Okinawan traditional dyed cloth with mixed patterns of flowers, phoenixes and flames. It was known to be worn by the royal family as casual ware.

Both of the crown and garments are registered as Japanese national treasures and will be showcased for only the first two weeks of the exhibition.

Royal garments made of <i>bingata</i> fabric were worn by the son of the king, from the Naha City Museum of History. The patterns of a phoenix and <i>hwayeomboju</i>, or flames, are dyed in a traditional Ryukyu style.

Royal garments made of bingata fabric were worn by the son of the king, from the Naha City Museum of History. The patterns of a phoenix and hwayeomboju, or flames, are dyed in a traditional Ryukyu style.

Some ancient books and maps will be on display, too, showing that the Ryukyu Kingdom and Joseon had a long-lasting history of cultural exchanges.

Royal ritual ceremonial receptacles, from the Naha City Museum of History. The items were used in the royal family's private chambers, mostly by females or kings during ritual ceremonies.

Royal ritual ceremonial receptacles, from the Naha City Museum of History. The items were used in the royal family’s private chambers, mostly by females or kings during ritual ceremonies.

During the exhibition, the museum will host special lectures and traditional performances that offer visitors a chance to better understand the history and culture of Ryukyu and the range of cultural exchanges it had with Joseon.

On December 9, the first day of the exhibition, special lectures about the history and culture of the Ryukyu Kingdom will be given by the heads of the Naha City Museum of History and the Urasoe Art Museum. Traditional Okinawan performances will also be showcased during the exhibition.

The exhibition will run until February 8.
For more information, please call the National Palace Museum of Korea at 02)-3701-7633.

By Lee Seung-ah
Korea.net Staff Writer

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Pow! Japan’s Hayabusa2 Bombs Asteroid Ryugu to Make a Crater (Photo)

This image captured by Hayabusa2's DCAM3 camera, which deployed from the spacecraft, shows ejection from the asteroid Ryugu's surface was caused by the collision of an impactor. Photo taken at 10:36 p.m. EDT on April 4, 2019 (0236 GMT on April 5).

This image captured by Hayabusa2’s DCAM3 camera, which deployed from the spacecraft, shows ejection from the asteroid Ryugu’s surface was caused by the collision of an impactor. Photo taken at 10:36 p.m. EDT on April 4, 2019 (0236 GMT on April 5). (Image credit: JAXA, Kobe University, Chiba Institute of Technology, The University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kochi University, Aichi Toho University, The University of Aizu, and Tokyo University of Science)

Asteroids have pummeled Earth for billions of years, and now Earth has finally struck back.

Japan’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft  slammed a copper cannonball into the 3,000-foot-wide (900 meters) asteroid Ryugu last night (April 4), in an effort to blast out a crater that the probe can study in detail over the coming weeks and months.

The “Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) operation began at around 10 p.m. EDT (0200 GMT on April 5) when the 4.4-lb. (2 kilograms) copper plate deployed from the Hayabusa2 mothership. About 40 minutes later, explosives behind the plate detonated, sending the projectile hurtling toward Ryugu at 4,500 mph (7,240 km/h).   7240 can also be written and 7+2+4 = 13)

Related: Photos: Japan’s Hayabusa2 Asteroid Sample-Return Mission

The Small Carry-On Impactor of Japan’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft is seen after separating from its mothership on April 4, 2019 (April 5 JST) just before it crashed into asteroid Ryugu. This image was captured by Hayabusa2’s optical navigation camera from about 500 meters above Ryugu. (Image credit: AXA/The University of Tokyo/Kochi University/Rikkyo University/Nagoya University/Chiba Institute of Technology/Meiji University/The University of Aizu/AIST)

The shot hit its target — and Hayabusa2 even got a picture of the impact.

“After the start of the operation, the camera (DCAM3) [that] separated from Hayabusa2 captured an image that shows ejection from Ryugu’s surface, which implies that the SCI had functioned as planned,” Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) officials wrote in an update this morning.

“Hayabusa2 is operating normally,” they added. “We will be providing further information once we have confirmed whether a crater has been created on Ryugu.

DCAM3 was needed because the Hayabusa2 mothership had retreated behind Ryugu, to protect itself from the rain of debris generated by the impact.

