The public is accustomed to getting their news in short blurbs that flash across the screes before you even catch their meaning.  They no longer have an attention span that allows them to digest what they are hearing and seeing or reading, let alone discern the depth of its affect on their world.

Americans watch the News on their favorite Network and think they are on top of everything that is happening in the world. Or, worse yet, they get their news from their favorite late night TV host in satire bites.

Well folks, I hate to be the one that has to tell you, you will NEVER get to the truth like that!  It takes hours, sometimes days and weeks and months or even YEARS to find the TRUTH that has been so masterfully disguised and hidden.

In the case of these types of “accidents” which involve very highly toxic chemicals there is a real need to take the time to really view all the information that can be gathered and to look at the situation from every possible angle.  It takes a great deal of digging and evaluating to bring us to the truth.  We cannot afford to just rush through to a quick resolution. There are thousands of lives at stake in the immediate area, but more than that, this event has the potential for ongoing consequences for millions of people, including you and your loved ones.

There are nefarious individuals, groups and organizations that have a heavy stake in how this event is handled.  They have no qualms about dirty dealing.  They don’t care about the loss and suffering that occurs do to their conduct.

If you don’t think that there are MANY CONSPIRACIES at work in our world than you are numb asleep or mind controlled.  There are so many dark forces at work in every area of our lives.  Some of them working together, some independent of each other, but all with the same goal and guided by the same DRIVING SPIRIT.

I have tried my best to sort through all the lies and deceits in this on going saga of the EXPERIMENT at East Palestine, OHIO.  Yes, I said, experiment because at this point I am convinced that is exactly what is happening there.  That is my personal opinion to which I AM ENTITLED.  You can agree with me or not… matters not to me.  DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH, but do not form an opinion based on nothing but the mainstream rhetoric.

You owe it to the citizens of East Palestine and to yourselves to dig deep.  TRUST me when I say, this will be coming to your neighborhood in one form or another.  Whether you live by a railroad or not.  NO ONE is safe.

I know this is a very long post. I apologize for the strain on your device to view it and for the demand on your precious time to read and digest it.  However, it is my sincere hope that once you have viewed all the information disclosed here, once you see it all in one place and are able to get the big picture, that you will be CONVINCED that this was no accident and that this maybe your final wake up call!!  There are forces at work that are preparing to bring down the hammer.  You will wake up one day soon under the regime of the NWO, with no rights and no hope.  Unless you know the one who is THE HOPE/ HATIKVA.  Yashua HaMashiach!

As usual, all the articles and videos included in this post contain the links to the original.  I mostly pulled excerpts from the original but you can view the articles in full by clicking on the link.  Everything in my posts is for education purposes and edification and encouragement of the body of Christ.  I receive no remuneration.

All the posts in this series:

OHIOANS in Danger – LIES! LIES! LIES is all they get.


Ohio Train Disaster – More Information


OHIO NORFOLK RAIL DISASTER snarly, tangled complexity







Due to the possible complexity of railroad accidents and the extensive nature of the investigation process, a railroad accident investigation often requires 12 to 24 months to complete. Depending on the circumstances of the accident, the IIC along with other NTSB investigators and party members may travel to the accident site to collect information. The NTSB has the authority to designate organizations, corporations, or agencies as parties to the investigation. Only representatives who can provide technical or specialized expertise are permitted to serve as a party member and report directly to the NTSB. The NTSB will not determine the cause of an accident while on scene.


More water woes for East Palestine after grocery recall/Rush Hour


SHOCKING! THE EPA Orders Pause of Toxic Waste Cleanup From East Palestine Ohio


EPA immediately pauses toxic waste shipments from Ohio train derailment site to Harris County, o…





Cornell Emeritus Professor Murray McBride warned, “The combustion of vinyl chloride that resulted from the accident may have created highly toxic dioxins, surface soils downwind of the spill site should be tested for dioxin levels particularly where food crops are to be grown.”  (OR DOWNSTREAM!!)
Neil Campbell
Neil lives in Canada and writes about society and politics.
Published: February 18, 2023
East Palestine rolled out a digital ID medical information device to residents just days before the Norfolk Southern Railway vinyl chloride trainwreck disaster

East Palestine Fire Department ran a signup for the MyID medical information tracking wearable just days before the Norfolk Southern Railway trainwreck disaster spilled vinyl chloride into the environment. (Image: Facebook Screenshot)

The village of East Palestine rolled out a proprietary, albeit optional, digital ID system just days before a disastrous trainwreck that saw copious amounts of the highly carcinogenic vinyl chloride spilled, and then burned off into the atmosphere by Norfolk Southern Railway as the company raced to get its line reopened.

On Jan. 26, Lisbon, Ohio-based media outlet Morning Journal (archive) reported that East Palestine Fire Department washosting a sign up event” for a service called MyID targeting both EP and nearby Unity Township.

The outlet quoted East Palestine Councilman Robert Runnion as stating,MyID is a program that helps first responders aid victims more effectively and efficiently.”

The article added that MyID “touts itself” as a “comprehensive medical ID solution that provides an easy way to access, store and manage your health information.”

Morning Journal explained, “How it works is the company sells a variety of products like bracelets, tags, stickers and wallet cards that feature a QR code that can be scanned by medical personnel to get access to your online medical profile in a few short seconds.”

“The products allow first responders to scan the QR code quickly in the event of an emergency thereby removing any time delays in accessing important health information related to the person in need of help, or in the event that a person cannot communicate,” the outlet added.


But the plan had been months in the making, according to WKBN27 news, which ran something of an advertorial for the MyID rollout in East Palestine in October of 2022.

The lead paragraph of the article stated, East Palestine is known as ‘The Place to Be.’ It’s way ahead of the curve on a program to provide better treatment for anyone in the event of an emergency. We learned how it works and how it could help everyone in East Palestine.”

Video: East Palestine switching to ‘MYID’ emergency service

A video of a television segment accompanying the article showed that the wearables sold by MyID not only included a scannable QR code, but were also RFID tap-enabled.

Orders will start in January,” WKBN27 stated, adding, “The Fire Department has already collected $5,000 in donations to help.”

In a second Jan. 26 article published by WKBN27, EPFD Chief Keith Drabick stated, “We’re not doing this to gain anybody’s information, to try and steal anybody’s information. We’re doing this to help the public in medical emergencies.”

Drabick added, “Anybody that skeptical? Please come on down. Sit down, talk to us. We’ll be happy to show you everything that goes on with it. We’ll be happy to show you how secure it is.”

Darlene Chapman, also with the EPFD, told the outlet regarding the MyID signup event, “We want to bring people in to get signed up, to pick their device that they want, and just so we can see who all is interested in it.

WKBN stated that the devices were not only ready to go, but would be free for the first 250 customers, “People who are ready can sign up and pick their device. It’s free. The village has $5,000 in donations to cover the first phase of 250 devices.”

According to a Facebook page for the Jan. 29 signup event, 1 person was interested, and 1 person went.

Facebook Live video published by the East Palestine Park Board on Oct. 1, 2022 also showed Chapman manning a promotional booth for MyID at a local craft fair.

In the video, Chapman showed the session how she could scan a wearable device connected to her own health information.

The MyID app displayed “your diagnosis…your personal information…your emergency contacts…allergies you have…medications that you’re on…lists your family physician,” Chapman both stated and demonstrated.

Chapman added that, at the time, the EPFD was only doing signups, and hoped to get a proper rollout of the system to takers by November.

The MyID website shows a variety of RFID and QR code-enabled wearables ranging in price from $5 to $95.

FAQ page on the company website states that its technology is secure because it utilizes Amazon Web Services, firewalls, SSL, and an automatic logout function on its app.

Eyes on the ground

A Feb. 16 Twitter thread by independent journalist Pedro Gonzalez displayed on the ground scenes from East Palestine following the disaster, which showed what appear to be a dozen construction site dumpster-style bins lining the side of the town’s roadways at the East Palestine Park.

“I interviewed a family near the park that works at a factory that was close to where the train derailed. Workers are pumping and cleaning this creek all day and night,” Gonzalez stated.

Further video showed extensive equipment operating in a local creek.

Gonzalez added that town residents appear to be in the dark about what exactly is being done by the cleanup crews, “…there are conflicting reports about everything on every level. Even locals are in the dark about what’s happening literally in their backyard and those in charge aren’t helping. It’s a huge communication problem.”

The journalist showed a video he obtained from a local resident showing cleanup crews transporting the dumpsters out of the city every night between 8:00 and 10:00 p.m. “like clockwork.”

He added that the cleanup crews refused to talk to him, and that town residents he spoke with say that although the crew is polite, they won’t speak with the residents, either.

Clear and present danger

Although network media has attempted to downplay the severity and danger of the chemical spill, a Feb. 15 “Tip Sheet” issued by the University of Cornell quoted Emeritus Professor Murray McBride as warning that vinyl chloride is “highly mobile in soils and water.”

The Tip Sheet advised farmers and residents to “test wells and soils where crops are grown.”

McBride explained, “Several industrial chemicals, including vinyl chloride and butyl acrylate, were released in large quantities into the air, surface waters and soils at the site of the derailment.

The vinyl chloride release from the rail cars is of special concern because of the particularly high toxicity of this chemical to humans,” he added.

The Professor noted that the chemicals can also “persist for years in groundwater.”

McBride also warned that the burnoff of the chemical spill by Norfolk Southern Railway as it raced to get the line reopened was also not a trivial matter for the local environment.

“Because the combustion of vinyl chloride that resulted from the accident may have (Absolutely without a doubt)  created highly toxic dioxins, surface soils downwind of the spill site should be tested for dioxin levels particularly where food crops are to be grown,” he stated.


East Palestine launched “MyID” emergency service to surveil locals’ biometrics data just one week before train derailment

Image: East Palestine launched “MyID” emergency service to surveil locals’ biometrics data just one week before train derailmentBob Moore, a local 70-year-old farmer and longtime East Palestine resident, told the independent media that he ignored local news reports prior to the disaster urging residents like himself to sign up for MyID, allowing them to receive a biometric tracking device capable of relaying updates to first responders about their health conditions amid an emergency or “major disaster” not unlike the one that occurred in real life a week later.

The timing of the MyID rollout, Moore explained, is nothing short of suspicious – almost like the whole thing was planned as a false flag event.

“It was exactly a week before the derailment happened,” Moore explained. “The people were asked to go to the local fire department in downtown East Palestine to get that MyID.”

“They began monitoring your physical activity, your heart rate, your respiration, anything you might be exposed to. I see this as the kind of sensor you would put on an astronaut or on an athlete that you wanted to track to see how he’d react to stress or being winded, or in this instance chemical exposure. It’s a monitoring device.”

(Related: The company hired by Norfolk Southern to conduct toxicology assessments on the train derailment chemical release has a history of questionable and potentially fraudulent behavior.)

Was East Palestine a “test town” for the release of biometric tracking bracelets?

On January 26, WKBN, a local Ohio news affiliate, announced that East Palestine would begin making “an important medical device available to all 4,700 residents” starting on January 29, just five days before the derailment.

“The MyID program is ready to roll out in East Palestine. It’s a medical information system that helps first responders provide care,” WKBN reported – watch the news report below.

“MyID provides wearable devices or key FOBs that have QR codes. Emergency responders use a camera phone to access important medical information.”

The announcement upset Moore, who said it reminded him of the Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) “vaccine” rollout under Operation Warp Speed.

“I completely ignored it,” Moore said about the announcement.

But the way the media played it up – it was like East Palestine was a test town that they volunteered to be part of, that they were chosen and were going to implement it right after Jan. 23. I do find it odd. I find it a coincidence that we are having coincidences pile up around here.”

Moore further speculated about the rise in disasters at food factories and egg farms on top of the train explosion and MyID rollout. He believes the biometric bracelets are possibly a way for the government to track people in the midst of a major disaster.

The fact that the program exists indicates that somebody somewhere knows something and wants to get data,” he said.

Every piece of data that the government collects, that DARPA, large corporations, and multinational corporations collect, can always be turned against the citizen. Everything is vulnerable to weaponization and the most sacred thing in any weaponizing is data.”


16 sensors that are present in fitness bands and smart watches that you need to know..
Read more at:

Any typical fitness band or smartwatch comes with around 16 sensors inside.  These sensors along with other components like battery, mic, display, speakers, etc. and other high-end software make up the fitness band or smartwatch.  Here are the sensors inside these wearables that you should know.
  1. Ambient light sensor to tweak display brightness.
  2. 3 axis accelerometer detects movement and tracks directions, can track forward and backward movement, sense gravity and determine body’s orientation, position and rate of speed change.
  3. Altimeter detects changes in height; how much you are climbing stairs or going down a slope.  Helps measure calorie count.
  4. Optical heartrate sensor that detects heart rate per minute. It uses light to detect the speed of blood flow on the wrist
  5. SpO2 monitor to measure blood oxygen levels, measuring the reflection of red and infrared cells measuring the variation to estimate  the level of SpO2
  6. Bioimpedence sensor to measure respiratory rate sleep, heartrate, water level and more.  The battery charger electrodes in the device sends electrical deliver small currents to your skin to measure the resistance.
  7. Poximity sensor to let the device know when you are near it and activate it.  It helps save the battery.  It’s main job is to activate the display screen.
  8. Compass – helps map applications and provide a sense of direction for the device
  9. ECG Sensor to detect every electrical impulse your heart sends out with every heartbeat using the electrodes within the device.
  10. GPS gauges the amount of activity, the direction and location, guides the Map applications. (A TRACKING DEVICE)
  11. Gyroscope measures the angular velocity, used to detect motion and track the accurately, ‘
  12. Gesture sensors detect wrist motion.  Used to give the device coded messages/directions.
  13. UV sensor to measure exposure to sunlight and UV levels
  14. Magnetometer works with GPS locator and Maps applications and compass to pinpoint your exact location
  15. Electrodermal activity sensor to measure stress along with a heart rate tracker, ECG and skin temperature sensor. It detects small electrical changes in the sweat level on your skin
  16. Skin temperature sensor to detect slight temperature changes that might signal that you are getting a fever, or detect the start of menopause


Thought Surveillance Wearable Devices To Be New Workplace Normal: Davos 2023 Presentation

“Well, if you don’t like your job, then just quit,” said Nina Farahan from Duke University School of Law. She asked the audience, “But what if, there’s nowhere to go? What if everywhere has ubiquitous monitoring?”
ubiquitous  – yoo͞-bĭk′wĭ-təs


  1. Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time; omnipresent.
  2. Existing or being everywhere, or in all places, at the same time; omnipresent.
  3. Being everywhere at once: omnipresent.
Neil Campbell
Neil lives in Canada and writes about society and politics.
Published: February 5, 2023
Wearable devices that collect brainwaves for artificial intelligence-driven surveillance will be the new workplace normal, said a presentation at the WEF's Davos 2023.
A file photo of the Apple Watch at a store in Rome, on May 27, 2021. A presentation at the globalist World Economic Forum’s Davos 2023 event lauded wearable devices that will collect employee brain waves for surveillance and data analysis by artificial intelligence to monitor productivity, distraction, and romantic interests as part of the new workplace normal. (Image: Antonio Masiello/Getty Images)

Wearable devices that collect employee brain waves for the purposes of artificial intelligence-driven data analysis to monitor the productivity, loyalty, and romantic inclinations of staff will soon become the new normal, according to a presentation at the World Economic Forum’s Davos 2023 event.

The segment was titled Ready for Brain Transparency? and was moderated by the CEO of the Atlantic, Nicholas Thompson and Nita Farahan from Duke University School of Law.

Thompson introduced the segment as a preview of technology that will, “Use brainwaves to fight crime, be more productive, and find love” as he prompted the audience to pay attention to an animated short that served as an introduction.

The animation depicted a woman working on a computer who had just met her deadline to complete a critical memorandum. During the process, AI was able to determine her stress level was rising as the deadline approached, and so her computer was intervened with, delivering an instruction to take a “brain break.”

The short also included portions straight from science fiction dystopia.

In one instance, the woman was distracted, glancing at a new co-worker she was attracted to during her writing job, but was sternly rebuked by the AI with a reddened popup that warned, “Reminder: INTRA-OFFICE ROMANCES ARE STRICTLY FORBIDDEN.”

In another instance, the animation celebrated that the woman’s performance bonus was linked to whether her brain wave metrics were in line with company edicts, including her sleep patterns.

As the clip concluded, Farahan walked on stage and asked a small audience appearing to be composed of a few dozen viewers, “What do you think? Is it a future that you’re ready for?”

The response could be described as restrained and muffled jeering.

You may be surprised to learn that it’s a future that has already arrived,” Farahan chipperly stated. “Everything in that video that you just saw is based on technology that is already here today.”

One of the key portions of the presentation was a technological innovation underwritten by advancements in AI, allowing the humans who command the machines at present to decode the brain activity of those they monitor.

During her speech, Farahan took a page out of the playbook of the Communist Party as she reduced the existence of human beings to the level of being merely matter,After all, what we think, what we feel, it’s all just data. Data that in large patterns can be decoded using artificial intelligence.” 

And this data was to be collected by “wearable devices that are like Fitbits for your brain,” she said.

The devices presented included headbands, hats, earbuds, and headphones(wrist watches, bracelets)

Even, “Tiny tattoos that you can wear behind your ear,” will be used for brain wave surveillance, Farahan added.

Farahan’s presentation revolved around “one of the most compelling use cases” for the technology-at-large being the workforce, as she levered viewers and her audience to accept the notion by providing a photo-based example of a trucker who was said to have attempted a 20 hour 1,500 mile non-stop trip before crashing into cars.

According to Farahan, wearable brain surveillance technology would have alerted the trucker’s employer that he was falling asleep.

She was happy to note that no less than the Chinese Communist Party is already using the technology in the Beijing-Shanghai high speed train where train conductors are required to wear hats that have sensors that pick up their brain activity.

“Employees are already having their brain activity monitored,” Farahan leveled with her watchers, before attempting to spin the development into a social advancement that “very well may be something we want to embrace as a society.”

But the use cases for employers are not just the safety-based form that nobody would be so brazen to disagree with. Farahan stated that brain surveillance is already “used to monitor productivity of employees,” using the example of an Amazon warehouse.

“Whether or not they’re taking breaks or unscheduled breaks is the kind of thing that employees resist, unionize against, rise up against, and undermines morale,” she noted.

Farahan said, “Well, if you don’t like your job, then just quit.”

“But what if, there’s nowhere to go? What if everywhere has ubiquitous monitoring?” she asked.

During the pandemic what we found is that 80 percent of companies admitted that they used at least some forms of so-called ‘bosswear’ technology to monitor the productivity of their employees,” Farahan pointed out.

And really, collecting and analyzing brain waves is just the next step in our normal lives, Farahan added, because, “Surveillance is part of our everyday lives. Surveillance for productivity is part of what has become the norm in the workplace.”

“And maybe with good reason,” she said as she cited Salary.com’s Wasting Time at Work Survey as finding that 9 of 10 employees “admit they waste at least some time at work every day.”

The survey, which can be found online and was last conducted in 2014, stated, “The number of people in this year’s survey who reported wasting time at work every day is up to a whopping 89% — a 20% increase compared to last year.”

Specific data, however, showed that 31 percent of that group self-reported spending half an hour per day “on non work-related tasks,” while another 31 percent self-reported spending an hour.

Farahan said the AI monitors not just whether you’re working, but how focused you are, “When you combine brain wave activity together with other forms of software and surveillance technology, the power becomes quite precise.”

The presentation stated that the best way to mitigate employee resistance and rebellion against the shift in workplace paradigm is to provide the devices on an optional basis to employees who want to discipline themselves accordingly.

The book The Nine Commentaries on the Chinese Communist Party, which has led to more than 407 million people renouncing vows made to the Party, the Young Pioneers, or the Communist Youth League, which are mandatory for participation in Chinese society, provides an apt description of the portion of CCP’s nature and operational methodology that Davos and the public-private partnerships it represents appear to be emulating.

In the section On the Unscrupulous Nature of the Chinese Communist Party, the book states, “Another iniquitous characteristic of the CCP is manifest in its changing the definition of cultural concepts and then using these revised definitions to criticize and control people.

“If you join the Party, it will control all aspects of your life, including your conscience, subsistence, and private life,” the authors continued.

The book further states, “It dictates all matters, from ones as important as who should be the chairman of the country or the minister of defense or what regulations and rules will be made, to as small as where one should live, with whom one can marry, and how many children one can have.”

The CCP has mustered all imaginable methods of control.” (And the whole world is following their lead.)

Check out some of my related posts below:



East Palestine first responders address conspiracy theories around medical bracelets


Excess size caused train to break down in days before it derailed in Ohio, employees say

When Norfolk Southern train 32N derailed in Ohio earlier this month, it was not the first time it had experienced problems on the route. The train, which originated from Madison, Illinois, on the evening of Feb. 1, broke down at least once before derailing in East Palestine, Ohio, on Feb. 3, according to employees familiar with the matter.The employees say there were concerns among those working on the train over what they believed was the train’s excessive length and weight151 cars, 9,300 feet long, 18,000 tons — before it reached East Palestine, which contributed to both the initial breakdown and the derailment.“We shouldn’t be running trains that are 150 car lengths long,” one of the employees said. “There should be some limitations to the weight and the length of the trains. In this case, had the train not been 18,000 tons, it’s very likely the effects of the derailment would have been mitigated.”

Drone footage shows the freight train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, on Feb. 6, 2023, in this screengrab obtained from a handout video released by the NTSB.
Drone footage shows the freight train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, on Feb. 6, 2023, in this screengrab obtained from a handout video released by the NTSB. NTSB/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS

CBS News has agreed not to name the employees because they fear retaliation by Norfolk Southern.

Norfolk Southern’s CEO Alan Shaw declined an interview. In a statement to CBS News, a company spokesperson said “the weight distribution of this train was uniform throughoutand included a mid-train locomotive “which helps manage the dynamic forces of the train” and reduces mechanical issues.

“Assigning a ‘reputation’ to a train that fluctuates by thousands of tons on a regular basis is inaccurate,” the spokesperson said of the observations about the train’s length and weight, adding that a “longer and heavier train” used to run the route, before it was “split into two shorter, lighter trains in the past few month as part of a regular review.”

Still, the train that derailed is considered to be “very long,” according to Sarah Feinberg, who served as administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) from 2015 to 2017. 

When I was FRA administrator, I was not happy with the lengths of the trains, and they were 80 or 90 cars long,” Feinberg said. “This train was 50% longer.” 

Feinberg said longer trains are more efficient for the railroad companies and its executives, but  more challenging for the crews tasked with making repairs mid-route, a job that requires walking the length of the train to identify problems. 

The employees described a system stretched to its limits.

The workers are exhausted, times for car inspections have been drastically cut, and there are no regulations on the size of these trains,” said one employee.

In East Palestine, 38 train cars derailed, causing a fire that damaged an additional 12 cars. On Sunday, Norfolk Southern gave the Environmental Protection Agency a list of train’s contents that showed 11 of the cars that derailed carried hazardous material, including known carcinogens vinyl chloride and ethylhexyl acrylate.

vinyl chloride
Health Effects

  • The primary target of vinyl chloride acute exposure is the CentralNervousSystem. Signs and symptoms include dizziness, ataxia, inebriation, fatigue, numbness and tingling of the extremities, visual disturbances, coma, and death.
  • Vinyl chloride can irritate the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. Escaping compressed gas or liquid can cause frostbite or irritation of the skin and eyes.
  • Chronic exposure can cause permanent liver injury and liver cancer, neurologic or behavioral symptoms, and changes to the skin and bones of the hand.
  • Vinyl chloride’s acute CNS effects are likely to be caused by interaction of the parent compound with neural membranes. Other effects appear to be caused by interaction of reactive intermediates with macromolecules.
Acute Exposure

Vinyl chloride is thought to depress the CNS via a solvent effect on lipids and protein components of neural membranes that interrupts signal transmission. Reactive metabolic intermediates may also cause specific target organ toxicity by covalently bonding to tissue or initiating destructive chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation. There may be a latent period of hours to days between exposure and symptom onset. Vinyl chloride is rapidly metabolized and the metabolites are eliminated in the urine.


The CNS is the primary target of vinyl chloride acute toxicity. The symptoms reported most commonly stem from the anesthetic properties of vinyl chloride; these symptoms include dizziness, ataxia, fatigue, drowsiness, headache, and loss of consciousness. With inhalation exposure, signs and symptoms increase in severity over a range of 8,000 to 20,000 ppm in air. Exposure to higher concentrations for longer durations can cause death, presumably due to CNS and respiratory depression. Sublethal CNS effects resolve quickly when the victim is removed from further exposure.


Vinyl chloride gas inhalation can cause mild respiratory tract irritation, wheezing, and chemical bronchitis. These effects are transient and resolve quickly following removal from exposure. Death may result from respiratory depression. Exposure to certain chemicals can lead to Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS), a chemically- or irritant-induced type of asthma. Children may be more vulnerable because of relatively increased minute ventilation per kg and failure to evacuate an area promptly when exposed.

Hydrocarbon pneumonitis may be a problem in children.


Vinyl chloride may lower the myocardial threshold to the dysrhythmogenic effects of catecholamines; it might predispose patients to ventricular ectopy and fibrillation. In experimental animals, exposure to vinyl chloride has led to ECG abnormalities, including ventricular ectopy, heart block, and T-wave inversions.


Exposure to escaping compressed gas or liquid can cause frostbite injury with redness, blistering, and scaling. Contact dermatitis has also been reported.


Exposure to escaping compressed gas or liquid can cause frostbite injury with corneal and conjunctival irritation or burns. High concentrations of vapor can cause eye irritation.


Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and epigastric pain have been reported with ingestion.
So it gets on the food you eat and you injest it.  Or it gets in your drinking water.


Patients exposed to significant amounts of vinyl chloride may not develop symptoms immediately and should be monitored for CNS and respiratory depression and liver and kidney damage for 24 to 48 hours.

Chronic Exposure

Prolonged absorption of vinyl chloride can induce hepatotoxicity and hepatic cancers, including angiosarcoma. Portal hypertension and cirrhosis can occur. Vinyl chloride toxicity is thought to result from the binding of reactive epoxide metabolites to hepatic DNA. Other effects of chronic exposure include sensory-motor polyneuropathy; pyramidal, extrapyramidal, and cerebellar abnormalities; neuropsychiatric symptoms such as sleep disorders, loss of libido, headaches, and irritability; EEG alterations; and immunopathologic phenomena such as purpura and thrombocytopenia. Vinyl chloride disease is a syndrome consisting of Raynaud’s phenomenon, acroosteolysis (dissolution of the bones of the terminal phalanges and sacroiliac joints), and scleroderma-like skin changes.


The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have classified vinyl chloride as a known human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride has caused angiosarcoma of the liver in heavily exposed


Vinyl chloride is included in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants, a 1991 report published by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) that lists 30 chemicals of concern because of widely acknowledged reproductive and developmental consequences. However, there is no conclusive evidence of reproductive or developmental effects in humans. A few case reports describe decreased libido or fertility in men with chronic occupational exposure, and some animal studies also support this finding. Some studies in experimental animals have reported developmental toxicity associated with high-dose exposures, but vinyl chloride is not considered a developmental toxicant.

Special consideration regarding the exposure of pregnant women is warranted, since vinyl chloride has been shown to be a genotoxin; thus, medical counseling is recommended for the acutely exposed pregnant women.

Children do not always respond to chemicals in the same way that adults do. Different protocols for managing their care may be needed. Children exposed to the same levels of vinyl chloride as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes: weight ratios. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of vinyl chloride found nearer to the ground.

There is no antidote for vinyl chloride. Treatment consists of support of respiratory and cardiovascular functions.

In aquatic organisms, 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate is acutely toxic to fish, invertebrates and algae and harmful to  invertebrates  and algae (no data in fish) upon long-term exposure. 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate is unlikely to persist in the environment since it biodegrades rapidly in sewage treatment plants.
Emergency overview
Skin contact may result in dermatitis and deep burns.
Ensure adequate ventilation.
Wear a NIOSH-certified (or equivalent) organic vapour respirator.
Wear NIOSH-certified chemical goggles.
Wear protective clothing.
Eye wash fountains and safety showers must be easily accessible.
Wear full face shield if splashing hazard exists.

The National Transportation Safety Board is currently investigating the derailment. In a statement Tuesday, the agency said it had “identified and examined the rail car that initiated the derailment,” and cited surveillance video that “showed what appears to be a wheel bearing in the final stage of overheat failure moments before the derailment.”

The derailment has shined a spotlight on Precision Schedule Railroading, or PSR, a strategy that has been widely adopted across the railroad industry and is intended to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Norfolk Southern implemented PSR in 2019.

According to a December report by the Government Accountability Office, PSR led to longer trains and an overall staff decrease of about 28% among the nation’s seven largest freight railroads, which includes Norfolk Southern.

“The railroads want to decrease costs, and as they are decreasing costs, risks are generally increasing,” Feinberg said.

PSR has led to fewer and shorter inspections of train cars, like the ones that derailed in Ohio, according to Jared Cassity, the national legislative director for one of the unions that represents Norfolk Southern workers.

“There’s a good chance the car that derailed had not been properly inspected for some time,” said Cassity, who added that the company says inspections of freight cars need to be completed in as little as 60 seconds.  “You combine that with the added length and tonnage, plus the fact that it had all this hazardous material, and this was predictable. If nothing changes, it will happen again.”

  • vinyl chloride.
  • butyl acrylate.
  • ethylhexyl acrylate.
  • ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.
  • isobutylene.

The EPA, which is investigating the release of hazardous substances, has noted the release of these chemicals into the air, surface soils and surface waters at the derailment site.

Materials have entered waterways near East Palestine, including Sulphur Run, Leslie Run, Bull Creek, North Fork Little Beaver Creek, Little Beaver Creek and the Ohio River, as well as storm drains, according to the agency. SOURCE

‘We Basically Nuked a Town’: Hazmat Specialist on Ohio Toxic Spill

Video Available on the webpage:  CLICK HERE

A hazardous materials expert has criticized the handling of the toxic chemicals spill on the border of Ohio and Pennsylvania, claiming in excoriating remarks that the town of East Palestine had been “nuked with chemicals so we could get a railroad open.”

At about 8:55 p.m. ET on February 3, a Norfolk Southern cargo train of around 150 cars derailed—20 of which were carrying hazardous materials—causing a massive fire.

Speaking to local news channel WKBN, Sil Caggiano, a former fire department battalion chief in Youngstown, Ohio, and a hazmat technician for 21 years, said: “We basically nuked a town with chemicals so we could get a railroad open.”

Officials have previously said they were removing contaminated soil from the crash site that would prevent further off-gassing of vapors into the atmosphere. Marc Glass, an environmental consultant, told Newsweek that the fact that there were multiple chemicals present may be intensifying their effects, despite being at safe levels for humans.    (Exactly,  I have said from the beginning that there are other factors they are not even mentioning and other toxic materials or materials that become toxic when burned or heated, as well as the factors of how ALL these different elements affects each other as the mix within a highly heated environment!  In short, they created a HIGHLY TOXIC SOUP which then spread through the wind and water and settled onto the land and plants, homes, furnishing, clothing and on the flesh/skin of all people in the area.)

A February 10 letter from the EPA to Norfolk Southern said that as well as vinyl chloride, butyl acrylate, ethylhexyl acrylate and ethylene glycol monobutyl were present in the environment. All are toxic substances.

Caggiano said the ethylhexyl acrylate was what he was most worried about, as he claimed it is carcinogenic; the Library of Public Medicine records say there is inadequate evidence for this, but notes that vinyl chloride is carcinogenic.

“There’s a lot of what-ifs, and we’re going to be looking at this thing 5, 10, 15, 20 years down the line and wondering, ‘Gee, cancer clusters could pop up, you know, well water could go bad,” Caggiano told WKBN.

Newsweek has contacted the Ohio Department of Health for comment.

Contaminants were found in the nearby waterway of Sulphur Run, and experts fear that chemicals could make their way into the groundwater.

DeWine admitted that he would not be drinking the water if he was in the area. “I think that I would be drinking the bottled water,” he said. “And I would be continuing to find out what the tests were showing as far as the air.”

Ohio train derailment crash site
An aerial photo taken on February 7, 2023, of the derailment site after the fire was extinguished. The EPA has found several toxic chemicals in contaminated air, soil or water surrounding the crash site.EPA


Company hired by Norfolk Southern to conduct toxicology test on train derailment chemical release accused of being a farce

This article may contain statements that reflect the opinion of the author

Image: Company hired by Norfolk Southern to conduct toxicology test on train derailment chemical release accused of being a farce

(Natural News) The private contractor that Norfolk Southern hired to test water, soil, and air quality in East Palestine, Ohio, has a sordid history of minimizing the impacts of environmental disasters in order to placate its corporate employers, sources say.

The Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health (CTEH), which is based out of Arkansas, is well known for performing toxicology monitoring within the oil and gas industry following health and safety incidents. The company dealt with a major Louisiana oil spill in 2005, for instance, as well as a toxic coal ash incident that occurred in Tennessee in 2008.

CTEH was also involved with the infamous Chinese drywall fiasco in Florida, having both in this case and in the previous aforementioned cases declared everything to be just fine which is likely what will also happen in East Palestine.

A crude oil spill during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A coal ash spill in Tennessee in 2008. The BP oil spill in 2010. In all three cases, the companies responsible for these environmental calamities turned to the same Arkansas-based consulting firm, the Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, to monitor air and water quality and workers’ chemical exposure,” reported Mother Jones back in 2019.

And each time, CTEH was later accused of mishandling data collection. And companies used CTEH’s findings to reassure people that the spilled chemicals posed little risk to public health.”

The New York Times also blasted CTEH over its handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event in 2010, calling it a classic case of the “fox guarding the chicken coop.” Democrats in Congress likewise called CTEH’s work “conflicts of interest.”

(Related: Animals are dying near the “hellish Ohio train derailment site.”)

CTEH convinced at least 340 East Palestine residents to sign away their right to sue it or Norfolk Southern for all future liabilities

One local resident of East Palestine named Katlyn Schwarzwaelder told Glenn Beck in an interview this week that a CTEH contractor told her that the company “follow[s] around the railroad when they make mistakes and they are happy to have us here.”

Schwarzwaelder further revealed that the contractor handed her a contract to sign that basically stated that she needed to not hold Norfolk and its affiliates, including CTEH, liable for any future problems that may arise from the “controlled explosion.”

“I didn’t sign it, but unfortunately, 340 other residents did sign it,” Schwarzwaelder said.

“That’s where my heart just breaks for these people because we don’t know the long-term repercussions of what these chemicals can do in our air to our environment to our businesses and they’ve signed their rights away in the hopes that they are getting help and the right answers from these organizations.”

Pennsylvania Gov. Josh Shapiro also had a few things to say to Norfolk about its “vent and burn” plan for the derailed train. He said the railway gave “inaccurate information and conflicting modeling about the impact of the controlled release that made protective action decision making more difficult in the immediate aftermath of the derailment.”

Norfolk Southern response personnel improperly planned tactical response operations without adequate input from elected officials, local response organizations, or state agencies, resulting in a single plan of action to vent and burn all five cars without allowing for input from Pennsylvania emergency management leaders,” the Democrat further wrote in a scathing letter.

Norfolk Southern failed to explore all potential courses of action, including some that may have kept the rail line closed longer but could have resulted in a safer overall approach for first responders, residents, and the environment.”

The latest news about the incident in East Palestine can be found at Disaster.news.


This Consulting Firm Was at the Center of Katrina and the BP Spill. Now It’s Under Fire Again.

The Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health is no stranger to controversy.

Elizabeth Conley/Houston Chronicle via AP

This story was originally published by Grist. It appears here as part of the Climate Desk collaboration.

This story has been updated with one correction and to clarify some of the nature of past accusations made against the Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, as well as to incorporate responses from the company.

A crude oil spill during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A coal ash spill in Tennessee in 2008. The BP oil spill in 2010.

In all three cases, the companies responsible for these environmental calamities turned to the same Arkansas-based consulting firm, the Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, to monitor air and water quality and workers’ chemical exposure.

And each time, CTEH was later accused of mishandling data collection. And companies used CTEH’s findings to reassure people that the spilled chemicals posed little risk to public health.

This week, a fire at International Terminals Company’s chemical storage facility outside Houston, blanketed the country’s fourth-largest city in a cloud of smoke. Multiple school districts in the area cancelled classes.

Once again, CTEH got the call to provide air quality monitoring.

Author: Michelle Homer, Levi Ismail Published: 12:51 PM CDT March 22, 2019 Updated: 11:16 PM CDT March 22, 2019 Facebook Twitter Editor’s note: The ITC tank farm was burning again Friday afternoon. ITC doesn’t know yet which tanks are on fire. More on the fire here. DEER PARK, Texas – A dike wall containing a chemical or chemicals released during the ITC tank farm fire has partially collapsed, according to the Deer Park Office of Emergency Management. Watch the Video HEREThe fire at ITC’s facility reignited late Friday afternoon after a dike wall used to contain chemicals partially collapsed, renewing concerns about air quality. According to initial reports, the company released 9 million pounds of pollutants in just the first day of the fire. On Thursday, the city of Deer Park, home to the facility, issued a shelter-in-place advisory after benzene levels spiked overnight. Long-term benzene exposure can cause anemia, lead to cancer, and damage women’s reproductive health.

Earlier in the week, ITC had said that its air quality testing data showed conditions “below levels” that would raise health concerns, even as residents near the fire complained of nosebleeds, headaches, and irritated throats. The statement prompted Deer Park to lift an earlier shelter-in-place advisory.

Elena Craft, senior director for climate and health at Environmental Defense Fund, said CTEH was a “concerning choice” as a consultant “given their history.” ITC has posted nine air quality monitoring reports produced by CTEH on its website since the Deer Park fire began and Craft, a toxicologist by training, said that at least one contained “clear, obvious errors.” Craft characterized CTEH’s work in putting together the reports as “a sloppy job.”

In that report, issued on March 18, CTEH said it used two types of instruments with different detection limits to measure benzene levels. The company initially collected just six samples with the instrument that had a lower detection limit—meaning it could pick up lower levels of airborne benzene. CTEH later said that figure was a typo and that it had collected more than 60 samples with the more sensitive instrument and didn’t detect benzene. The company also updated its reports to reflect the correct detection limit after being contacted by Grist.

In a written statement to Grist, Phil Goad, CTEH’s founder, said that in its more than 20 years in business “CTEH has never been cited for inaccurate or misleading data.” The company’s “top priority is, and will continue to be, to safeguard public health,” he said, adding its air quality-monitoring plans in Houston have been approved by the Environmental Protection Agency and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

In the last two decades, CTEH has come under fire for its work in high-profile environmental contamination cases across the country. In 2005, a storage tank at a Murphy Oil refinery in Louisiana released more than 25,000 barrels of crude oil into floodwaters, affecting roughly 1,700 homes in the New Orleans suburb of Chalmette.

Murphy Oil spill in Chalmette Louisiana. Over 1 million gallons released into residential neighborhoods due to hurricane damage to crude oil storage tanks.

Murphy Oil hired CTEH to conduct soil testing. In guidelines issued in the aftermath of the hurricane, the EPA required contractors testing soil to take “grab samples.” A news article and an environmental group reported that CTEH had instead collected “composite” samples.* A report submitted two years later by an EPA contractor noted that the company had used both sampling methods.

CTEH, for its part, maintains that it followed a work plan approved by state and federal regulators. Murphy Oil then used CTEH’s test results to persuade residents not to sue the company.

How the Kingston coal ash spill unearthed a nuclear nightmare.  Great reporting check it out!

In 2008, the Tennessee Valley Authority hired the consulting firm after coal ash from its Kingston Fossil plant in Roane County, Tennessee, spilled into the Emory River. A 2010 EPA audit, without naming contractors TVA hired to conduct air monitoring, later found that the methods used to survey air quality “failed to meet quality assurance standards.” CTEH says that the findings have been “falsely attributed” to the company and that it worked with TVA only on a “short-term, emergency contract.”

Two years later, BP hired the company to serve as the primary monitor for its offshore workers, collecting health and chemical exposure data in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon spill. Two lawmakers urged BP to stop working with CTEH, a company that they said had “a long history of questionable practices” and “of releasing findings defending the corporate interests that employ them.”

CTEH is not the only entity collecting air quality data around the Deer Park fire. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Environmental Protection Agency, and Houston’s own Harris County have all deployed air monitors to survey pollution levels. The US Chemical Safety Board, an investigatory body that doesn’t have the authority to fine or regulate companies, is also looking into the cause of the fire.

Correction: An earlier version of this article suggested that CTEH intentionally ignored EPA guidelines for soil testing at the Murphy Oil site in 2005. The piece has been updated to reflect that there appear to be discrepancies between what the EPA recommended and the testing CTEH performed.

Published: Feb. 24, 2023 at 1:54 PM CST
EAST PALESTINE, Ohio (WOIO) – A recent Texas A&M and Carnegie Mellon study in East Palestine is bringing good news and bad news. The study, which has tested air quality following the train derailment, has shown some carcinogens are seeing reduced levels, while others are approaching levels that could be of health concern.

The study compared samples from North Carolina after Hurricane Florence in 2018 and samples from the East Palestine train derailment in February of 2023. The comparisons showed that BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) levels are considered normal. Those chemicals are considered volatile and are typically associated with petroleum products.

Unfortunately, the study also showed that nine out of approximately 50 reporting chemicals from the EPA are higher than normal. Texas A&M went on to explain that “if these levels continue, they may be of health concern (especially acrolein).”