Last night’s bombing run was just one of many milestones that Hayabusa2 has checked off since arriving at the carbon-rich Ryugu last June. The spacecraft dropped two tiny hopping rovers onto the asteroid’s boulder-strewn surface in late September, for example, then put a 22-lb. (10 kg) lander down two weeks later.

And in February, Hayabusa2 itself spiraled down to Ryugu, snagging a sample of rock and dirt in a brief touchdown operation. This material is scheduled to come down to Earth in a special return capsule in December 2020.

Hayabusa2 may snag another sample as well — from the crater it just made, provided the SCI operation generated one big enough for the mothership to find. The probe will definitely eye that crater from afar, studying the pristine, newly unearthed material. (The rock and dirt on Ryugu’s surface has been weathered extensively by space radiation.)

A second sampling operation could follow as well, if mission team members deem it safe to conduct, JAXA officials have said.

Hayabusa2 also still has one more little hopper on board, which it may deploy sometime this summer.



Note how they captured the images of the pentagrams

The various data gathered by Hayabusa2 at Ryugu, and by scientists poring over the returned sample here on Earth, should help researchers better understand the solar system’s early days, JAXA officials have said. The mission could also shed light on the role that asteroids like Ryugu may have played in helping life get started on Earth by delivering lots of water and organic molecules to our planet, for example.

Hayabusa2 isn’t the first deep-space bomber. In 2005, for example, NASA’s Deep Impact probe barreled into Comet Tempel 1, to help scientists better understand comet composition. And in 2010, NASA’s LCROSS mission slammed an impactor into a crater near the moon’s south pole, revealing significant amounts of water there.

And another asteroid will get walloped soon, if all goes according to plan. NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission aims to slam an impactor into a moon of the asteroid Didymos in 2022, to better understand how humanity could deflect potentially dangerous space rocks headed toward Earth.

I am sorry, but what??  Why are we bombarding asteroids to BREAK LOOSE rocks?  Does that not guarantee that there will be ore loose rocks flying around in space, some of which are likely to fall to earth?  And if Tapping an asteroid causes it to change direction how do we know what will come of their tapping all those asteroids, ramming into them, or exploding things on them or in their craters?

A European probe called Hera will aid in this assessment, gauging up close how the impact affects the Didymos system. Hera may even be on the scene in time to watch the collision.


Hera – Greek Goddess of Marriage and Queen of Olympus
Facts about HeraHera was Queen of the Olympian gods. She was the wife and sister of Zeus. Hera was a jealous wife, and she fought with Zeus frequently over his extramarital affairs and illegitimate children. For this reason, Hera was known for punishing offending husbands. She was the protector of women, presiding over marriages and births.

HERA CULT 1 – Ancient Greek Religion – Theoi
HERA was the Olympian queen of the gods, and the goddess of women, marriage and the sky. She had numerous shrines and temples in ancient Greece. Her primary cult centres were the Heraion near Mykenai in Argolis, Olympia in Elis–where a women’s counterpart of the Olympic Games was celebrated in her honour–and the island of Samos.


So Hera is an angry woman scorned who is in charge of child birth, reproduction and marriage?  Right, that sounds like a good idea.  So, she is the source of the “feminist movement” and all those “women” who want to murder their babies and all men!!  LOL


What Is The Ryukyuan Religion?

The Sefa-utaki, a sacred Ryukyuan religious space. Editorial credit: EQRoy / Shutterstock.com
The Sefa-utaki, a sacred Ryukyuan religious space. Editorial credit: EQRoy / Shutterstock.com
Ryukyuan religion is a native belief structure of the Ryukyu Islands. Although various traditions and legends may differ from one Island to the other, the Ryukuans worship their ancestors while respecting the relationship between the spirits, gods, the living, and the dead. Ryukyuan religion has various unique beliefs like the ones about the genius loci spirits among others which are indicative of their ancient animistic roots, but with time their practices were influenced by Japanese Shinto, Buddhism, and various Chinese religions like Confucianism and Taoism.

Ancestor Spirits

The ultimate ancestors who are believed to be the source of life are Utin (“heaven,” the father), Ryuuguu (“the sea,” the birthplace), and Jiichi (“earth,” the mother). These ultimate ancestors originated and lived with the gods of this world during the ancient times (Usachi yu). These ancestors are highly respected as the originators of everything and are always worshipped by the community. The ancestors who lived in the past but not during the ancient time (Usachi yu) are said to have lived during Nakaga yu (middle ages). These ancestors lived more 25 generations ago and not with the gods. The people respect all these ancestors as collective spirits referred to as the Futuchi, and they worship them in the Buddhist temples. The other ancestors, who the people worship are the more immediate ancestors who lived less than 25 generations. These ancestors are said to have lived during the present age (ima-ga-yuu). Although they are enshrined within buchidan, these ancestors tend to visit the home and the family tomb during various special occasions.