DANGEROUS FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD. * Acrolein is a DOT Poison Inhalation Hazard (PIH). IDENTIFICATION Acrolein is a colorless or yellowish liquid with a piercing, disagreeable odor that causes tearing. It is used in making plastics, drugs and tear gas.
On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune dysfunction. Source

Acute Health Effects
The following acute (short-term) health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to Acrolein:
* Contact can severely irritate and burn the skin and eyes with possible eye damage.
* Breathing Acrolein can irritate the nose and throat.
* Exposure to Acrolein can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, headache, and passing out. Higher concentrations can cause unconsciousness and death.
* Breathing Acrolein can irritate the lungs causing coughing and/or shortness of breath. Higher exposures can cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency, with severe shortness of breath.
Chronic Health Effects
The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Acrolein and can last for months or years:
Cancer Hazard
* Acrolein may cause mutations (genetic changes). Whether or not it poses a cancer hazard needs further study.
* Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen.
Reproductive Hazard
* There is limited evidence that Acrolein is a teratogen in animals. Until further testing has been done, it should be
treated as a possible teratogen in humans.
Other Long-Term Effects
* Permanent lung damage may occur after a high exposure or repeated lower exposures.

More analysis is expected to be done over the next few weeks, where the study will look into two main questions:Are there other chemicals in the air that EPA isn’t monitoring? What about locations were EPA doesn’t have a monitor?”

Federal teams are going door-to-door to check in with residents of East Palestine, Ohio, and conducting health surveys as part of the federal government’s response to the toxic train derailment that has fueled anxiety about the safety of the air and water in the town, according to a White House official.

The teams are providing informational flyers with federal and local resources and completing the surveys after President Joe Biden directed the move, according to the official.

This latest step comes as frustrated locals in East Palestine complain about feeling sick and raise long-term health concerns after the Norfolk Southern train wreck earlier this month caused toxic chemicals to seep into the water, air and soil.

The two-page flyer, obtained first by CNN, includes emergency resources for residents as well as details on how to schedule a free health assessment or arrange testing for a private well or drinking water. It also includes the number of a dedicated poison control hotline for questions related to the train derailment, and details on the next federal US Environmental Protection Agency-led public meeting at 6 p.m. March 2 in the Palestine High School Auditorium.

The flyers are being handed out by members of the EPA, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the (CDC) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with the goal of reaching 400 homes by Monday, according to the White House official. The health surveys are being conducted by the CDC.  (sounds like a sampling size for a study to me. DATA gathering.)

Biden on Friday directed agencies to go door-to-door to check in with residents after he received an update on the federal government’s response to the derailment from senior officials, including Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg, Health and Human Services Secretary Xavier Becerra and the heads of the EPA and FEMA, according to the official.

The President currently has no plans to visit Ohio and on Friday defended his administration’s response to the crisis, which has drawn criticism from Republicans, including East Palestine Mayor Trent Conaway, who told Fox News earlier this week that Biden’s decision to visit Ukraine while the situation was unfolding in Ohio was “the biggest slap in the face, that tells you right now he doesn’t care about us.

™ & © 2023 Cable News Network, Inc., a Warner Bros. Discovery Company. All rights reserved.


East Palestine Makeshift Clinic Booked Solid As Resident Symptoms Persist

Officials assure residents that tests prove it’s safe. But locals complain of everything from headaches, respiratory problems and rashes to pain in their teeth.


EAST PALESTINE, OHIO — Residents suffering ailments in the aftermath of the recent train derailment here came to a makeshift clinic Tuesday with their symptoms, stories, and, perhaps more pointedly, their frustrations.

   It’s been three weeks since the derailment resulted in a massive toxic spill and a faint chemical smell still fills the air. Local hospitals and clinics have treated hundreds of people for a wide range of ailments associated with the spill, including headache, respiratory problems, eye irritation, rashes, and dizziness.

In response to residents’ increasing frustration over their chase for straight answers, Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine called for a new Health Assessment Clinic, which opened Tuesday at a downtown church.

   The first patient (noon sharp, appointment only) was Matthew Stokes, 43, a welder for CeramFab, a manufacturing company overlooking the train tracks. He was there for the initial clean-up effort, when, “they took one scoop of dirt, and the senior maintenance guy [with me] had to take a knee. I had to grab hold of something. I can’t explain it. I’ve never been exposed to toxic stuff.”

   His symptoms are typical, but he added, “Even my teeth hurt. I can’t breathe. I got the shit in me.”

   He’s fortunate to live out of town, but like many residents here, he’s also trying to return to normalcy, with schools and businesses recently reopened. But normalcy for him just got a new definition. On Friday, he came home to learn that his wife is pregnant. He worries not only about today, but a decade from now. “It’s in the air. You can’t fight what you can’t see.”

   He was told to carefully monitor his symptoms.

Even as people share stories with each other about physical symptoms that just won’t subside, officials’ have assured residents that the land, air and water around the small eastern Ohio town of East Palestine have passed safety testing.

   But patients have run out of patience. The clinic’s schedule was booked solid today.

  “The goal of our clinic is to help residents navigate their health concerns,” Columbiana County Health District spokeswoman Laura Fauss said Tuesday, nearing the end of day one. “We are planning to hold this clinic through Saturday with an option to extend into next week and beyond if necessary.”

   Local, state and federal officials, meanwhile, are growing frustrated with railroad officials.

   “Let me be clear,” Environmental Protection Agency administrator, Michael S. Regan, said in the statement released Tuesday. “Norfolk Southern will pay for cleaning up the mess they created and for the trauma they’ve inflicted on this community.” He visited here last week.

   No one was immediately injured after the train derailment and in the controlled release of the liver cancer-causing chemical called vinyl chloride, which produced an ominous plume of dark gray smoke that lasted days and drew gasps across the US. Railroad officials said the vent-and-burn was done to avert a more catastrophic explosion, which could have sent shrapnel flying over a mile radius.  (How dare they claim that no one was injured.  Hundreds of people are suffering who were perfectly healthy prior to the incident.  Not only that, many of the symptoms will not show up for years)_

   The spill that prompted a days-long public evacuation killed about 3,500 small fish across seven and a half miles of streams. Many residents live along those streams. Pets also have been affected with skin and respiratory issues. Long-term effects are, for now, unknowable.

  This much is known: Toxic chemicals have reached the Ohio River. The Ohio spans nearly 1,000 miles from Pittsburgh to St. Louis, providing drinking water for more than five million people, according to the Ohio River Foundation, a suburban Cincinnati non-profit organization. The EPA says, though, the chemicals in the river have sufficiently dissipated to make it safe.

Residents here are most worried about the effects reaching their kitchens and living rooms. Particularly when it comes to their children.

   “It was definitely scary, for sure,” said Logan Gruber, taking a brief break from hitting groundballs to his 10-year-old daughter, Layla, on Sunday at East Palestine Park not far from the derailment.

   “Honestly,” he said, “the worst part was worrying about the kids, how they’re going to handle it. Right now everything seems fine.”

   Asked if he had faith that his hope would endure, he said, not much. That’s a strong undercurrent here in East Palestine.

   “In 20 years, who knows what’s going to happen?” he said, hitting a hard grounder to shortstop that Layla fielded cleanly. “This stuff is all in the creeks and streams, and it’s going to leach down [into the soil] over time.

   Those perceptions bring great challenge to officials like Ohio Department of Health Director Bruce Vanderhoff, MD. He is, in a sense, swimming upstream.

     The clinic, set up at First Church of Christ, is staffed by registered nurses and mental-health specialists. A toxicologist is available either on site or by phone.

   The clinic lives up to its name of health assessment. It is essentially triage.

   Ted Murphy was hopeful to get some mental-health care. When the spill occurred, he called his elderly mother, Darlene, who lives on East Market Street, about 75 yards from the spill.

   “I looked out and there was all this fire,” she recalled, waiting outside the clinic for her son, who was being seen. “I called my son back and said you better come home.”

   Her symptoms of a headache, raspy throat, and dry eyes are relatively minor. She stayed inside throughout the chaotic days that followed prior to the evacuation. She said she is OK and mainly kept the appointment to appease Ted and his sister. Clinic workers told her to keep in touch.

   Soon, her son emerged. Symptoms: Sinus trouble, sore throat, and emotional distress, partly owing to concern for his mother.

   “An evaluation was all that was, to see where your mental status is at and everything,” he said. “There was no [physical] testing.

   He grew more frustrated as he spoke, his voice straining.

   “I’m an emotional damn wreck,” he said, “stressed out.

   He is not alone.


As reports of health problems near a toxic train wreck pile up, Ohio sets up a clinic while federal help gets into gear

Updated 4:43 PM EST, Mon February 20, 2023

Dams installed to help restrict contaminated water

While some waterways in the area were contaminated – killing thousands of fish downstream – officials have said they believe those contaminants to be contained.

After crews discovered the contaminated runoff on two surface water streams, Sulphur Run and Leslie Run, Norfolk Southern installed booms and dams to restrict the flow of contaminated water, the EPA said.

Despite assurances from officials that the water is safe, Walker said she won’t let her children drink tap water.

“There’s a big concern because they’re young. They’ve got their whole life ahead of them,” Walker told CNN affiliate WOIO. “I don’t want this to impact them down the road. I want them to have a long, happy life.”


Kelly Weill

·9 min read

Photo Illustration by Thomas Levinson/The Daily Beast/Reuters/Jud McCranie/Wikimedia Commons
Photo Illustration by Thomas Levinson/The Daily Beast/Reuters/Jud McCranie/Wikimedia Commons

The railroad company behind a disastrous derailment in Ohio is a financial backer of a controversial police training facility in Georgia that has drawn protests from environmental groups.

Norfolk Southern gave $100,000 to a campaign to build a police facility (dubbed “Cop City”) in an Atlanta forest, financial documents show. As residents of East Palestine, Ohio grapple with financial fallout from the derailment, activists in Atlanta are drawing comparisons between the two environmental battles.

“I didn’t experience first-hand what happened in East Palestine, and people there will not necessarily experience, first-hand, the tearing down of this forest,” an Atlanta activist told The Daily Beast. “But these are inextricably tied together. They’re part of the same system. We face the same consequences to our lives and our loved ones.”

In early November, three months before the derailment in East Palestine, another set of Norfolk Southern vehicles sat ablaze. But this fire, which damaged three construction vehicles in Atlanta, was a deliberate act of arson, according to activists who took credit for the fire.

“This excavator belonged to Norfolk Southern, a supporter of the proposed Cop City Project in ATL,” the self-proclaimed perpetrators announced on a blog that month. “It was decommissioned by fire. Fire heals all. Fuck northfolk southern railways.”

The saboteurs had turned to arson after a protracted standoff with Atlanta officials. Since April 2021, when Atlanta announced plans for a $90 million, 85-acre police-training facility in the South River Forest, residents have expressed environmental concerns about the planned deforestation.

Protesters near the planned site of a controversial “Cop City” project, in Atlanta. Cheney Orr

The city’s tree canopy, which is the most extensive of any metropolitan area in the United States and a city treasure, is our best hope for resilience against the worst impacts of climate change,” read an August 2021 letter by the Sierra Club’s Georgia chapter and 15 other groups that protested the development for environmental reasons.

The open letter didn’t prevent the project from moving forward. Neither did hours of pushback in public hearings, legal challenges under the Clean Water Act, or protests against Cop City’s sponsors—a long list of foundations and corporations including Norfolk Southern. A 2022 financial report from the Atlanta Police Foundation, which is overseeing the project, shows a $100,000 donation from Norfolk Southern.

It’s unclear when Norfolk Southern made the donation. Neither the APF nor the railroad company commented on the six-figure contribution.

Norfolk Southern is headquartered in Atlanta. But while arsonists burned three Norfolk Southern construction vehicles in November, the railroad company was engaged in a more nationwide fight.

In late 2022, railroad workers threatened to go on strike, demanding paid sick days and a better scheduling model. Financial records reveal that Norfolk Southern spent at least  $70,000  lobbying Congress to avoid a strike.

The then-looming threat of a railroad worker walk-off prompted columnists and historians to revisit the history of U.S. rail strikes, which have seen bloody alliances between rail companies and law enforcement. “In multiple cities, armed company guards opened fire on striking workers, killing several and escalating the conflict even more,” the New York Times wrote in September of a notorious 1922 rail strike. “Governors in several states called out the National Guard to assist strikebreakers.”

The 2022 labor dispute, however, ended bloodlessly, with President Joe Biden signing a deal that blocked a strike but did not award sick leave. Many of the workers’ key complaints remain unresolved, labor leaders say.

After the crash in East Palestine, railroad unions were quick to point to issues like understaffed crews and cuts to maintenance teams. At the time of the crash, the Norfolk Southern train had a crew of two full staffers and one trainee, Fritz Edler, a special safety representative for the Railroad Workers Union, told The Daily Beast.

“That’s the very minimum [to operate safely] depending on what’s in the train,” Edler said. If one crew member is operating the locomotive, and the crew needs to take measures like splitting cars, “a single person can’t do it, even though the industry keeps pushing for that.”

Norfolk Southern repeatedly lobbied last year against legislation that would require at least two crew members on freight locomotives. Edler also said railroad companies have cut back on maintenance, which might have otherwise detected the broken axle that’s being eyed as the cause of the East Palestine crash.

It’s a hedge fund method of organizing the Class I railroads exclusively around lowering the operating ratio,” Edler said. Rail companies “do whatever they can do to show Wall Street that they’ve lowered their operating ratio. A lot of times that means getting rid of people or selling off equipment, deferring maintenance, things of that sort.”

Sean Wolters, an activist who lives near the planned Cop City site, connected Norfolk Southern’s lobbying expenses to its donation to the police training facility.

Norfolk Southern has worked very hard to reduce the power that their workers have; the power to go on strike or have sick days,” Wolters told The Daily Beast. “They’ve been trying to maximize profits, to please shareholders on Wall Street, to the detriment of their own workforce. In order to ensure that this kind of discipline of the workforce can be enforced, you need a workforce.”

The apparent money-cutting methods, from a rail company that posted record revenue numbers and paid its CEO more than $4 million last year, rubbed some East Palestine residents the wrong way after a Norfolk Southern train derailed there this month, leading to the release of carcinogenic chemicals such as vinyl chloride.

Following the derailment, Norfolk Southern announced financial aid for nearby families, including $1,000 checks for residents of the 44413 zip code, where East Palestine is located. A Norfolk Southern spokesperson told The Daily Beast that the railroad had distributed “over $2.2 million in direct financial assistance to more than 1,530 families and a number of businesses to cover costs related to the evacuation. Those include reimbursements and cash advancements for lodging, travel, food, clothes, and other related items.”

But some residents say the funds pale beside what they anticipate to be long-term expenses. East Palestine resident Nathen Velez who lives and works near the train tracks was one of the derailment’s first witnesses. Velez and his family have spent approximately $3,000 on Airbnbs since the National Guard evacuated residents earlier this month, Velez’s friend Ty Boor told The Daily Beast. (Boor has been running an online fundraiser to cover the Velez’s expenses. In a description for the fundraiser, which has raised $6,600, he lambasts Norfolk Southern for its profits and its cost-cutting measures.)

The Velez family and other locals are considering leaving East Palestine, Boor said. But the family worries that the derailment two streets from their house has caused their home value to crater, making the mortgage “south of value-less,” Boor said.

Regulatory bodies like the Environmental Protection Agency have begun testing air and water around the derailment site, with varying results, most of them showing chemical readings within safe levels. Still, experts have urged bottled water and caution as testing continues.

“Nobody trusts that,” Boor said of some initial testing, citing the huge number of fish found dead in local streams, which authorities have attributed to the chemical leak. “The fish are belly-up. They almost look like they have chemical burns on them—nobody’s fooled in this town.”

In East Palestine and Atlanta, demands for answers have led to tense encounters with the law.

While covering a news conference days after the East Palestine derailment, NewsNation reporter Evan Lambert was arrested during a live news shot. Police told Lambert that he was “out of line for talking when the governor was talking” the New York Times reported. They made Lambert lay on the ground, where they handcuffed and arrested him for criminal trespass and resisting arrest. His charges were later dropped.

In Atlanta, meanwhile, protests against Cop City have ended in terror charges and one activist’s death. Since the domestic terrorism charges were handed down in December and January, legal experts have expressed concerns that the charges were apolitically motivated overreach, intended to quash unruly protests (like the burning of Norfolk Southern construction vehicles). 

“When I saw the experience of people in East Palestine, trying to ask for justice, to be done right by this company that poisoned them, and having my own experiences with poisoned water, I felt their pain,” May told The Daily Beast. “The company refused to see them face-on.”

Though separated by hundreds of miles, East Palestine and Atlanta are connected—as is every town “where we might face a derailment like this,” she said.


2 million gallons of toxic water.

Deer Park waste disposal company will house toxic wastewater from Ohio train derailment, TCEQ says

Mycah Hatfield Image
Wednesday, February 22, 2023 10:00PM
Deer Park will house liquid waste from Ohio train derailment: TCEQ

Deer Park-area residents are concerned after learning the remnants of the chemicals spilled from the Ohio train derailment will be stored and disposed in the area.

DEER PARK, Texas (KTRK) — As clean up continues from the train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, a private company in the Houston area has agreed to store and dispose the toxic liquids.

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) told ABC13 in an email that Texas Molecular in Deer Park is receiving the liquid waste for storage and disposal.

“TM Deer Park is authorized to accept and manage a variety of waste streams, including vinyl chloride, as part of their RCRA hazardous waste permit and underground injection control permit,” a spokesperson for the agency said.

Several of the train cars that crashed were carrying vinyl chloride, which erupted into a massive blaze, ABC News reported.

“It’s an organic compound, and it’s very, very toxic,” Dr. George Guillen, the executive director of the Environmental Institute of Houston, said. “You certainly wouldn’t want to get it in your system.”

Texas Molecular’s website reads that they provide “responsible and safe treatment and disposal solutions for even those most challenging industrial hazardous aqueous waste and wastewaters.”

The private company specializes in deep well injection, which allows them to inject the hazardous waste thousands of feet into the ground for disposal.

Guillen, who also serves as a biology and environmental science professor at the University of Houston-Clear Lake, said that is a common practice, and there should be minimal health risks to Deer Park residents.

“This injection, in some cases, is usually 4,000 or 5,000 feet down below any kind of drinking water aquifer,” he said. “Could it come up some day? Yes, maybe, but hundreds of years from now or thousands of years from now.”

Guillen said the risk lies in the transport of the chemicals for more than 1,300 miles from East Palestine to Deer Park.

SEE ALSO: Video of Ohio train derailment shows wheel bearing in ‘final stage of overheat failure,’ NTSB says

Deer Park resident Tammy Baxter has a similar concern. She first heard that the waste may be transported to the city she lives in from a video circulating on social media.

“It was a TikTok where they were calling out for truckers,” Baxter explained. “The rumor behind the call for truckers was that this was what they were transporting. I made a call to the mayor’s office in Deer Park.”

Baxter said she expected a return phone call dispelling the rumor. Instead, it was confirmed.

“I am disturbed,” Baxter said. “I am shook by the information.”

SEE ALSO: Ohio train derailment aftermath: How worried should people be about hazardous chemicals?

Both Guillen and Baxter brought up the possibility of a crash during the transport that could cause another hazardous situation.

“There has to be a closer deep well injection,” Baxter explained. “It’s foolish to put it on the roadway. We have accidents on a regular basis. Do they really want to have another contamination zone? It is silly to move it that far.”

When asked for comment, Texas Molecular told ABC13, “We communicate directly with our stakeholders including the City of Deer Park, The Deer Park Citizens Advisory Council, the Deer Park Local Emergency Committee, our employees, the TCEQ, the EPA, and local elected officials.”

ABC13 also reached out to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to find out exactly what chemicals were being transported and when but has not heard back.

For more on this story, follow Mycah Hatfield on FacebookTwitter and Instagram.



The next disaster to take place in another Red State… Toxic wastewater from Ohio train derailment headed to Texas

Toxic wastewater from Ohio train derailment headed to Texas
Toxic wastewater from East palestine train derailment headed to Texas

Toxic wastewater used to extinguish a fire following a train derailment in Ohio is headed to a Houston suburb for disposal.

“I and my office heard today that ‘firefighting water’ from the East Palestine, Ohio, train derailment is slated to be disposed of in our county,” Harris County Judge Lina Hidalgo said in a Wednesday statement.

“Our Harris County Pollution Control Department and Harris County Attorney’s have reached out to the company and the Environmental Protection Agency to receive more information,” Hidalgo wrote.


Lina Hidalgo
I heard the news today about East Palestine “firefighting water” being sent to Harris County and will continue pushing for information for our community.
Toxic wastewater from Ohio train derailment headed to Texas
Toxic wastewater from Ohio train derailment headed to Texas. via Twitter

The wastewater is being sent to Texas Molecular, which injects hazardous waste into the ground for disposal.

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality told KTRK-TV that Texas Molecular is authorized to accept and manage a variety of waste streams, including vinyl chloride, as part of their … hazardous waste permit and underground injection control permit.
Is the TCEQ implying that whoever is shipping this waste to Texas Molecular is not required to notify anyone, get any kind of permissions or authorization to carry that waste across the country and deposit it at Deer Park without any warning or clearance??

The company told KHOU-TV it is experienced in managing this type of disposal.

Our technology safely removes hazardous constituents from the biosphere. We are part of the solution to reduce risk and protect the environment, whether in our local area or other places that need the capabilities we offer to protect the environment,” the company said.
Whose solution?  Who authorized them?  Where do they get their authority?

The fiery Feb. 3 derailment in Ohio prompted evacuations when toxic chemicals were burned after being released from five derailed tanker rail cars carrying vinyl choride that were in danger of exploding.

It’s … very, very toxic,” Dr. George Guillen, the executive director of the Environmental Institute of Houston, said, but the risk to the public is minimal.
How does that make any sense?  How can they be” very, very toxic” and yet pose little or no threat to the public?

This injection, in some cases, is usually 4,000 or 5,000 feet down below any kind of drinking water aquifer,” said Guillen, who is also a professor of biology and environmental science at the University of Houston-Clear Lake.

Listen to Harris County Judge Lina Hidalgo speaking on the Deer Park company being contracted to dispose of wastewater from an Ohio train derailment:

FULL NEWS CONFERENCE: County Judge says wastewater from Ohio derailment

Both Guillen and Deer Park resident Tammy Baxter said their greatest concerns are transporting the chemicals more than 1,300 miles (2,090 kilometers) from East Palestine, Ohio; to Deer Park, Texas.

There has to be a closer deep well injection,” Baxter told KTRK. “It’s foolish to put it on the roadway. We have accidents on a regular basis … It is silly to move it that far.

Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg, who visited the derailment site Thursday, has warned the railroad responsible for the derailment, Norfolk Southern, to fulfill its promises to clean up the mess just outside East Palestine, Ohio, and help the town recover.

Buttigieg has also announced a package of reforms intended to improve rail safety while regulators try to strengthen safety rules. [APNews]


TEXANS have been raising concerns about chemical plants and chemical accidents, and chemical shipments for years.  Especially in relation to Deer Park.


On Sunday, June 22, 1997, at approximately 10:07 a.m. Central Daylight Time, a violent explosion and large fire occurred at the Shell Chemical Company plant in Deer Park, Texas. The explosion was felt and heard over ten miles away, and the ensuing fire burned for approximately 10 hours. As a result of the explosion and fire, extensive damage
On January 22, 2014 The chemical was reported to be Mercaptan was released into the air out of a rail car in the Lubrizol Corporation plant in Deer ParkTexas. Cases At Shell’s Deer Park Refinery. There have been several serious accidents at the Deer Park refinery. , there was a fire at Shell’s Deer Park. In November 2010, a fire at Shell …
These Texans Are Sick of Chemical Fires and Toxic Spills in Their Backyard
A community along the Houston Ship Channel ramps up its fight against heavy industry and lax oversight after another petrochemical factory blaze closes local schools and causes a spike in respiratory illness.

Investigation: Why nearly a dozen tankers bring cancer-causing chemicals to the Houston Area from NC each monty… – KPRC 


Texas Molecular/Deer Park, TEXAS  is a Class1 Deep Well. Since 2017

 To view the video on the website: CLICK HERE

DEER PARK, Texas – In picturesque North Carolina, along the seemingly pristine Cape Fear River, a chemical company called Chemours was caught discharging an industrial byproduct called GenX and it showed up in the drinking water.

Now, that chemical is being brought to Texas from North Carolina. KPRC 2 Investigates looked into why it’s being brought here and what’s being done with the chemical once it arrives.

Toxics in Chemical Corridor Communities Affect Families for Generations

BATTLEGROUND PLANT by  JULY 30, 2021, 8:00 AM, CDT  In Deer Park and other chemical corridor communities, the slow seepage of toxics can affect families like mine for generations.

Jun 27, 2022
When the United States went through the Industrial Revolution, its citizens and factory owners had no idea the magnitude of change it would bring. New products, new ways of using and producing energy, and major technological advancements took the country and the world by storm. With the increased demand for energy, power plants and chemical plants were quickly constructed and required to work hard. To meet quotas, these plants often cut corners and put their workers at risk. This led to terrible chemical plant disasters.

Over the past three years, Texas has seen its fair share of chemical plant disasters which have led to a significant loss of life, horrific damages, and serious injuries.

Why Is It Important That We Recognize These Explosions?

Chemical plant explosions, unlike other work injuries, not only affect the employees but also the surrounding areas/communities. The United States has the highest number of deaths and injuries caused by plant explosions. With temperatures reaching well over 1,000 degrees during an explosion, the threat of severe injury and loss of life is serious and spreads to more than just the employees working at the plant. Because of the risk and threat to human life, it is important to study these events so that individuals can be on the lookout for injuries or illnesses that may be caused by such an event. Understanding these can help you get the compensation you deserve should a similar event ever occur in your area.

February 23, 2023 There was a fire at the Pemex refinery in Deer ParkTexas.  The fire occurred at Pemex’s distillation unit. Reports indicate the refinery was shutdown Thursday night as a result. It is unclear if anyone was injured in this incident. There have been a number of incidents at industrial and manufacturing plants.
Apparently Texas is not the only place where they are shipping their toxic waste:

Story by Patty Coller • Thursday, February 23, 2023

DEER PARK, Texas (AP) – Toxic wastewater used to extinguish the fire following the train derailment in East Palestine is headed to a Houston suburb for disposal, according to the Associated Press. Most of the contaminated soil is going to Michigan.

Texas and Michigan getting toxic waste and contaminated soil from East Palestine

Texas and Michigan getting toxic waste and contaminated soil from East Palestine© Provided by WKBN Youngstown

The wastewater is being sent to Texas Molecular, which injects hazardous waste into the ground for disposal.

Norfolk Southern to dig up soil, replace tracks in East Palestine



In addition, Ohio EPA said that the process to remove the contaminated soil from the site of the derailment began Thursday.

Under the direction of the Ohio EPA, Norfolk Southern brought in large dump trucks to move contaminated soil to U.S. Ecology Wayne Disposal, a licensed hazardous waste disposal facility in Michigan. This will be a continuous effort to properly manage and safely dispose of the waste.

So far, 4,832 cubic yards of soil have been excavated from the ground and more may be removed as cleanup proceeds. When the process begins to dig up the tracks and remove the soil underneath, that soil will be hauled away immediately and taken to a proper disposal facility.

A total of 1,715,433 gallons of contaminated liquid have also been removed from the immediate site of the derailment. Of this, 1,133,933 gallons have been hauled off-site, with most going to Texas Molecular. A smaller amount of waste has been directed to Vickery Environmental in Vickery, Ohio.

Copyright 2023 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.



Texas and Michigan officials say they didn’t know water, soil from Ohio train wreck would be transported into their jurisdictions

 Soil from the train wreck in East Palestine, Ohio, being collected for disposal.

The federal Environmental Protection Agency has ordered Norfolk Southern to stop its shipments of hazardous waste from the site of the train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, so that it can review the company’s plans for disposal.

Officials in Texas and Michigan are complaining they didn’t receive any warning that contaminated water and soil from the train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, would be shipped into their jurisdictions for disposal.

About 2 million gallons of firefighting water from the train derailment site were expected to be disposed in Harris County, Texas, with about half a million gallons already there, according to the county’s chief executive.

It’s a very real problem, we were told yesterday the materials were coming only to learn today they’ve been here for a week,” Judge Lina Hidalgo said Thursday.

Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine was not briefed on where in the country the shipments would be sent, his spokesperson told CNN. But this is typical, as the train company is responsible for the transport of material and the EPA is responsible for regulating that transport, Daniel Tierney said.

SO, WHEN DID  STATES and LOCAL GOVERNEMENTS surrender all their rights to the EPA or any other agency?  Local and State governments are responsible for the well being and peace of mind of their constituents.  Yes, the gove agencies  set up to watch over processes and assure these things are handled properly, but when it comes to making decisions about how to address emergency situation like accidents, local and state governments should be the ones to make the decisions.  Communication all along the line should be forthcoming.  EVERY State the toxic waste has to pass through should be given a heads up and an opportunity to deny access.  But, most especially the states and localities that will be the final destination should be fully aware and given the right to refuse. 

EPA will ensure that all waste is disposed of in a safe and lawful manner at EPA-certified facilities to prevent further release of hazardous substances and impacts to communities,” the department said in a statement to CNN on Saturday.

Three weeks after the derailment, the area surrounding the site is “definitely looking better,” EPA Director Anne Vogel said Saturday.

Federal agencies have begun transitioning from an initial emergency response phase to a remediation phase, the director said. Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention personnel have also arrived to assist with the cleanup and to address community concerns.

Vogel said the EPA has installed “sentinel wells” near the city’s municipal well field to monitor contaminants in well water as part of the agency’s long-term early detection system “to protect the city for years to come.”

EPA Regional Administrator Debra Shore said Saturday during a press conference the agency has decades of experience dealing with hazardous waste, both in cleaning up contaminated sites and in regulating the landfills where waste is disposed.

Until Friday, Norfolk Southern “had been solely responsible for the disposal of waste generated by the East Palestine train derailment,” the department said, but waste disposal plans “will be subject to EPA review and approval moving forward.”

CNN has reached out to Norfolk Southern for comment.

Contaminated soil from the derailment site was being taken to the US Ecology Wayne Disposal in Belleville, Michigan, US Rep. Debbie Dingell of Michigan said Friday.

She told CNN’s Fredricka Whitfield on Saturday that neither she nor Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer were aware of plans for toxic waste to be delivered to disposal sites in her district.

“I called everybody,” Dingell said, “Nobody had really been given a heads up that they were coming here.”

Now, you have to understand that this is NOT NORMAL PROCEDURE!  If this were “NORMAL” procedure, no one would have been surprised… NONE of these officials were notified and they have been VERY VOCAL about the fact that they were not contacted in advance!

Dingell represents Michigan’s sixth congressional district which is home to two waste disposal sites.

When I learned of this yesterday, the first call that I got, I immediately called the governor’s office, assuming that they would know about it,” she said. ”What quickly became evident is that none of the elected officials, none of the local officials, knew that this material was on its way.”
These entities are usurping our sovereignty!  On a local, state and NATIONAL level.  This is the GLOBAL TAKE OVER.  MAKE NO MISTAKE! They are letting everyone know that RIGHTS are a fiction of the PAST.

In a Saturday update on the removal of contaminated waste, DeWine said 20 truckloads of hazardous solid waste has been hauled away from the derailment site. Fifteen of those truckloads were disposed of at a licensed hazardous waste treatment and disposal facility in Michigan and five truckloads were returned to East Palestine.  WHY?  Why just five?

About 102,000 gallons of liquid waste and 4,500 cubic yards of solid waste remain in storage on site in East Palestine, not including the five truckloads returned, according to DeWine. Additional solid and liquid wastes are being generated as the cleanup progresses, he added.

The complaints widen the controversy caused by the February 3 train derailment that left residents complaining about feeling sick after hazardous chemicals seeped into the air, water and soil.

“They don’t want the worry and they don’t want the smell,” Shore said, referring to East Palestine residents. “We owe it to the people of East Palestine to move it out of the community as quickly as possible.”

A National Transportation Safety Board preliminary report found that one of the train’s cars carrying plastic pellets was heated by a hot axle that sparked the initial fire, according to Jennifer Homendy, the chair of the safety board.

Hmmm note that some of the toxic chemicals become toxic when they are mixed with plastic, some of the toxic chemicals attack plastic.  READ all the data on these chemicals for yourself. It all sounds pretty fishy and even deliberate.

Residents worry rashes and headaches may be tied to chemicals from train crash
and for very good reason, those are symptoms of exposure to the toxic chemicals involved in the fire.

As the temperature of the bearing got hotter, the train passed by two wayside defect detectors that did not trigger an audible alarm message because the heat threshold was not met at that point, Homendy explained. A third detector eventually picked up the high temperature, but it was already too late by then.

This was 100% preventable. … There is no accident,” Homendy said during a news conference Thursday.




Texas official raises numerous questions about Ohio train derailment …

To watch the video on the website: CLICK HERE

A Texas county official says there are outstanding questions about the transportation and disposal of toxic wastewater that’s been moved to a Houston suburb from the site of the Ohio train derailment.

It’s a very real problem we were told yesterday the materials were coming only to learn today they’ve been here for a week,” said Hidalgo, who wants more information on precautions taken at the injection well.

KHOU asked Hidalgo if her office is normally notified when hazardous waste comes and goes from the county.

“There’s not a statute. There’s not a law that says our office has to be made aware when there is hazardous material,” she replied. “Now, is it OK for there to be an international disaster in Ohio, an explosion of this magnitude, and for us to suddenly learn that those same materials have been arriving in our community for a week, driving through our community? I don’t think so.

Texas Molecular told KHOU in a statement, We are chosen based on our capabilities, experience and unique ability to handle a project of this size.”

Deer Park Mayor Jerry Mouton Jr. also said he’s confident the disposal is being handled appropriately. He said the company has a permit from the EPA and has been doing this kind of work for 40 years.

The delivery also raises questions about the methods of transport, which she said may include trains, and the possible health impact on workers involved in the transfers and the communities between the Ohio crash site and the disposal area in Deer Park, one of 34 communities in Harris County.

Uncertainties remain even after discussions between the county and officials from the federal Department of Transportation and Environmental Protection Agency, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and other industry and environment experts, Hidalgo said.

“The government officials have readily provided the information they have, but what we’re learning is that they themselves don’t seem to have the full information,” she said. “I’m not clear on who has the full picture of what is happening here and that is a problem,”

She noted Harris County has around 10 injection wells capable of receiving hazardous commercial waste, making the area one of the few places where the materials could be disposed. But she said there are similar facilities in Vickery, Ohio, and Romulus, Michigan, that also could handle the wastewater and are located closer to the crash site.

“There may be logistical reasons for all of this. There may be economic reasons. Perhaps Texas Molecular outbid the Michigan facility,” Hidalgo said. “It doesn’t mean there’s something nefarious going on, but we do need to know the answer to this question.”

Hidalgo added that she first learned Harris County was the disposal site from a journalist, “not from a regulatory agency, not from the company,” which she said was “unacceptable.”

During a press conference on Friday, Wayne County Executive Warren Evans said some of the shipments had already been delivered.

“The fact that it’s here, and we haven’t been informed of the volume, we haven’t been informed of how it actually got here — Did it come by truck? Did it come by train? Did those transport vehicles, were they well-equipped to be able to deal with this?” 



Feb 02, 2021, 11:24 ET

HOUSTONFeb. 2, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — VLS Recovery Services, LLC (“VLS” or the “Company”), the North American leader in waste management services, railcar cleaning, and barge cleaning and repair services, today announced that it has acquired Pacific Trans Environmental Services, Inc. and Pacific Treatment Environmental Services, S.A. de C.V. (“PTES”). Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Based in El Cajon, California, PTES provides waste management, industrial services and other environmental services to customers in California while the PTES location in Tijuana provides storage and transfer services to customers in Mexico. As part of the transaction, the PTES business will operate within the VLS Waste division.  Al Montero, President of PTES, will run the Mexican business, and Michael Jeffries, Vice President of PTES, will run the West Coast business.

“PTES shares our commitment to providing industry-leading services to customers and is a perfect fit for our expansion and acquisition strategy. We look forward to welcoming the team to our organization,” said John Magee, Chief Executive Officer of VLS.

The acquisition of PTES allows us to significantly expand our waste business on the West Coast and into Mexico. With PTES’ outstanding service reputation and the ability to provide our customers there with local services, we are excited about the future of our waste business,” said Ken Hines, Vice President of Waste Services.

“We are thrilled to become part of VLS, which has quickly become a North American leader in our industry,” said Al Montero. “With access to their operational expertise and geographic reach, we will be able to better serve our customers and further expand our reach on the West Coast and in Mexico. On behalf of the entire team at PTES, we look forward to working with John and the rest of the VLS team.”

This acquisition marks VLS’s sixth add-on acquisition since being acquired by Aurora Capital Partners in October 2017.


Environmental Recovery Corp. has been acquired by a Houston-based company for an undisclosed price, it was announced Tuesday.

ERC has been bought by VLS Recovery Services, a North American leader in waste management services, railcar cleaning and barge cleaning and repair services.

Based at 1076 Manheim Pike, ERC provides wastewater treatment, industrial waste management and other environmental services to customers in the mid-Atlantic and Midwest. CEO Ken Lefever will continue to run the business.

ERC was started as Lancaster Oil Co. in 1988 by Rick Middleton. Rock Island Capital purchased ERC in 2018, then acquired Midwest Environmental in 2019 and merged it into ERC. The merger boosted ERC’s workforce from 115 to 150 employees. Its annual revenue is undisclosed.

ERC will continue to operate under its name for six to eight months, before transitioning its name to VLS, a VLS spokesman said. VLS intends to invest “several million dollars” in expanding ERC’s operations, he added.

Mar 4, 2022

The rebranding was spurred by a 2020 ESG report, which outlined the high environmental standards it relies on.

VLS Environmental Solutions
Image courtesy of VLS

VLS Recovery Services has announced it is rebranding to VLS Environmental Solutions. The company says it changed its name to better describe its current business model as a sustainability solutions provider.

VLS says it plans to build on its reputation in the environmental services space of helping customers meet their sustainability goals and enacting change on a global basis.

According to a news release, the genesis of this change was first seen in its 2020 introductory environmental, social and governance (ESG) report, which outlined the high environmental standards VLS relies on to earn the support of the communities in which it works, reduces the potential for conflict with governmental agencies, build loyalty and limit injury, waste and business liability.

VLS says despite the name change, customers can still expect the same partnerships, services and commitment to sustainability.

The company’s new website is www.vlses.com. The old website, www.vlsrs.info, will continue to be available, but will now redirect to the new site.  Any clients with questions can contact their account manager for further details.

VLS says it has served and protected the environment by providing customers with sustainable solutions since 2007. It has grown to 27 locations across the United States and into Mexico, with more than 750 dedicated employees.


Expands Marine Services Business in Louisiana with Acquisition of Plaquemine Point Shipyard

HOUSTONJune 21, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — VLS Environmental Solutions, LLC (“VLS” or the “Company”), the North American leader in delivering innovative environmental solutions that support clients in achieving their sustainability goals, today announced that it has acquired Plaquemine Point Shipyard (“PPSY”). Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Based in Plaquemine, Louisiana, PPSY is located just outside of Baton Rouge and provides full-service barge cleaning and repair along the Mississippi River. PPSY will operate within the VLS Marine Services division, and Wade Grundmeyer, VLS Regional Vice President of Southeast Louisiana, will run the business reporting to Eddie Van Huis, VLS Vice President of Marine Services.

“We are excited to expand our Specialty Cleaning and Repair Services with the acquisition of Plaquemine Point Shipyard,” noted John Magee, Chief Executive Officer of VLS. “We welcome the outstanding PPSY team to the VLS organization and are excited to utilize our combined strengths to continue providing high quality service to our customers in the region.”

“PPSY is a strategic acquisition that expands the geographic offering of our Marine Services business. VLS Marine has established itself as a leader along the Intracoastal Waterway, and we are excited to build upon that success with a location along the Mississippi River,” said Eddie Van Huis.

This acquisition marks VLS’s eighth add-on acquisition since partnering with Aurora Capital Partners in October 2017.

About Aurora Capital Partners

Aurora Capital Partners is a leading private equity firm focused principally on control investments in middle-market companies with leading market positions, stable industry dynamics, attractive business model characteristics and actionable opportunities for growth in partnership with management. Aurora provides unique resources to its portfolio companies through its Strategy & Operations Program and its team of experienced operating advisors. Aurora’s investors include leading public and corporate pension funds, endowments and foundations active in private equity investing. For more information about Aurora Capital Partners, visit: www.auroracap.com.

Media Contacts

For VLS Environmental Solutions
Keith Rensink

For Aurora Capital Partners
Taylor Ingraham / Fred Schweinfurth
ASC Advisors
tingraham@ascadvisors.com / fschweinfurth@ascadvisors.com


MIAMI, July 20, 2022–(BUSINESS WIRE)--I Squared Capital, a leading global infrastructure investment manager, announced today that it has signed a definitive agreement, through its ISQ Global Infrastructure Fund III, to acquire VLS Environmental Solutions (“VLS”) from Aurora Capital Partners, a leading middle-market private equity firm. VLS provides mission-critical, customized waste and specialty cleaning and repair services to a variety of highly regulated industries in North America. Financial terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220720005186/en/

VLS operates two principal segments: non-hazardous industrial waste handling, treatment, and sustainable disposal, as well as rail and marine specialty cleaning and repair. As one of the only nationwide providers of ESG-friendly industrial waste solutions, the company’s sustainable disposal solutions are especially attractive for customers with zero-waste-to-landfill initiatives. The company offers a comprehensive set of waste management solutions that process industrial non-hazardous waste to create alternative engineered fuels for industrial processes, fuel for waste-to-energy generation, treated wastewater, and landfill solidification.