Performing The Rituals

The Ryukyu religion is family-centered, and the oldest female family member acts as the principal celebrant who performs all the rituals concerning household gods, ancestors, and the other family members who live at home and also the ones living outside the home. The Ryukuans offer Incense offerings daily and deliver prayer reports aloud. The oldest female family member also cleans and takes care of the bathroom god (furugan), ancestors’ altar (buchidan), and the hearth god plus his home of hearth (hinukan). Traditionally, women are believed to be spiritually (more) powerful than the men, in fact, men are considered to be spiritually vulnerable, and this resulted in the most prominent religious figure on the island being priestesses. During the 15th century, the role of the priestesses was formalized by King Sho Shin and introduced to the royal court by the introduction of a new hierarchy of priestesses led by the sister of the king.


Buchidan, also referred to as the butsudan, is the prime focus when it comes to worshiping of the ancestors. Buchidan is the space (a small closet) within the home which is the family altar where the family members offer numerous memorial plaques with names of the ancestors, alcohol, and incense to the ancestors. The family places the buchidan in one of the rooms referred to as Ichibanza which serves as a guest room. The Butsudan does not have the statute of Buddha and Ryukyuans borrow the idea of placing these memorial tablets in the buchidan from Confucianism. This closet is usually passed down from one generation to the next, and the first-born who inherit the family home inherits the Buchidan too. The family members assemble around the Butsudan during all the special occasions like the New Year holiday, and give their offering which includes cooked rice, water, incense, and tea. During different festivals, the oldest female family member decorates the closet using the various offering of tangerines, apples, mango, and pineapple, among other tropical fruits.


The three stones placed in the kitchen represents the Hinukan who is the hearth god. Hinukan is the fire god; more specifically the fire guardian and his adornment are processed by the matriarch in the family. The community hinukan is the protector of communal sacred fire, and his worship is presided over by a priestess of the community. Although the hearth god stays in the home, he does not call the family home as his home, since he always goes to his house to commemorate the New Year of the solar.

Fuuru Nu Kami

Fuuru nu kami, also referred to as the toilet god, is the family guardian of the place of waste. A toilet which does not have this god could be influenced by evil spirits, like akaname, who are attracted by the accumulated waste matter. Since this god is considered a prime house god, the oldest female family member cleans his dwelling. Reports of the status of the family are delivered to this god regularly. The pig toilet lacks such benevolent god and therefore could become an area of evil influence.

Where Does The Extended Family Gather To Worship?

Traditionally, the extended family gathers at the family tomb. These tombs look like houses with courtyards and a porch where all the offerings are placed. The family puts the cremated remains of numerous generations inside the horseshoe-shaped tombs. A deceased relative is believed to have taken his place among the ancestors in the 32nd year after their death. During the gatherings, food, incense, and family prayers are offered to the ancestors before having a picnic. Traditionally it is the work of the oldest man in the family to take care of the tombs and building of new tombs.

Other Deities Worshiped In Ryukyu

Although as the gods of the home are the most worshiped, the families also respect other powerful deities. The community prays to the mountain and marine deities who guarantee them success in fishing, agricultural and shipping pursuits. The people also worship the chthonic spirit which inhibits the springs, rocks, trees, and caves. The community respects the ghosts and various old and powerful ancestors who inhibit the sacred place as deities.

The Myth Of Creation

According to the legend, the heavenly emperor who lived in Gusuku ordered Amamikyu to create the Ryukyu islands. Later she came down to Earth on the spot of Sefa-Utaki and built the Chinen Castle and Tamagusuku Castle. She later became pregnant by Shinerkyu without sexual intercourse and populated the islands. After several generations, Tentei, a heavenly grandchild, was born who divided the society into five different classes through his two daughters and three sons. The first son was called Tenson who became the first king of the Ryukyu. Aji, the second son, was the ancestor of the nobility in the society. The third son was the first farmer. The first daughter was the first Noro the royal priestess, while the second daughter was the first Noro village priestess.