The transaction is expected to close in the third quarter of 2022, subject to customary regulatory approvals.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220720005186/en/


I Squared Capital

Andreas Moon, Partner and Head of Investor Relations
+1 (786) 693-5739 | andreas.moon@isquaredcapital.com

Brunswick Group
Clare Pickett
+1 (347) 477-7475

Aurora Capital Partners
ASC Advisors
Steve Bruce / Taylor Ingraham
+1 (203) 992-1230
sbruce@ascadvisors.com / tingraham@ascadvisors.com


HOUSTONSept. 2, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — VLS Environmental Solutions, LLC (“VLS” or the “Company”), a North American leader in delivering innovative environmental solutions supporting its clients in achieving their sustainability goals and a portfolio company of I Squared Capital, today announced that it has acquired Safety Railway Service (“SRS”).  Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Based in Victoria, Texas, SRS provides full-service railcar repair and fabrication services at its site in Victoria and eight other key locations across the country. The strategic acquisition expands VLS’ nationwide railcar services footprint from three to twelve locations. SRS will operate within the VLS Railcar Cleaning and Repair Services division.

John Magee, VLS CEO, shared his enthusiasm for the additional locations and what they mean for the future of VLS. “This is a tremendous opportunity for us to move from railcar cleaning and light repair work to extensive, full-service cleaning and repair services.  This demonstrates our continued commitment to leading ESG practices. We are recognized as an industry leader in customized cleaning solutions, and we will apply those same sustainable practices and principles to our expanded Railcar Cleaning and Repair Services client base.”

It’s a game changer, and truly makes us an industry leader in railcar servicing, “said David Carter, VP of Railcar Services. “VLS provides mission-critical, customized waste and specialty cleaning and repair services to a variety of highly regulated industries specializing in highly hazardous chemical cleaning. Together, we can provide clients full repair from top to bottom. Further, this acquisition extends our reach to the national level, enabling us to better serve our customers with the additional locations.”


BGL Announces the Sale of Texas Molecular to VLS Environmental Solutions

Jan 10, 2023  CLEVELANDJan. 10, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — Brown Gibbons Lang & Company (BGL) is pleased to announce the sale of Texas Molecular Holdings (TM) to VLS Environmental Solutions (VLS), a portfolio company of I Squared CapitalBGL’s Environmental & Industrial Services investment banking team served as the exclusive financial advisor to TM in the transaction. The specific terms of the transaction were not disclosed.
BGL sold TM to VLS owned by ISquare Capital.
Brown Gibbons Lang & Company (BGL) is pleased to announce the sale of Texas Molecular Holdings (TM) to VLS Environmental Solutions (VLS), a portfolio company of I Squared Capital. BGL’s Environmental & Industrial Services investment banking team served as the exclusive financial advisor to TM in the transaction. The specific terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

The acquisition of TM expands VLS’s environmental services capabilities into hazardous waste processing & sequestration.

HOUSTONJan. 10, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — VLS Environmental Solutions, a Houston-based environmental services company and a portfolio company of I Squared Capital, has acquired Texas Molecular, one of the largest independent providers of industrial waste sequestration services in the United States. With the acquisition, VLS has expanded its environmental services capabilities into hazardous waste processing and sequestration to serve the diverse and growing needs of its industrial customers across North America.

With facilities in Deer Park and Corpus Christi, Texas, Texas Molecular specializes in handling, treatment, and sequestration of various liquid hazardous and non-hazardous industrial wastes. The company manages over 75 million gallons annually under its EPA RCRA and UIC Class 1 Hazardous Waste permits using industry-tested and efficient technology to sequester waste safely and permanently. Texas Molecular has a long track-record of operational excellence and safety performance that VLS is committed to maintaining. Chris Lobue and Jimmy Bracher have joined VLS to spearhead the company’s expansion into hazardous waste processing and sequestration, with Chris joining VLS as Vice President of Hazardous Waste and Jimmy as Vice President of Hazardous Waste Sales.

John Magee, Chief Executive Officer of VLS, commented, “We are excited to expand our suite of environmental services to include hazardous waste processing. This acquisition is a great strategic fit for VLS and consistent with our vision of building a leading environmental services platform in North America. Chris, Jimmy, and their team have earned the trust of their customers for more than four decades by providing safe and reliable waste sequestration for a wide variety of waste types and we welcome them to the VLS team.”

This acquisition is a big win for all the stakeholders involved, including our customers, vendors, and employees,” said Chris Lobue, Chief Executive Officer of Texas Molecular. “Becoming part of VLS will allow our customers and employees to benefit from a larger environmental services platform with greater resources to support growth. We couldn’t be more pleased with the outcome.”

The combined company has over 1,000 employees and 38 locations nationwide. The acquisition of Texas Molecular is the eleventh acquisition by VLS since 2017 and third in the last twelve months. VLS is actively pursuing both organic and inorganic opportunities to continue to expand its environmental services capabilities to support the waste processing needs of its customers.

Brown Gibbons Lang & Company served as exclusive financial advisor and Nathan Sommers Jacobs P.C. & Kelley Drye & Warren LLP served as legal advisors to Texas Molecular. Houlihan Lokey served as exclusive financial advisor and Kirkland & Ellis LLP served as legal advisor to VLS and I Squared Capital.

About VLS Environmental Solutions

VLS Environmental Solutions is a leader in sustainability solutions, with three divisions providing industry-leading services. The company’s Waste Services division provides customized waste processing solutions for hazardous and non-hazardous industrial and commercial waste, including landfill diversion and sustainability programs, solidification of liquid waste, recycling, wastewater treatment, and waste sequestration. The company’s Railcar Cleaning and Repair Services division provides specialty cleaning services for difficult-to-clean products, including chemicals, hardened materials, and pressurized gases, and comprehensive repair services for certified full-service repairs, tank car qualifications, and maintenance. The company’s Marine Services division offers state-of-the-art barge cleaning, repair, and gas-free facilities for various chemical solvents and downstream petroleum products. VLS has over 1,000 employees in 38 locations across North America. For more information about VLS, visit www.vlses.com.

About I Squared Capital

I Squared Capital is an independent global infrastructure investment manager with over $36 billion in assets under management focusing on utilities, digital infrastructure, energy, transport, environmental infrastructure and social infrastructure in North AmericaEuropeLatin America and Asia. Founded in 2012, the firm has offices in MiamiLondonNew DelhiHong KongSingaporeSydney and Taipei.

Media contact 
Keith Rensink
VLS Environmental Solutions
(404) 290-3182

Andreas MoonPartner and Head of Investor Relations
I Squared Capital

SOURCE VLS Environmental Solutions


Houston firm buys Lancaster-based waste services company, plans expansion | Local Business | lancasteronline.com is committed to being the most reliable, efficient, and cost-effective waste management, railcar cleaning, and marine services provider.  Founded 2007
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POSTED BY CHRIS VOLOSCHUK | FEBRUARY 09, 2023  The acquisition of the waste management company is the 12th by VLS since 2017 and the fourth in the last 12 months.

VLS Environmental Solutions LLC, a Houston-based environmental services company and a portfolio company of I Squared Capital, has acquired Phoenix, Arizona-based waste management solutions company SRE Environmental.

SRE Environmental is a provider of turnkey transportation services for the management of all types of liquid waste, solid waste, and specialty freight. SRE Environmental was founded in 2005 and is based in Phoenix, Arizona.  Source

According to VLS, SRE manages millions of gallons of commercial and industrial wastewater throughout the western U.S. utilizing its fleet of tanker trucks and other related transportation equipment. The company also offers solid waste management solutions and other industrial services to serve the needs of its clients.

RELATED: VLS Environmental acquires Texas Molecular

VLS says that SRE’s evaporation ponds provide safe, economic and low carbon disposal solutions for compatible wastewaters. Using solar evaporation as the sole source of treatment, the facility is designed for zero discharge and zero processing. The company says this provides clients with an environmentally friendly and low-emission option for the treatment and disposal of compatible wastewaters.

“We are thrilled to join VLS,” says Gary Pedersen, CEO of SRE. “This immediately expands our suite of services for our current clients, and we look forward to providing expanded best-in-class environmental solutions to all VLS clients across our growing footprint.

The combined company has over 1,000 employees and 40 locations nationwide. The acquisition of SRE is the 12th by VLS since 2017 and the fourth in the last 12 months. Financial terms of the acquisition were not made public.

VLS, which consists of three divisions providing waste services, railcar cleaning and repair services and marine services, says it is actively pursuing both organic and inorganic opportunities to continue to expand its environmental services capabilities to support the waste processing needs of its clients.


Photo: The Intercept

Read the full article by Sharon Lerner

After many years of treating the developing world as its environmental dumping ground, the U.S. is finally getting a taste of what it feels like to be on the receiving end of another country’s dangerous garbage. DuPont-spinoff Chemours is sending industrial waste from the Netherlands to North Carolina. The waste in question comes from the production of the toxic chemical GenX, DuPont’s replacement for the surfactant PFOA, which was long used in the production of Teflon and many other products.

Unlike the Netherlands, the U.S. has so far declined to regulate GenX waste, so disposing of the material is comparatively easy.

Chemours has been transporting the GenX waste from its plant in Dordrecht, Netherlands, to Fayetteville, North Carolina, according to documents that surfaced last week and were first reported in NC Policy Watch. In December, the Environmental Protection Agency sent a letter to a representative of the Dutch Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate, temporarily objecting to the import and asking for clarification about where exactly the waste was being sent.

According to the EPA letter, citing a ‘letter of intent,’ some of Chemours’s GenX waste from the Netherlands was supposedly destined for an incinerator in El Dorado, Arkansas,which is run by a company called Clean Harbors. But Phillip Retallick, senior vice president of Clean Harbors, said that his company is not receiving the material. ‘We are not in any way shape or form involved with the reclamation of the waste from the Fayetteville facility,’ said Retallick.

As The Intercept reported this week, the incineration of PFAS compounds, the class to which GenX belongs, may raise safety concerns.

The EPA letter also indicated that the Fayetteville plant was sending waste to a deep well injection plant run by Texas Molecular in Deer Park, Texas. Deep well injection, a technique pioneered by DuPont in the 1950s, involves storing toxic waste far below ground. Deep wells have repeatedly leaked, resulting in contamination of both groundwater and drinking water.

When asked whether his company was receiving the GenX waste, Texas Molecular’s president, Frank Marine, declined to comment. According to its website, Texas Molecular, whose motto is ‘deep commitment,’ provides ‘responsible and safe treatment and disposal solutions for even those most challenging industrial hazardous aqueous waste and wastewaters.’

DuPont developed GenX and introduced it in 2009 to replace PFOA, which persists indefinitely in the environment and is linked to cancer and other illnesses. GenX presents many of the same health and environmental problems, and causes cancer in lab animals, as The Intercept reported in 2016.

From 2014 until at least 2017, Chemours had been sending at least some of its GenX waste from the Netherlands to Miteni SpA, a chemical company in the Veneto region of Italy. Last year, tests revealed GenX in groundwater and wells near the Italian plant, contamination that has already led to health effects. Regional authorities then suspended some of the company’s operations. Miteni SpA, which was already under fire for causing massive PFOA contamination, filed for bankruptcy in October and ceased operation.

Chemours did not respond to multiple requests for comment for this story or answer questions from The Intercept about how much of the waste it is importing to the U.S. and other places around the world. But a company spokesperson told NC PolicyWatch that the bankruptcy of a European company that had been recycling its waste from The Netherlands ‘requires us to take responsible actions to ensure we continue to recycle the vast majority of the GenX.’

According to a document obtained by The Intercept that a spokesperson for the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality confirmed was notes from a call about the waste between the DEQ and the EPA, Chemours is ‘reporting an upper limit of 90 metric tons in about 20 shipments of unknown concentration for 2019.’ The document states that the GenX arrives at the Fayetteville plant as a ‘sludgy liquid’ from which the company removes ‘GenX salts,’ but doesn’t say what happens to those compounds.

The North Carolina DEQ document raises several concerns about the waste, including that the material might be discharged into the river near the Fayetteville facility, and that Chemours might be importing it ‘to circumvent European regulations.’

Linda Culpepper of the North Carolina DEQ sent a letter to Chemours on January 18 asking for more information about the waste. Chemours responded the following week and stated that the substance it is importing is not hazardous according to the lawand that Chemours (and DuPont before it) has notified the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (‘EPA’) of these reclamation activities on multiple occasions.’ The Chemours letter said the company planned to send both the EPA and the state agency more information on February 5

While much remains to be learned about how Chemours has been importing this waste and what exactly has been happening to it, there is little question as to why the company would send its dangerous chemicals to North Carolina instead of disposing of them at its Dutch plant. While PFAS waste is regulated in Europe under the Basel Convention, it is not regulated in the U.S., which has declined to sign the treaty.

And because GenX itself has not been declared hazardous by federal environmental authorities, the only restrictions on the compound in the U.S. come from a 2009 consent order with the EPA, which The Intercept obtained via FOIA in 2016.There’s a gaping hole in the consent order because it doesn’t limit how GenX is disposed of or recycled,’ said Eve Gartner, an attorney at Earthjustice. In addition, the agreement applies only to Chemours. ‘So Chemours can enter a contract with an incinerator company,’ Gartner pointed out, ‘but there’s no guarantee that the incineration is going to destroy it.’ While the consent order with the EPA remains in effect, the state of North Carolina is in the process of negotiating its own consent order with the company.

The EPA had been considering using the Safe Drinking Water Act to put safety standards in place for PFOA and PFOS, the two best-known PFAS compounds, but is now expected to shelve those plans, according to a report in Politico. The story sparked outrage from environmentalists and senators, who have questioned Acting Administrator Andrew Wheeler about the EPA’s inaction on the chemicals as part of the process of confirming him to lead the agency.It’s frankly shameful that this is still where things are in the U.S. some 18 to 19 years after the research started on the regulatory level on these chemicals,” said Rob Bilott, the attorney who first brought PFOA to light in a class-action suit against DuPont. Bilott, who represented residents of West Virginia and Ohio whose water contained PFOA, said that without regulation, others will continue to be exposed to PFAS chemicals at dangerous levels.

Several states have begun to regulate these chemicals on their own. ‘What worries me are the folks living in states that have refused to take any action, because they’re waiting for the federal government to act,’ said Bilott.

In a statement provided to The Intercept, the EPA denied that a decision had been made about the regulation of PFOA and PFOS. ‘Despite what is being reported, EPA has not finalized or publicly issued its PFAS management plan, and any information that speculates what is included in the plan is premature. The agency is committed to following the Safe Drinking Water Act process for evaluating new drinking water standards, which is just one of the many components of the draft plan that is currently undergoing interagency review.’

But the U.S. is already trailing behind Europe in the regulation of PFAS chemicals. And that lag makes this country a natural choice to dispose of PFAS waste. ‘There’s an irony here,’ said Kevin Hannon, an attorney whose firm has filed class-action claims against DuPont and Chemours over GenX in North Carolina. ‘We’ve been sending our waste to third-world countries and poisoning kids because it was cheaper to send it there,’ said Hannon. ‘And now we’re being treated by Chemours like those third-world countries.

In Europe, outrage has been mounting over the disposal of GenX and related compounds. In June, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management released an investigation into Chemours’s disposal process, determining that ‘Chemours takes no measurements to determine whether [GenX-related] substances are in the waste,’ and that the ‘substances are consequently emitted into the environment at various places in the chain.’ The report also noted that only incineration in a kiln at ‘a sufficiently high temperature’ can destroy the material, but that not all of the GenX-related waste streams were disposed of by incineration.

Dordrecht residents, who have had to contend with both PFOA and GenX contamination of their water, have repeatedly expressed frustration with the company. In September, Chemours said it would invest 75 million euros to reduce GenX emissions from the Dordrecht plant.

Meanwhile, the Italian government declared a state of emergency over the PFAS contamination last year and an investigation into Miteni SpA resulted in criminal charges. The recent discovery that the Dutch had been sending them their GenX waste sparked angry protests and a second investigation, which is ongoing…

Photo: The Intercept

Read the full article by Debbie Strauss & Joel Eisenbaum (Click 2 Houston)

DEER PARK, Texas – In picturesque North Carolina, along the seemingly pristine Cape Fear River, a chemical company called Chemours was caught discharging an industrial byproduct called GenX and it showed up in the drinking water.

Now, that chemical is being brought to Texas from North Carolina. KPRC 2 Investigates looked into why it’s being brought here and what’s being done with the chemical once it arrives.

What is GenX?

GenX is the trade name of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid, which is used to make Teflon, fast food wrappers and other products.

What health effects are associated with GenX chemicals?

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, animal studies have shown health effects in the kidney, blood, immune system, developing fetuses and, especially, in the liver following oral exposure. The data are suggestive of cancer.

How is it getting to Texas?

Since June 2017 Chemours began capturing the wastewater that included the GenX. Then, starting the week of Nov. 13, 2017, the company began arranging to have the wastewater transported by tanker truck and rail for disposal in Deer Park, Texas. Specifically, it’s being sent to Texas Molecular for deep-well injection. Texas Molecular is a Class1 Deep Well. Since 2017, the company has commissioned an average of 10 tanker trucks a day to haul away the wastewater for offsite disposal, according to the Chemours plant manager.

Environmental activist Erin Brockovich has spoken numerous times about the dangers of GenX. In August 2017, she appeared at a town hall meeting in North Carolina.

Recently, Brockovich was in Houston for a town hall meeting to discuss a different matter. KPRC 2 asked Brockovich about Chemours’ plan to dispose of the GenX through deep well injection

KPRC 2 Investigates discovered Texas Molecular did not need to have a public hearing in order to accept the GenX from Chemours in North Carolina.

‘Texas Molecular is not required to have a specific approval or public hearing for deep well disposal of GenX waste, because this waste stream is covered under the listing of industrial wastes authorized to be injected in its three UIC Class I permits,’ according to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ).

Transporting GenX

On Sept. 18, 2018, a tanker truck carrying rainwater from Hurricane Florence, from on-site dikes at Chemours in North Carolina leaked during transport about four miles from the plant. When residents took samples of the wastewater on the road, it tested to show the water had 2.85 million parts per trillion of GenX. That’s 17,000 times the state’s provisional health goal for GenX in drinking water of 140 parts per trillion…”


ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance)

A management and analysis framework to understand and measure how sustainably an organization is operating

What is ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance)?

ESG is a framework that helps stakeholders understand how an organization is managing risks and opportunities related to environmental, social, and governance criteria (sometimes called ESG factors).

ESG is an acronym for Environmental, Social, and Governance. ESG takes the holistic view that sustainability extends beyond just environmental issues.

While the term ESG is often used in the context of investing, stakeholders include not just the investment community but also customers, suppliers, and employees, all of whom are increasingly interested in how sustainable an organization’s operations are.

Key Highlights

  • ESG is a framework that helps stakeholders understand how an organization manages risks and opportunities around sustainability issues.
  • ESG has evolved from other historical movements that focused on health and safety issues, pollution reduction, and corporate philanthropy.
  • ESG has changed how capital allocation decisions are made by many of the largest financial services firms and asset managers in the world.
  • An emerging class of ESG specialists is stepping into the industry and supporting both net zero and carbon neutrality goals.

ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance)

ow governance structures can be amended to maximize stakeholder well-being.

ESG, Finance, and Investing

ESG really went mainstream when the framework became an integral part of many institutional investors’ playbooks. There are a growing number of ESG rating agencies that assign ESG scores, as well as new and evolving reporting frameworks, all of which are improving the transparency and consistency of the ESG information that firms are reporting publicly (often called ESG disclosure).

The capital markets can be a powerful tool to create change. By restricting access to capital (or making the terms under which it’s available less favorable), bad actors may be incentivized to improve performance across E, S, or G measures. Conversely, rewarding companies and their management teams that are performing well against ESG factors encourages continued progress and improvements.

Many ESG investment vehicles have emerged, including green bonds, mutual funds, ETFs, and index funds (among others). These publicly traded instruments make it easier for investors to align their investment decisions more closely with their own beliefs and values around E, S, or G factors.


Ouroboros Serpent Symbol - Free Clip Art


The ouroboros or uroboros is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail. The ouroboros entered Western tradition via ancient Egyptian iconography and the Greek magical tradition. It was adopted as a symbol in Gnosticism and Hermeticism and most notably in alchemy.  Wikipedia


Occult World
making the invisible visible

(REMEMBER THIS IS WHAT THEY BELIEVE, I do not condone or accept their teachings.  I provide this information so that you know where they are coming from.)
Ouroboros (uroboros) Ancient symbol of a Serpent biting its tail, forming a circle. The name ouroboros comes from the Greek terms oura, meaning “tail,” and boros, meaning “devourer.” The “tail-devourer” represents the eternal cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. The ouroboros is an important symbol in Alchemy and Magic.


The origins of the ouroboros can be traced to ancient Moon cults. The Moon served as timekeeperespecially of the eternal, cyclical nature of time—and fertilizer of life on Earth below. Because the Moon waxed and waned, it became a symbol of birth, death, and regeneration. Lunar deities were often associated with a devouring snake or dragon, which, after swallowing the Moon, became the mother of the Moon’s rebirth.

The ancient Egyptians depicted the goddess Buto as a cobra; in fact, the hieroglyph for goddess is a cobra. Buto protected ISIS and her son Horus, the sun god. Similarly, every individual in Egypt was protected by a personal snake spirit that symbolized their lifetime and their survival into the afterlife. In her form of the pharaoh’s crown, Buto was called the uraeus and was the symbol of the pharaoh’s power. She was most commonly depicted by the Egyptians as a serpent surrounding a solar disk. She was also depicted with the hieroglyph shen, a circle resting on a line that represents the Sun’s orbit and thus eternal life. Perhaps the first true Egyptian depiction of the ouroboros comes from the tomb of Seti I, in which a carving shows the sun god lying on his back in a house surrounded by an ouroboros. Such art was intended to ensure the immortality of the deceased. The third shrine of the sarcophagus of Tutankhamen shows the deceased in a stylized profile with one ouroboros encircling his head and another encircling his feet.

The oldest Greek creation myth, the Pelasgian, says that Eurynome, the goddess of all things, emerged from Chaos; the north wind created Ophion, the great serpent. Mating with Ophion, Eurynome then took the form of a dove and created the world EGG, which Ophion encircled seven times. The egg hatched all things in creation.

The Orphics (sixth and seventh centuries B.C.E.), who believed in Reincarnation, had variations of the Orphic egg myth. The Orphic cult, which strove to free the divine aspect of the soul that was imprisoned in the body, paved the way for Western mystery cults.

In classical times, the Greeks identified Chronos (Time) with the Earth-encircling river, Oceanos, that also encircled the universe in the form of a serpent with the zodiac on its back.

In the Hermetic philosophy that arose in Hellenistic Egypt, the ouroboros became a symbol of the underlying unity of spirit. The Gnostics, who believed the world to be at the center of the universe, believed that the ouroboros, or world serpent, marked the boundary between the world and the pleroma of heaven. Some Gnostics equated the world serpent with the evil demiurge (or Satan) who created the world and guards the gateway of escape. Gnostics equated the demiurge with the God of the Old Testament, the Alpha and Omega (the letter omega is similar in form to the Egyptian hieroglyph shen).

For the Naassenes and Ophite Gnostic sects, the ouroboros was equated with the serpent in the Garden of Eden. A hero rather than villain, the serpent helped Adam and Eve defy the demiurge Jehovah and obtain the first gnosis (knowledge) by eating the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. Later, the serpent came to represent the guardian of the Tree of Life and therefore the gatekeeper to immortality.

In Roman mythology, the ouroboros was associated with Saturn, the god of time, who joined together the first and last months of the year like the serpent swallowing its tail. Saturn swallowed his children, and, with his scythe, symbolized the devouring of life or mortality.

In Renaissance Europe, Saturn continued to be associated with the ouroboros, and his scythe became the symbol of death. This association continued into more modern times, and the ouroboros came to decorate numerous Art Nouveau calendars.


In alchemy the fundamental message of the ouroboros is the changing of one thing into another, ultimately yielding “All is One.” It is a symbol for Mercurius and the union of opposites.

One of the oldest alchemical texts created in Hellenistic Egypt and included in the 11th-century Codex Marcianus, contains an image of the ouroboros. It symbolizes the underlying unity of the elusive Prima Materia, which exists in all matter and is simultaneously the beginning and goal of the Great Work. It is the Philosopher’s Stone, the vehicle for obtaining immortality, and it also represents the cyclical nature of the alchemical process, which is the union of the male and the female principles, their destruction, and their resurrection and reunification. The Codex Marcianus ouroboros is half black and half white, like the symbol for yin and yang in Taoism, thus depicting the sexual union of opposites that continually creates the world. Later alchemical imagery shows the ouroboros as two serpents devouring each other’s tails, heightening the sexual symbolism. Another representation is two dragons fighting at each other’s throats. The male and female principles are combined in their shared blood. An ancient Greek alchemical text says:

Here is the mystery. The serpent Ouroboros is the composition in which our Work is devoured and melted, dissolved and transformed. It becomes dark green from which the golden color derives. Its stomach and back are the color of saffron; its head is dark green, its four legs are the four imperfect metals [lead, copper, tin, and iron]; its three ears are the three sublimated vapors [sulphur, mercury, and salt ]. The One gives the Other its blood; and the One engenders the Other. Nature rejoices in nature; nature charms nature; nature triumphs over nature; and nature masters nature; and this is not from one nature opposing another, but through the one and the same nature, through the alchemical process, with great care and great effort.

On a higher level of the Great Work, the ouroboros represents the indistinguishable and eternal flow of sulphur and mercury into one another. The permanent fusion of the two creates the Philosopher’s Stone.

From alchemy, the ouroboros was absorbed into European magical and mystical philosophies of such groups as the ROSICRUCIANS and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. In dreams, the ouroboros often appears in variations such as the snake, the dragon, the egg, and the circle.

VLS Recovery Services rebrands   Note the Ouroborus on their logo.

The rebranding was spurred by a 2020 ESG report, which outlined the high environmental standards it relies on.

Image courtesy of VLS

VLS Recovery Services has announced it is rebranding to VLS Environmental Solutions. The company says it changed its name to better describe its current business model as a sustainability solutions provider.

VLS says it plans to build on its reputation in the environmental services space of helping customers meet their sustainability goals and enacting change on a global basis.

According to a news release, the genesis of this change was first seen in its 2020 introductory environmental, social and governance (ESG) report, which outlined the high environmental standards VLS relies on to earn the support of the communities in which it works, reduces the potential for conflict with governmental agencies, build loyalty and limit injury, waste and business liability.

VLS says despite the name change, customers can still expect the same partnerships, services and commitment to sustainability.

The company’s new website is www.vlses.com. The old website, www.vlsrs.info, will continue to be available, but will now redirect to the new site.  Any clients with questions can contact their account manager for further details.

VLS says it has served and protected the environment by providing customers with sustainable solutions since 2007. It has grown to 27 locations across the United States and into Mexico, with more than 750 dedicated employees.


VLS Recovery Services was purchased by management in 2007 from Vopak North America with sites in Hockley, Texas, Mauldin (Piedmont), South Carolina, and Fitzgerald, Georgia.. With the purchase of the Armor Environmental in Mt. Pleasant, Tennessee in 2010, VLS invested millions of dollars in facilities improvements to meet the rising demand for its Waste to Energy services. Expansion continued to be a foundation for growth in sustainable services, and in 2012, VLS designed an Engineered Fuels manufacturing facility in Gray Court, South Carolina.

From 2012 to 2017, VLS continued major growth across divisions and across facilities. VLS increased capacity by 50% at Piedmont, built an Engineered Fuel facility at Armor, and expanded rail capacity at Hockley. VLS continued major investments with upgraded SSI shredders at Gray Court.

New Ownership

Our future begins with the strategy of our investors, and in 2017, VLS was acquired by Aurora Capital. The acquisition by the private equity firm continued a strategy of investment in VLS’ growth.

VLS grew significantly in 2018 with the acquisition of Beauchan Rail Services which specializes in railcar cleaning and product transfer services. The company also expanded in the engineered fuel market by acquiring Venti Industrial in Alabama. VLS moved the Venti operations and built from ground up a new engineered fuel manufacturing facility in Brent, Alabama.

In 2019, the company made two more acquisitions. The first acquisition was NuEarth, a specialty transportation services company operating in the southeast United States. Then, VLS entered into the marine sector with the acquisition of Tubal Cain Marine Services, a cleaning, repair, and gas free company primarily servicing the United States inland tank barge industry.

Seeing a growing need for waste-to-energy, VLS opened a grass roots Waste Management facility in January 2020 called VLS Houston adjacent to the Hockley Railcar Cleaning facility. And in December, VLS closed on the JBR Industrial Services business in Spartanburg, SC, which provides, waste management, industrial services, abatement, remediation, and railroad construction and repair.

With new leadership in John Magee, VLS continues expanding and growing to meet the needs of customers. The 2021 calendar year has already seen the acquisition of Pacific Trans Environmental Services and renamed it VLS San Diego. With facilities in El Cajon, California and in Tijuana, Mexico, VLS San Diego provides west coast services for waste management, industrial services, 10-day hazardous waste, and transportation services.

vls facility
Our Future

We are well-positioned to continue market leadership across our lines of business. With employee safety as our main premise and sustainability as our guide, we will continue forward with value propositions for our clients and our suppliers. We look forward to serving our stakeholders, employees, clients, and suppliers with innovative and value-add solutions.


Please don’t hesitate to get in touch with any questions!

 19500 Hwy 249 Suite 440Houston, TX 77070
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VLS Environmental Solutions

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The Global Waste Management Outlook, a collective effort of the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Waste Management Association, is a pioneering scientific global assessment on the state of waste management and a call for action to the international community. Prepared as a follow up to the Rio+20 Summit and as a response to UNEP Governing Council decision GC 27/12, the document establishes the rationale and the tools for taking a holistic approach towards waste management and recognizing waste and resource management as a significant contributor to sustainable development and climate change mitigation. The Outlook is primarily focused on thegovernance’ issues which need to be addressed to establish a sustainable solutionincluding the regulatory and other policy instruments, the partnerships and the financing models. Broad in scope and global in coverage, the Outlook includes a series of Topic Sheets and case studies addressing specific issues and illustrating featured initiatives. This document provides an inspiring possible way forward on waste management, drawing conclusions and making recommendations to assist policy makers and practitioners to develop local solutions for waste management. To complement the Sustainable Development Goals of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, the Outlook sets forth Global Waste Management Goals and a Global Call to Action to achieve those goals.

Solid Waste Management

February 11, 2022


Photo: Dominic Chavez / World Bank


Around the world, waste generation rates are rising. In 2020, the world was estimated to generate 2.24 billion tonnes of solid waste, amounting to a footprint of 0.79 kilograms per person per day. With rapid population growth and urbanization, annual waste generation is expected to increase by 73% from 2020 levels to 3.88 billion tonnes in 2050.

Compared to those in developed nations, residents in developing countries, especially the urban poor, are more severely impacted by unsustainably managed waste. In low-income countries, over 90% of waste is often disposed in unregulated dumps or openly burned. These practices create serious health, safety, and environmental consequences. Poorly managed waste serves as a breeding ground for disease vectors, contributes to global climate change through methane generation, and can even promote urban violence.

Managing waste properly is essential for building sustainable and livable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. Effective waste management is expensive, often comprising 20%–50% of municipal budgets. Operating this essential municipal service requires integrated systems that are efficient, sustainable, and socially supported.


The World Bank finances and advises on solid waste management projects using a diverse suite of products and services, including traditional loans, results-based financing, development policy financing, and technical advisory. World Bank-financed waste management projects address the entire lifecycle of waste—from generation to collection and transportation, and finally treatment and disposal.

Objectives that guide the Bank’s solid waste management projects and investments include:

  • Infrastructure: The World Bank provides capital investments to build or upgrade waste sorting and treatment facilities, close dumps, construct or refurbish landfills, and provide bins, dumpsters, trucks, and transfer stations.
  • Legal structures and institutions: Projects advise on sound policy measures and coordinated institutions for the municipal waste management sector.
  • Financial sustainability: Through the design of taxes and fee structures, and long-term planning, projects help governments improve waste cost containment and recovery.
  • Citizen engagement: Behavior change and public participation is key to a functional waste system. The World Bank supports designing incentives and awareness systems to motivate waste reduction, source-separation and reuse.
  • Social inclusion: Resource recovery in most developing countries relies heavily on informal workers, who collect, sort, and recycle 15%–20% of generated waste. Projects address waste picker livelihoods through strategies such as integration into the formal system, as well as the provision of safe working conditions, social safety nets, child labor restrictions, and education.
  • Climate change and the environment: Projects promote environmentally sound waste disposal. They support greenhouse gas mitigation through food loss and waste reduction, organic waste diversion, and the adoption of treatment and disposal technologies that capture biogas and landfill gas. Waste projects also support resilience by reducing waste disposal in waterways, addressing debris management, and safeguarding infrastructure against flooding.
  • Health and safety: The World Bank’s work in municipal waste management improves public health and livelihoods by reducing open burning, mitigating pest and disease vector spreading, and preventing crime and violence.
  • Knowledge creation: The World Bank helps governments plan and explore locally appropriate solutions through technical expertise, and data and analytics. What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 captures the latest trends in waste management.

The World Bank’s waste management engagement spans multiple development areas, including energy, environmental sustainability, food and agriculture, health and population, social protection, transportation, urban development, and water.


World Bank engagement in solid waste management is supported through valuable partnerships, including funding from the Tokyo Development Learning CenterClimate and Clean Air CoalitionKorean Green Growth Trust Fund, and the Global Partnership on Results-Based Approaches (GPRBA), as well as collaboration on capacity building and knowledge sharing through a memorandum of understanding with the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA).

Last Updated: Sep 23,2019


I had been searching and searching to find out what the VSL represents in the legal name of the organization.  They sure don’t want you to know.  In my searching I came across some possible options.  I also came across some things I probably would not have found if I wasn’t searching for VLS.

Sep 29, 2021 Norfolk, VA. Precise Systems is a professional services company currently working for the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force. Our core competencies include systems engineering, program and project management, logistics, information technology and cybersecurity, and software development services. We were founded in 1990, and since …

 Storm VLS™    vls-system.com The VLS™ (Vector Layout System) was designed to give recommendations based on a number of variables such as the bowler’s release and their desired reaction. However, due to the uniqueness of every bowler’s release and the environment they are bowling on, the system is not foolproof.

Yes, the “Storm” VLS is related to bowling.  However, you can find the VLS system related to multiple applications if you run a search.  

THE VLS design methodology starts with building fundamental units and integrating them into a larger system. 


VLS optimizes the preventive and corrective decision making in business processes, the vehicle setup process, their transport and final delivery to the car dealerships. VLS also facilitates the vehicle yard administration, the cars arrangement within the yards and improves the distribution logistics taking into consideration their period of stay.

Welcome to VLS

VLS has high expertise in all major technologies to guarantee the use of best-of-breed tools and technologies available at any given time. Our work philosophy is to keep ourselves equipped and well versed with cutting-edge solutions to offer our clients the maximum benefits technology will allow. Data warehousing & Business Intelligence (Cognos …
If you have a query regarding a direct debit with Virtual Lease Services or VLS you will need to contact your finance provider direct as we are unable to view your information. If you have finance with either Braemar Finance or Klarna Bank*, please see their contact details to the right. … Your payments will show as VLS RE Braemar or VLS RE …
V.L.S Systems is an Information Technology Products & Services Company that provides Software Products, Contingent IT Staffing, Custom Software Development and IT Solutions, since 1995.
The VLS mechanism circumvents this by introducing a catalyticliquid alloy phase which can rapidly adsorb a vapor to supersaturationlevels, and from which crystal growthcan subsequently occur from nucleatedseeds at the liquid-solid interface.
Very large-scale integration (VLSI) refers to an IC or technology with many devices on one chip. The question, of course, is how one defines “many.” The term originated in the 1970s along with “SSI” (small-scale integration), “LSI” (large-scale), and several others, defined by the number of transistors or gates per IC.
Very Large Scale Integration
Very large-scale integration is the process of creating an integrated circuit by combining millions or billions of MOS transistors onto a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when MOS integrated circuit chips were developed and then widely adopted, enabling complex semiconductor and telecommunication technologies. Wikipedia
MOS IC’s are more suitable than bipolar IC’s I applications like large scale integration (LSI), and very large scale integration (VLSI). They are also used in memory chips and microprocessors. This is because MOS IC’s does not occupy as much surface when compared to a bipolar epitaxial double diffused transistor IC.

So, basically VLS is the computer or AI system that allows the globalists to monitor, track and organize all the billions of people and things in the world into one unit/NWO.

VLS Environmental Solutions, LLC’S Post

In 2018, the construction industry in the United States generated 600 million tons of construction and demolition (C&D) waste — which is twice the amount of municipal solid waste produced. It’s also estimated that nearly half of global CO2 emissions stem from construction. With global climate change and greenhouse gas emissions becoming an increasing concern and focus worldwide, what can the construction industry do to be more sustainable? The answer may be in circular construction. https://lnkd.in/gFKcjWzi For more information, email us at info@vlses.com. #Sustainability #SustainableSolutions #WasteToEnergy #Recycling #EngineeredFuel #Construction


Again, this is what the Occult believe, not me.  Here for your information so that you can recognize where they are coming from.

What’s the secret of the infinity symbol? Why is it so special? Maybe one of the most popular and widespread symbols in both science and occult arts. This infinity symbol is plain, yet mysteriously beautiful.

Moreover, its magical wisdom is hidden because of its tremendous power, which is no other by the power which lies in you! So, let’s take a look at the importance and the meaning of the Infinity Symbol.

Where does the Infinity Symbol come from? ∞

It goes without saying that modern encyclopedias do not explain anything about the rich and magical history of this amazing symbol. According to conventional knowledge, the Infinity Symbol is just a mathematical symbol used in all sciences, physics, even in HTML coding. However, there is plenty of symbolism which if understood, we can change our lives.

And this is why I want to start with this. 

Here’re 5 secrets of the infinity symbol:

1. It symbolizes divine Power – ∞   (they are not talking about Our Heavenly Father.)

What very few people discover (or remember) is that the symbolism of the Infinity comes from the great Uraeus, symbols of the Goddess Wadjet. The Uraei (plural) is commonly known as the symbol of power, worn by pharaohs or gods and goddesses.

uraeus  yoo͝-rē′əs


  1. The figure of the sacred serpent, an emblem of sovereignty depicted on the headdress of ancient Egyptian rulers and deities.
  2. The sacred serpent, either the head and neck, or sometimes the entire form, of a serpent, represented by the ancient Egyptians upon the head-dresses of divinities and royal personages, as an emblem of supreme power.
  3. A serpent, or serpent’s head and neck, represented on the front of the headdresses of divinities and sovereigns as an emblem of supreme power.

During the coronation of the pharaohs, one was not a king or a queen until they were crowned by this divine snake. What this symbolic act represents, is that one will never have true power until s/he realizes the divine power within.

2. Mehet or Iaret? – ∞

What is less known is that the same symbol is found in two depictions. Hence, the Uraeus is either mehet or iaret. Mehet means ‘the coiled one’ and iaret means ‘the risen one. Both snakes symbolically assume the ∞ position with one exception. 

5 Secrets Of The Infinity Symbol ∞

What you can now see is that the risen Uraeus, is the one who messes with the perfect symbol of ∞. Furthermore, the risen Ureaus is the eye of the Sun, ready to claim its power and defend what needs to be defended. Thus, it is ready to fight against darkness and oblivion. Hence the Iaret Uraeus has risen up and is awakened!  

3. It’s Ouroboros – ∞

Mehet Uraeus (the coiled one) is simply Ouroboros, one of the interesting secrets of the infinity symbol. The secret teaching is that we are bound to repeat our incarnations as we stick to this Realm.

A Witch (meaning an awakened one) should realize that this Life offers all kinds of experiences which should be received as lessons for the Awakening.Once we have been awakened, we can end the circle of infinite incarnations, exactly as many ancient religions teach like Hinduism and Buddhism.

5 Secrets Of The Infinity Symbol ∞
Notice the Ouroboros circling Horus – infinity symbol

As we’ve already seen, Ouroboros has been used to symbolize eternal life and the following incarnations.

  • The Circle of Life – Birth – Death – Rebirth
  • The Material Plane
  • The Karmic Circle

Hence, Ouroboros is not a simple evil as many fanatics proclaim. It merely symbolizes the lessons of this plane (which frankly are sometimes pretty hard).

4. The divine Blessings of Nile

Wadjet is also the goddess of the river Nile. The Nile, in ancient Egypt, was not just a river. It symbolized all the blessings and the divine gifts descending from God. Moreover, Nile was a “mirror” of the Milky Way, reflecting the blessings of beyond this Earth, beyond this Realm.

Interestingly, Nile was also linked not only to this Realm, not only to Space but also to the afterlife. As certain astrological alignments take place, the Gate of the Underworld opens or closes.

5. It comes from the last Greek letter Omega (Ω – ω) – ∞

Out of all the secrets of the infinity symbol, this one is something more scholars agree on. The symbol of infinity is derived from the letter omega which is the last letter of the original alphabet – the Greek one.

Let me remind you here that in Christian iconography, Jesus Christ is symbolically depicted as the Alpha and Omega (A & Ω) which is the beginning and the end (of the time). However, as God and time are infinite, the letter Omega (ω) became the infinity symbol, to denote the continuity beyond the End (∞).


Brussels in transition towards the circular economy

Discover the actions that make Brussels Captial Region a pionneer region of the circular economy.

Belgium, on its way towards a circular economy

Photo by Kim Eriksson/Flickr

“We know that we cannot continue to use resources as if they were unlimited. We must think about the recycling of materials, the decreasing of our resources use, and we must concretely support the valorisation of materials,” said Willy Borsus, Vice-President of the Belgian Walloon Region.


  1. The act of placing a value upon (something); valuation; the act of fixing the price of (some commodity). See the extract.
  2. Act or process of attempting to give an arbitrary market value or price to a commodity by governmental interference, as by maintaining a purchasing fund, making loans to producers to enable them to hold their products, etc.; — used chiefly of such action by Brazil.
  3. Alternative spelling of valorisation.

Worldwide material consumption has expanded rapidly, as has material footprint per capita. In 1990, some 8.1 tonnes of natural resources were used to satisfy a person’s need, while in 2017, almost 12.2 tonnes of resources were extracted per person.

To ensure that current material needs do not lead to the overextraction of resources or to the degradation of environmental resources, we need to act urgently to improve resource efficiency, reduce waste, and mainstream sustainability practices across all sectors of the economy.

Circular economy

The concept of circular economy is at the forefront of global discussions.The International Resource Panel argues that a transformation from a linear economy—where products, once used, are discardedto a circular one—where products and materials continue in the system for as long as possiblewill contribute to a more sustainable future. Rethinking how we manufacture industrial products and deal with them at the end of their useful life could provide breakthrough environmental, social and economic benefits.

Breaking the link, or decoupling natural resource consumption from economic gains and environmental impacts, is key for a circular economy.

Belgium—a frontrunner

Belgiumis already on its way to build a more sustainable society through circular economy. The federal government and the three autonomous regionsBrussels-Capital, Wallonia and Flandersare all aligned in this effort.

A transition to a low-carbon, climate-neutral and resource-efficient economyrequires a holistic approach: it is not achieved by addressing challenges in silos. Science, technology and innovation must be put to work for this transition. Belgium is ready to play its role and to lead by example,” said Marie-Christine Marghem, Minister of Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development in Belgium.

The circular economy will create economic activity. This is one of the reasons why we, the Brussels government, want to be among the pioneers: we want to show that it is possible!” said Alain Maron, Minister for Climate Transition, and Barbara Trachte, Secretary of State in charge of Economic Transition in a joint statement.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Brussels Environment (the environment agency of Brussels-Capital), together with Ecocity Builders and theWorld Council on City Data have developed a conceptual framework to track the city’s transition to a circular economy, including draft indicators (see the report for details).

With Brussels as one of its pilot cities, UNEP is also working on a methodology to measure the number of jobs created in a circular economy transition.

UNEP and Belgium, working together on a global level

Belgium is a strong political and financial supporter of the work of UNEP. It has unfailingly contributed to UNEP’s core fund, the Environment Fundsince 1973 and consistently features in the top-10 list of contributors. Belgium is also one of the few Member States that make multi-year commitments to UNEP’s core funding.

We have set ambitious goals through the 2030 Agenda. We need to solve complex interlinked issues covering the whole world: and Belgium is committed to achieve these. UNEP plays a crucial role—in bringing scientific evidence; in convening people; in leading the way for us… this is about our future generations, and UNEP is a core partner in this,” said Alexander De Croo, the Belgian Minister for Development Cooperation.

On the global level, Belgium supports UNEP’s work to accelerate the transition to resource-efficient and sustainable economies.

“UNEP is deeply grateful for the strong partnership with the government of Belgium. The country’s environmental leadership in the transition to a circular economy provides an important model for other countries as we seek to set our planet on a more nature-positive path” said Inger Andersen, Executive Director of UNEP.

Towards zero waste

One of the aims of the circular economy model is zero waste, where all materials are kept in circulation. In 2016, Belgium ranked as number two in the European Union in recycling waste; almost 77per cent of total waste in Belgium was recycled.

What happens to waste in Belgium?

Belgium Graph
Source: Eurostat

Nevertheless, Belgium has set itself higher targets. By 2050, the Flanders region wants to have a circular economy where nothing is wasted. In Wallonia, the organic waste will be separated from raw household waste throughout the region by the end of 2025. Other measures include the strengthening of the network of repair cafés and encouraging leasing of material goods rather than buying them(So YOU WILL OWN NOTHING!)

Several “green deals”—voluntary agreements between private, public and government partners—have also been launched in Belgium to support sustainable development projects.

Circular construction

The building and construction sector provides good examples on how the green deals can promote sustainable development. Currently, the sector globally accounts for 36 per cent of primary energy use and 39 per cent of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. It also uses large amounts of natural resources—and generates waste. The move from waste management to raw material management in the sector is an opportunity to turn environmental objectives into economic opportunities that will optimize the use of resources, create new jobs and add value for the inhabitants.

In Flanders, around 30 to 40 per cent of waste comes from construction. In 2019, Flanders launched the Green Deal on Buildings and Construction, through which construction companies, building material producers, local and regional authorities, private builders, researchers and other organizations work together to make circular construction a daily reality. More than 300 organizations have already registered.

In the Brussels-Capital Region, waste produced by the construction sector amounts to 628,000 tonnes out of 1,325,000 tonnes waste collected annually. The majority (91per cent) of this waste is downcycled, meaning recycled into materials of lower quality and functionality. The onlineBrussels’ Sustainable Building Guideprovides tips for dismantling, reusing and recycling/upcycling construction materials.

Local companies are also invited to submit circular projects under the “Be Circular, Be Brussels” initiative, setting out a strategy to transition from a linear to a circular economy by 2025. The initiative won the regional innovation award (2016) organized by the Assembly of European Regions, and the Eurocities 2017 Award in the category “innovation”.

As an example of actions taken in Wallonia, concrete and bricks from demolished buildings are being turned into eco-friendly road surfaces in the province of Namur.

Sustainable eating

What and how we eatis just as important to planetary health as to our own health. Cities have become increasingly important in reducing the emissions associated with food production and food waste, while making sure their population has secure access to sustainable, healthy and affordable food.

The Belgian city of Ghent in Flanders was one of the first European cities to launch its own urban food policy in 2013, called Ghent en Garde. Thanks to suburban farmers’ markets and a new logistics platform for professional buyers, local food is now booming. Surplus food has been distributed to people in need, which simultaneously alleviates poverty and reduces COemissions. In 2019, the initiative was one of the winners of the United Nations Global Climate Action Award.

Flanders has also tracked its food waste since 2015, and initiated Food Supply Chain Roadmap on Food Loss—a public-private partnership to reduce food losses by 15 per cent by 2020 relative to the baseline—while in Wallonia, an action plan focused on tackling food waste aims at reducing losses and waste at all levels of the food chain by 30 per cent between 2015 and 2025.

revised food trianglenow exists in Flanders, with dietary guidelines for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle. It takes both your health and the health of the planet into account, as it encourages people to eat more plant-based foods, and to not waste food.

Initiatives such as these ones are important, as globally, a study from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations revealed that about one third of the food produced for humans is wasted every year.

To find out more about food waste and sustainable diets, visit Think Eat Save, a partnership of the Food and Agriculture Organization and UNEP.    (YOU WILL EAT ZE BUGS!!)
If you have not see my articles on Belgium, you ought to take a look at them:



They Swore an Oath – Octagon


In my search for the meaning of VLS in the name of the organization, I happened on VSL… and it was very interesting.


Environmental Protection Agency STAR Fellowship program The authors thank James Hammitt, Randall Lutter, and Robert Smith for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper. … (VSL). This article provides a comprehensive review and evaluation of the dozens of such studies throughout the world that have been based on market decisions.
Individuals make decisions everyday that reflect how they value health and mortality risks, such as driving an automobile, smoking a cigarette, and eating a mediumrare hamburger. Many of these choices involve market decisions, such as the purchase of a hazardous product or working on a risky job. Because increases in health risks are undesirable, there must be some other aspect of the activity that makes it attractive. Using evidence on market choices that involve implicit tradeoffs between risk and money, economists have developed estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL). This article provides a comprehensive review and evaluation of the dozens of such studies throughout the world that have been based on market decisions.1
These VSL estimates in turn provide governments with a reference point for assessing the benefits of risk reduction efforts. The long history of government risk policies ranges from the draining of swamps near ancient Rome to suppress malaria to the limits on air pollution in developed countries over the past 30 years (McNeill 1976,
OECD 2001). All such policy choices ultimately involve a balancing of additional risk reduction and incremental costs.
The proper value of the risk reduction benefits for government policy is society’s willingness to pay for the benefits. In the case of mortality risk reduction, the benefit is the value of the reduced probability of death that is experienced by the affected population, not the value of the lives that have been saved ex post. The economic literature has focused on willingness-to-pay (willingness-to-accept) measures of mortality risk since Schelling’s (1968) discussion of the economics of life saving.


Report on the EPA Work Group on VSL Meta-Analyses (2006)

Paper Number: EE-0494

Document Date: 07/25/2006

Author(s): Allen, Eilaine; Becker, Betsy Jane; Berlin, Jesse A.; Morton, Sally C.;  Olkin, Ingram
Rindskopf, David; Sampson, Allan R.; Wilson, David B.

Subject Area(s): Economic Analysis, Benefits Valuation; Revealed Preferences, Stated Preferences, Value of Statistical Life, Mortality Valuation, Meta-Analysis

Keywords: Economic Analysis, Benefits Valuation; Revealed Preferences, Stated Preferences, Value of Statistical Life, , Mortality Valuation, Meta-Analysis


In December 2005 a work group convened by the Environmental Protection Agency met to discuss the meta-analysis of estimates of the value of statistical life (VSL) and to examine three existing meta-analyses. The following report contains an analysis of the use of meta-analytic procedures to determine an estimate of VSL. Many detailed issues are covered in this report, but several general comments are also highlighted.

meta-analysis   mĕt″ə-ə-năl′ĭ-sĭs


  1. The process or technique of synthesizing research results by using various statistical methods to retrieve, select, and combine results from previous separate but related studies.
  2. Any systematic procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
  3. An analysis resulting from combining the results of diverse statistical studies.

Whereas meta-analysis is a reasonable analytical approach to use in obtaining information about VSL, the existing meta-analyses should not be combined in this effort. The key issues the work group uncovered include a high degree of heterogeneity (inconsistency) in the VSL estimates and dependencies (that could not be accounted for) stemming from inclusion of multiple estimates derived from the same underlying data; these issues preclude relying on these meta-analyses as a source of a final VSL estimate.

The work group recommends that in future meta-analyses results of contingent valuation and hedonic wage studies be analyzed separately. A basic consideration for the EPA is the determination of whether a single universal VSL value is applicable to all relevant subpopulations, or whether multiple VSL values should be provided for subpopulations. In particular, meta-analytic methods provide a variety of ways that could be used to characterize a population of VSL values.

This paper is part of the  Environmental Economics Research Inventory.

  • Report of the EPA Work Group on VSL Meta-Analysis (2006) (pdf) (154.84 KB, 07/25/2006, EE-0494)
    In December 2005 a work group convened by the Environmental Protection Agency met to discuss the meta-analysis of estimates of the value of statistical life (VSL) and to examine three existing meta-analyses. The following report contains an analysis of the use of meta-analytic procedures to determine an estimate of VSL. Many detailed issues are covered in this report, but several general comments are also highlighted.


  • T. AhnJaewon Lee Y. Kwon
  • Published 31 December 2015
  • Environmental Science
  • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
In this study, quantitative environmental impact assessments of the VSL anchor and RB(Reaming and Bearing) anchor systems were conducted after a life-cycle assessment (LCA). In addition, improvements which reduce the adverse environmental effects of the RB anchor system were confirmed through comparisons with results with a VSL anchor system.


Mar 1, 2021

Working Paper: What’s in a Name? A Systematic Search for Alternatives to “VSL”

Paper Number: 2018-01

Document Date: 4/2018

Author(s): Chris Dockins, Kelly B. Maguire, Steve Newbold, Nathalie B. Simon, Alan Krupnick, Laura O. Taylor

Subject Area(s): Valuation, Benefit-Cost Analysis

JEL Classification:

J17 – Value of Life; Foregone Income
Q51 – Valuation of Environmental Effects

Keywords: value of statistical life, mortality risk valuation, terminology, focus group

Abstract: Benefit-cost analyses of environmental, health, and safety regulations often rely on an estimate of the “value of statistical life,” or VSL, to calculate the aggregate benefits of human mortality risk reductions in monetary terms. The VSL represents the marginal rate of substitution between mortality risk and money, and while well-understood by economists, to many non-economists, decision-makers, media professionals, and others, the term resembles obfuscated jargon bordering on the immoral. This paper describes a series of seven focus groups in which we applied a systematic approach for identifying and testing alternatives to the VSL terminology. Our objective was to identify a term that better communicates the VSL concept. Specifically, a list of 17 alternatives to the VSL term was developed and tested in focus groups that culminated in a formal ranking exercise. Using a round-robin tournament approach to analyze the data, and our qualitative judgments, we identify “value of reduced mortality riskas the dominant replacement term among the alternatives tested.

This paper is part of the Environmental Economics Working Paper Series.


The Handbook of Global Climate and Environment Policy

The Handbook of Global Climate and Environment Policy


The Handbook of Global Climate and Environment Policy presents an authoritative and comprehensive overview of global policy on climate and the environment. It combines the strengths of an interdisciplinary team of experts from around the world to explore current debates and the latest thinking in the search for global environmental solutions.

  • Explores the environmental challenges we currently face, and the concepts and approaches to solving these
  • Questions the role of global actors, institutions and processes, and considers the links between global climate and environment policy, and that of the global economy
  • Highlights the connections between social science research and global policy
  • Brings together authoritative coverage of recent research by internationally-renowned experts from around the world, including from North America, Europe, and Asia
  • Provides an essential resource guide for students and researchers from across a wide range of related disciplines – from politics and international relations, to environmental sciences and sociology – and for global policy practitioners
Part I Global Policy Challenges 1

1 Global Climate Change 3
Matthew J. Hoffmann

2 Global Water Governance 19
Joyeeta Gupta

3 Biodiversity and Conservation 37
Stuart Harrop

4 Marine Environment Protection 53
Markus Salomon

5 Deforestation 72
David Humphreys

6 Biotechnology and Biosafety 89
Aarti Gupta

7 Global Chemicals Politics and Policy 107
Henrik Selin

Part II Concepts and Approaches 125

8 Global Environmental Norms 127
Steven Bernstein

9 Global Governance 146
Johannes Stripple and Hannes Stephan

10 Global Environmental Security 163
Simon Dalby

11 International Environmental Law 179
Daniel Bodansky

12 Green Growth 197
Michael Jacobs

13 Sustainable Consumption 215
Doris Fuchs

14 Climate Change Justice 231
Edward Page

Part III Global Actors, Institutions, and Processes 249

15 The Nation-State, International Society, and the Global Environment 251
Robert Falkner

16 Transnational Environmental Activism 268
Susan Park

17 Business as a Global Actor 286
Jennifer Clapp and Jonas Meckling

18 International Regime Effectiveness 304
Steinar Andresen

19 Strengthening the United Nations 320
Steffen Bauer

20 International Negotiations 339
Radoslav S. Dimitrov

21 Regionalism and Environmental Governance 358
Miranda Schreurs

Part IV Global Economy and Policy 375

22 Globalization 377
Peter Newell

23 Private Regulation in Global Environmental Governance 394
Graeme Auld and Lars H. Gulbrandsen

24 International Trade, the Environment, and Climate Change 412
Nico Jaspers and Robert Falkner

25 Global Finance and the Environment 428
Christopher Wright

26 Energy Policy and Climate Change 446
Benjamin K. Sovacool

27 Economic Instruments for Climate Change 468
Jonas Meckling and Cameron Hepburn

28 International Aid and Adaptation to Climate Change 486
Jessica M. Ayers and Achala Chandani Abeysinghe


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Apr 27, 2022  Vsl Biogreen Solution Private Limited is an unlisted private company incorporated on 26 March, 2021. It is classified as a private limited company and is located in North West, Delhi. It’s authorized share capital is INR 10.00 lac and the total paid-up capital is INR 10.00 lac.

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SI-traceable mercury measurement results with the VSL primary mercury gas standard

Jun 01 2021

Author: Iris de Krom on behalf of VSL Dutch Metrology Institute

A primary mercury gas standard was developed at VSL to establish an SI-traceable reference point for mercury concentrations at emission and background levels in the atmosphere. The primary gas standard has been developed as a mercury gas generator to establish metrological traceability of mercury concentration measurement results, based upon a gravimetric approach, for ambient air levels as well as higher concentrations.

Departmental Guidance
Treatment of the Value of Preventing Fatalities and Injuries
in Preparing Economic Analyses
March 2021
This guidance describes the Department of Transportation’s recommended methodology for calculating the value of a statistical life (VSL) and applying it in analyses that assess the economic benefits of preventing fatalities. It also establishes policies for assigning comparable values to the prevention of injuries.
Prevention of injury, illness, and loss of life is a significant factor in many private economic decisions, including job choices and consumer product purchases. When government makes direct investments or controls external market impacts by regulation, it also pursues these benefits, often while also imposing costs on society. The Office of the Secretary of Transportation and other DOT administrations are required by Executive Order 13563, Executive Order 12866, Executive Order 12893, OMB Circular A-4, and DOT Order 2100.5 to evaluate in monetary terms the costs and benefits of their regulations, investments, and administrative actions, in order to demonstrate the faithful execution of their responsibilities to the public. Since 1993, the Office of the Secretary of Transportation has periodically reviewed the published research on the value of safety and updated guidance for all administrations.
The benefit of preventing a fatality is measured by what is conventionally called the Value of a Statistical Life, defined as the additional cost that individuals would be willing to bear for improvements in safety (that is, reductions in risks) that, in the aggregate, reduce the expected number of fatalities by one. This conventional terminology has often provoked misunderstanding on the part of both the public and decision-makers. What is involved is not the valuation of life as such, but the valuation of reductions in risks. While new terms have been proposed to avoid misunderstanding, we will maintain the common usage of the research literature and OMB Circular A-4 in referring to VSL.
Most regulatory actions involve the reduction of risks of low probability (as in, for example, a one-in-10,000 annual chance of dying in an automobile crash). For these low-probability risks, we shall assume that the willingness to pay to avoid the risk of a fatal injury increases proportionately with growing risk. That is, when an individual is willing to pay $1,000 to reduce the annual risk of death by one in 10,000, she is said to have a VSL of $10 million. The assumption of a linear relationship between risk and willingness to pay therefore implies that she would be willing to pay $2,000 to reduce risk by two in 10,000 or $5,000 to reduce risk by five in 10,000. The assumption of a linear relationship between risk and willingness to pay (WTP) breaks down when the annual WTP becomes a substantial portion of annual income, so the assumption of a constant VSL is not appropriate for substantially larger risks.
When first applied to benefit-cost analysis in the 1960s and 1970s, the value of saving a life was measured by the potential victim’s expected earnings, measuring the additional product society
might have lost.These lost earnings were widely believed to understate the real costs of loss of life, because the value that we place on the continued life of our family and friends is not based
entirely, or even principally, on their earning capacity. In recent decades, studies based on
estimates of individuals’ willingness to pay for improved safety have become widespread, and
offer a way of measuring the value of reduced risk in a more comprehensive way. These estimates of the individual’s value of safety are then treated as the ratio of the individual marginal utility of safety to the marginal utility of wealth. These estimates of the individual values of changes in safety can then be aggregated to produce estimates of social benefits of changes in safety, which can then be compared with the costs of these changes.
Studies estimating the willingness to pay for safety fall into two categories. Some analyze subjects’ responses in real markets, and are referred to as revealed preference (RP) studies, while others analyze subjects’ responses in hypothetical markets, and are described as stated preference (SP) studies. Revealed preference studies in turn can be divided into studies based on consumer purchase decisions and studies based on employment decisions (usually referred to as hedonic wage studies). Even in revealed preference studies, safety is not purchased directly, so the value that consumers place upon it cannot be measured directly. Instead, the value ofsafety can be inferred from market decisions that people make in which safety is one factor in their decisions. In the case of consumer purchase decisions, since goods and services usually display multiple attributes, and are purchased for a variety of reasons, there is no guarantee that safety will be the conclusive factor in any purchasing decision (note that even products like bicycle helmets, which are purchased primarily for safety, also vary in style, comfort, and durability). Similarly, in employment decisions, safety is one of many considerations in the decision of which job offer to accept. Statistical techniques must therefore be used to identify the relative influence of price (or wage), safety, and other qualitative characteristics of the
product or job on the consumer’s or worker’s decision on which product to buy or which job to
An additional complication in RP studies is that, even if the real risks confronted by individuals can be estimated accurately by the analyst, the consumer or employee may not estimate these risks accurately. It is possible for individuals, through lack of relevant information or limited ability to analyze risks, to assign an excessively low or high probability to fatal risks. Alternatively, detailed familiarity with the hazards they face and their own skills may allow individuals to form more accurate estimates of risk at, for example, a particular job-site than those derived by researchers, which inevitably are based on more aggregate data.
In the SP approach, market alternatives incorporating hypothetical risks are presented to test subjects, who respond with what they believe would be their choices. Answers to hypothetical questions may provide helpful information, but they remain hypothetical. Although great pains are usually taken to communicate probabilities and measure the subjects’ understanding, there is no assurance that individuals’ predictions of their own behavior would be observed in practice. Against this weakness, the SP method can evaluate many more alternatives than those for which market data are available, and it can guarantee that risks are described objectively to subjects. With indefinitely large potential variations in cost and risk and no uncontrolled variation in any other dimension, some of the objections to RP models are obviated. Despite procedural safeguards, however, SP studies have not proven consistently successful in estimating measures of WTP that increase proportionally with greater risks.
RP studies involving decisions to buy and/or use various consumer products have focused on decisions such as buying cars with better safety equipment, wearing seat belts or helmets, or buying and installing smoke detectors. These studies often lack a continuum of price-risk opportunities, so that the price paid for a safety feature (such as a bicycle helmet) does not necessarily represent the value that the consumer places on the improvement in safety that he helmet provides. In the case of decisions to use a product (like a seatbelt) rather than to buy the product, the “price” paid by the consumer must be inferred from the amount of time and degree of inconvenience involved in using the product, rather than the directly observable price of buying the product. The necessity of making these inferences introduces possible sources of error. Studies of purchases of automobiles probably are less subject to these problems than studies of other consumer decisions, because the price of the safety equipment is directly
observable, and there are usually a variety of more or less expensive safety features that provide more of a range of price-risk trade-offs for consumers to make.
While there are many examples of SP studies and RP studies involving consumer product purchases, the most widely cited body of research comprises hedonic wage studies, which estimate the wage differential that employers must pay workers to accept riskier jobs, taking other factors into account. Besides the problem of identifying and quantifying these factors, researchers must have a reliable source of data on fatality and injury risks and also assume that workers’ psychological risk assessment conforms to the objective data. The accuracy of hedonic wage studies has improved over the last decade with the availability of more complete data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), supported by advances in econometric modeling, including the use of panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The CFOI data are, first of all, a complete census of occupational fatalities, rather than a sample, so they allow more robust statistical estimation. Second, they classify occupational fatalities by both industry and occupation, allowing variations in fatalities across both dimensions to be compared with corresponding variations in wage rates. Some of the new studies use panel data to analyze the behavior of workers who switch from one job to another, where the analysis can safely assume that any trade-off between wage levels and risk reflects the preferences of a single individual, and not differences in preferences among individuals.
VSL estimates are based on studies of groups of individuals that are covered by the study, but those VSL estimates are then applied to other groups of individuals who were not the subjects of the original studies. This process is called benefit transfer. One issue that has arisen in studies of VSL is whether this benefit transfer process should be applied broadly over the  general population of people that are affected by a rulemaking, or whether VSL should be estimated for particular subgroups, such as workers in particular industries, and people of particular ages, races, and genders. Advances in data and econometric techniques have allowed specialized estimates of VSL for these population subgroups. Safety regulations issued by the Department of Transportation typically affect a broad cross-section of people, rather than more narrowly defined subgroups. For that, and other policy reasons, we do not consider variations in VSL among different population groups in this guidance.
SO, we see that when these arrogant oligarchs are determining whether or not to spend the money to avoid accidents they are not doing all they can to protect the sanctity of HUMAN LIFE.  They are considering what it will COST them to make any improvements or repairs against what they consider is the value of increasing your odds of surviving, base on their valuation of your current life position: age/education/financial situation/location…etc.  You should always bear in mind that they consider each one of us as WORTHLESS EATERS…totally disposable.
The EU and national governments have set clear objectives to guide European environment policy until 2020 and a vision beyond that, of where to be by 2050, with the support of dedicated research programmes, legislation and funding: protect, conserve and enhance the EU’s natural capital.

Towards a greener and more sustainable Europe

Work is ongoing on many fronts to protect the EU’s endangered species and natural areas, ensure safe drinking and bathing water improve air quality and waste management, and reduce the effects of harmful chemicals.

Environmental protection and innovation help to create new business and employment opportunities, which stimulate further investment. Green growth is at the heart of EU policy to ensure that Europe’s economic growth is environmentally sustainable. The EU also plays a key role in promoting sustainable development at a global level.


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Millions of square meters of VSoL® walls have been successfully installed around the world on a wide variety of projects (including retaining walls, bridge abutments, and a range of infrastructure schemes). They not only provide a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than conventional earth retaining alternatives, but they are aesthetically pleasing as well.

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A buoy is a floating object that shows ships and boats where they can go and warns them of danger. American English: buoy / ˈbui / Arabic: عَوّامَة للإِرْشاد Brazilian Portuguese: bóia Chinese: 浮标 Croatian: plovak Czech: bóje Danish: bøje afmærkning Dutch: boei European Spanish: boya Finnish: poiju French: bouée German: Boje Greek: σημαδούρα
gués ( French) Noun gués (?) Plural of gué This is the meaning of gué: gué ( French) Origin & history From Middle French gué, from Old French gué (“ford”), from Old Frankish *wad (“ford, crossing”), from Proto-Germanic *wadą (“ford, crossing”), from Proto-Indo-European *weh₂dʰ- (“to go, pass, cross, wade”). Also corresponds to Latin vadum.


The Value of a Statistical LifeA Critical Review of Market Estimates Throughout the World by W. Kip Viscusi and Joseph E. Aldy Appendix I. VSL Studies Used in Three Meta Analyses Appendix J. Bibliography of New VSL Studies This paper is part of the Environmental Economics Research Inventory.

Paper Number: EE-0483

Document Date: 04/21/2004

Author(s): USEPA: Dockins, Chris; Maguire, Kelly; Simon, Nathalie; Sullivan, Melonie

Subject Area(s): Economic Analysis, Benefits Valuation; Revealed Preferences, Stated Preferences, Value of Statistical Life, Mortality Valuation

Keywords: Economic Analysis, Benefits Valuation; Revealed Preferences, Stated Preferences, Value of Statistical Life, Mortality Valuation


In the early 2000s, EPA was in the process of revising and updating its Guidelines and as such we are revisiting our approach to valuing mortality risk reductions. The literature has grown considerably since EPA’s default estimate was derived and several EPA-funded reports have raised issues related to the robustness of estimates emerging from the mortality risk valuation literature. Furthermore, several meta-analyses have been conducted of this literature, providing new means of deriving central, default values for consideration. EPA’s goal in bringing this issue to the SAB-EEAC is to seek expert opinion and guidance regarding the most appropriate way in which to proceed in updating the VSL estimate used to assess the mortality risk reductions from environmental policy.

It is important to note that this discussion focuses exclusively on mortality risk valuation. While the authors recognize the importance of morbidity and co-morbidity risks, the focus of this particular White Paper is on mortality; morbidity will be addressed at a future time.

To help inform the discussion, this paper provides background on current EPA practices for valuing mortality risk reductions, briefly summarizes the findings of three cooperative agreement reports on various segments of the literature, and reviews three recent meta-analyses that derive aggregate VSL estimates. The paper concludes with charge questions for consideration and discussion by the EEAC members.

This paper is part of the  Environmental Economics Research Inventory.

  • Value of Statistical Life Analysis and Environmental Policy: A White Paper and Appendices A-J (2004) (pdf) (3.4 MB, 04/21/2004, EE-483A-K)
    To help inform the discussion, this paper provides background on current EPA practices for valuing mortality risk reductions, briefly summarizes the findings of three cooperative agreement reports on various segments of the literature, and reviews three recent meta-analyses thar derive aggregate VSL estimates. The paper concludes with charge questions for consideration and discussion by the EEAC members. Full copies of the cooperative agreement reports and meta-analyses are added as appendices.

VSL GLOBAL Korlátolt Felelősségű Társaság



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To estimate VSL, HHS currently relies on the results of a criteria -driven review reported in Robinson and Hammitt (2016). That review provides population-average values in 2013 dollars at 2013 income levels, which range from $4.2 million to $13.7 million with a mid-point of $9.0 million. HHS uses these values as

Environmental Issues and International Politics – Jagranjosh.com

Ecological Footprint and the Carrying Capacity became the buzzwords in the International Politics since 1992. The International Politics is moving towards the consensus to achieve the Environmental goals spelt out in the UNFCC in 1992. Let us analyse, how the Environmental Concerns is shaping the world Politics.

AS Exam: Environmental Concern is changing the course of International Politics


UPDATED: NOV 15, 2016 16:30 IST
The major environmental concern on the world stage started with the formation of ‘Club of Rome‘ in 1968, which gave its very infamous report ‘Limits to growth’ in 1972. This was followed by the publication of Bruntland report in 1987 by United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) having the target of multilateralism and interdependence of nations in the search for a sustainable development path. Gradually, this gave the world concepts of ‘ecological footprint’, ‘carrying capacity’ and so on, which finally culminated into the earth summit and signing of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 to stabilize the Green House Gas in earth’s environment. Thereafter, the international politics have been heavily influenced by finding the ways to contain global warming by prohibiting the emission of Green House Gases in the environment.

Current Affairs for IAS Prelims Exam

The environmental concerns are deep rooted and complex today affecting a large parts of the world and its inhabitants. This is probably the single most factor, every nukes and corners of the world is concerned about. Individual activists, NGOs, even various states have come together through many international organizations such as the United Nations, World Wildlife Fund etc. to derive plans related to environmental issues such as global warming, environmental pollution, ozone hole, desertification and reducing harmful chemicals in the atmosphere.

THIS is EXACTLY how the Globalists have taken over the WORLD destroying National Sovereignty.  Using Corporations, Foundations, 510c3s, NGOs of every kind, individuals, Billionaires, etc joined together to bypass Local, State, and National GOVERNMENTS to force their will on the world.  

The conditions of the environment assert a major effect on human livelihood and the existence of ecosystem. These issues have become clearly political in nature in present times, due to following reasons:

1.    Today’s environmental problems are global in their cumulative consequences, as evident from the phenomenon of El-Nino and simultaneous droughts in various parts of the world.


2.    The problems of contemporary times relate more to represent biodegenerative products of humanity, i.e. air, water and soil pollution, deforestation, ocean exploitation, desertification etc. However, in the past the problems were related to their accessibility rather than their exploitation. For example our ancestors had problems related to the biophysical parameters of nature, i.e. access to water, soil fertility, and temperature.

3.    Contemporary problems of environment have been caused due to anthropogenic resources – industrial revolution, unmindful use of non-renewable sources of energy, exploitation of nature due to overpopulation and so on. Whereas, it was natural forces which created environmental problems for our ancestors.

4.    We have little time addressing the problems like environment in individual capacity today. Hence, the international politics have been drawn by default to set the things right. Our ancestors in the past had more time, resources and space to deal with environmental threats than we do today.

India’s changing approach to global forums

India had been persistently and rightly so accusing the west of spreading the contemporary menace of global warming and environmental pollution since the industrial revolution days. Therefore, It has hard been fighting against any curb to prohibit its developmental opportunities in the garb of greenhouse gas emission. India has long maintained that its per capita greenhouse gas emission is significantly lower than that of the other countries of the world. India, along with other developing and emerging countries of the world have favored the reining in of greenhouse gas emission of the developed world and  leaving the former to voluntarily control its emissions.


Climate change is impacting human lives and health in a variety of ways. It threatens the essential ingredients of good health – clean air, safe drinking water, nutritious food supply, and safe shelter – and has the potential to undermine decades of progress in global health.

Between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress alone. The direct damage costs to health is estimated to be between USD 2-4 billion per year by 2030.
Boy, they have already guaranteed that.  Killing off all of our food supply, forcing us into smart cities, cutting us of from our financial security, forcing us to take vaccines, invading our bodies with nano particles, poisoning the air we breathe and the water we drink.  Stirring up resentments and encouraging violence in our streets, turning our police force into a military arm that is afraid of the public, causing wild fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanos, powerful winds and electrical storms, flooding and draughts. Planting  wild animals in environments where people live, and creating huge and deadly insects.  ya…I can see that 250,000 additional deaths per year is a sure thing…especially if the wars continue to escalate.  
Areas with weak health infrastructure – mostly in developing countries – will be the least able to cope without assistance to prepare and respond. WHO supports countries in building climate-resilient health systems and tracking national progress in protecting health from climate change.
Your boss asks you to tell her what is the maximum this regulation could cost and still have the benefits be at least as large as the costs. What is your answer? Expert Answer Introduction: Hedonic wage studies determine the value of a statistical life (VSL) by analyzing the wages … View the full answer Previous question Next question

Question: Suppose That Hedonic Wage Studies Indicate A Willingness To Pay $50 Per Person To Reduce The Risk Of Premature Death From An Environmental Hazard Of 1/100,000. If The Exposed Population Is 4 Million People, What Is The Implied Value Of A Statistical Life? B. Suppose An Impending Environmental Regulation To Control That Hazard Is Expected To Reduce The Risk

Suppose that hedonic wage studies indicate a willingness to pay $50 per person to reduce the risk of premature death from an environmental hazard of 1/100,000. If the exposed population is 4 million people, what is the implied value of a statistical life? b. Suppose an impending environmental regulation to control that hazard is expected to reduce the risk of premature death from 6/100,000 to 2/100,000 per year in that exposed population of 4 million people. Your boss asks you to tell her what is the maximum this regulation could cost and still have the benefits be at least as large as the costs. What is your answer?

Expert Answer

Introduction: Hedonic wage studies determine the value of a statistical life (VSL) by analyzing the wages

View the full answer

Any time you hear “study” “data” “data base” “research” “scenarios“analysis” “model” “modeling” “experiments” “statistics” etc… they are talking about DATA GATHERING TO FEED AI!  When they opened up the clinic in OHIO they were probing for DATA, they did not care about” the health of the people who were clearly suffering from the chemicals released in their “CONTROLLED BURN”.

Mar 30, 2022 The Value of Mortality Risk (VMR) and the Value of Statistical Life (VSL) are indeed related. The underlying theoretical concept is the same, and the estimated values for either metric would be based on the same published literature. The difference lies in the choice of units used to aggregate and report the risk changes.

How will EPA Estimate the Value of Mortality Risk (VMR)?

For decades economists have been studying how people make tradeoffs between their own income and risks to their health and safety. These tradeoffs can reveal how people value, in dollar terms, small changes in risk. For example, purchasing automobile safety options reveals information on what people are willing to pay to reduce their risk of dying in a car accident. Purchasing smoke detectors reveals information on what people are willing to pay to reduce their risk of dying in a fire. EPA will review all of the peer-reviewed scientific studies of these income and health risk trade-offs and will attempt to summarize the results in a single best central estimate or range of estimates to use in benefit-cost analyses.

What is a Cancer Differential?

A cancer differential is the additional amount that people are willing to pay to reduce cancer risks relative to accidental or other categories of mortality risks. In part, this may reflect the extended period of illness that accompanies life-threatening cancer, but it may also include intangible factors such as the additional feeling of dread associated with cancer. If people value different types of risk differently, then benefits analysis for different types of policies would ideally reflect these preferences. As described in the White Paper on Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions in Environmental Policy, EPA believes there is now sufficient scientific evidence for including a cancer differential in economic analysis of policies that reduce exposure to cancer-causing pollutants. This issue is one of the subjects for EPA’s upcoming consultation with the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee of the Science Advisory Board.

What are Altruistic Preferences?

Altruism is the concern for others. We know from studies that individuals are often willing to pay more when there are reductions in risks to themselves as well as others. That is, many studies show that individuals express altruism when asked how much they would be willing to pay to reduce risks to themselves as well as other people. Since most environmental policy addresses public risks that we all face in common, then it may be important to capture these altruistic preferences in our benefit-cost analysis. This issue is one of the subjects for EPA’s upcoming consultation with the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee of the Science Advisory Board.

VSL and the Dictatorship of the Present

Due to the COVID-19 crisis, a little-known economic concept has entered the public eye. While statistics like GDP, the unemployment rate, and the inflation rate have been in the public consciousness for years, the value of a statistical life, or VSL as it is often termed, has mostly flown under the radar. The VSL is used by economists to gauge the value of changes in mortality in an economic analysis. It’s a dollar value applied to lives expected to be saved by expensive public policies, in order to determine whether the costs are “worth it.”

Today, the debate about social distancing—and the inevitable tradeoffs between money and lives that social distancing creates—is leading to greater awareness of the VSL. If more people come to understand the limitations of a concept that governments rely heavily on, it will be a good thing.

The VSL often generates controversy when people learn about it: “The government is putting a dollar value on human lives?!” Well, yes—prevailing academic thought suggests it’s about $10 million on average for Americans, and the government has used such an analytical device for decades when evaluating the consequences of health, safety, and environmental policies.

One basic premise behind the VSL, and behind cost-benefit analysis more generally, is that the preferences of present citizens should dictate policy. At first glance, this sounds reasonable. Who could oppose making people better off according to their own values?

The problem is that the preferences of current citizens and the well-being of future citizens aren’t always the same thing, and they often clash. Just think about the growing national debt. Sure, we can borrow more to consume today, and that might be perfectly fine with a majority of people in 2020, who don’t seem inclined to change it. But it comes at the expense of future generations—and not just because of debt that will one day have to be repaid. Much government spending also lowers consumption in the future by redirecting our money today away from productive investment and thereby slowing growth; that makes future citizens worse off.

It’s not that the well-being of future citizens counts for nothing in a cost-benefit analysis. But in the economic models that underlie the VSL and cost-benefit analysis, the well-being of future citizens often matters only to the extent that it matters to present citizens. Such a situation is sometimes referred to as a “dictatorship of the present.” Present workers might value leaving a bequest to their successors or exhibit some other degree of altruism, but that’s typically as far as it goes. In economics jargon, usually the well-being of future citizens does not enter the “social welfare function” directly. Instead, the present generation gets to be the dictator of policy for the time that it is alive.

Here’s how this works in practice: Economists do a statistical analysis to assess people’s preferences about a risk. They identify what current citizens are willing to pay to reduce the risk in their own lives, or how much money they are willing accept to bear more of it. Then those individuals’ preferences are used as a stand-in for society’s preferences in a cost-benefit analysis. If a policy costs more to present citizens than they value the risk reduction, it can be deemed inefficient using the VSL, and hence not worth addressing.

But in general, when costs will be paid (in one form or another) by future citizens, policies look much more favorable. That’s because present citizens don’t value distant future costs very highly (nor do they place much weight on benefits that take a long time to pay off). As a result, the VSL tends to recommend heavy investments in risk reduction for present citizens, with the costs being passed on to people in the future.

The crux of the problem is that the VSL describes the private benefits of reducing risk for certain individuals, but it doesn’t come close to describing the complete social benefits. This is a big deal because in a cost-benefit analysis, resources are supposed to be valued according to what society—or the sum total of all individuals—would be willing to pay for them on the margin, not what this or that specific individual or group would be willing to pay.

If one group can’t participate in the market for a good—say because its members haven’t been born yet—but is impacted by the sale of the good, this creates an externality. To get a number that’s useful in a cost-benefit analysis, one needs to simulate what would happen if the various impacted groups could trade with one another.

When individual and social values deviate in this way, it’s known as a market failure. And when a market failure heavily informs an economic analysis, this leads to inefficient policy recommendations.

Consider what would happen if economists created a cost-benefit analysis based on prices from a market that was dominated by a single monopoly producer. The price of the good the monopolist sold would likely be too high relative to how society values it. The analysis wouldn’t just be incorrect; it could lead to ill-informed policy that spreads inefficiencies from a market that is failing badly to many other markets. This is precisely what happens when policy makers act based on analyses which use the VSL.

The most charitable way to view the VSL is that it captures the preferences of some small sliver of society. If these preferences were all that mattered—or if we could correct the tendency to discriminate against future generations—perhaps the VSL could be a useful tool in cost-benefit analysis. But when the preferences of that small sliver are imposed on everyone else in society in a dictatorial faction, it tends to justify gratuitous spending for the benefit of the small group. Much like with the national debt, we lavish benefits upon ourselves at the expense of our children and grandchildren.

The public is gaining unfiltered access into the economist’s workshop as a result of COVID-19. As they peek behind the curtain to see the levers being pulled in a cost-benefit analysis, there is a lot they may find objectionable. At the top of that list is likely to be the VSL, and for good reason.

Dec 1, 2021


  • Recognize incident trends by analyzing the accident/incident database and find, through research, ways to minimize the incident rate of leaks, spills, and damage to the environment due to hazardous materials releases.
  • Lower the potential for loss of lading and reduce the exposure of hazardous materials to the environment and population in the event of a train accident caused by a derailment.
  • Improve methods of inspection for tank car damage through the investigation of promising non-destructive detection technologies.
  • Investigate emerging technologies and take advantage of national and international research programs that will increase the safety and efficiency of rail transportation.
  • Continue to provide support to the Office of Safety’s goals through the development of regulations and standards, as well as take a more active role in the tank car design approval process as a result of the changing roles of industry partners as the industry evolves.


The hazardous materials research program includes fostering innovation throughout the industry, helping development of new regulations and design standards that improve the safety and integrity of tank cars and other packages carrying hazardous materials, and continuing growth of new research programs that satisfy the need of the industry and government.

Fostering innovation. Throughout the years, FRA has had a substantial influence on technical research and development. These public research and development programs have helped the development of new technology by advancing basic knowledge and understanding. The information generated by this research is the most important product, helping to improve the new product or process to improve the package.

Regulations and standards. Since regulation of private activity is accomplished by specifying a limited number of conforming designs and processes, considerable economic pressure exists to continue use of the technology embedded in those designs and processes. It is the nature of government regulations that acceptable designs will not generally include the latest and most efficient technologies. FRA wants to devise strategic and tactical plans that include getting involved in areas where a clear societal benefit exists, causing the least disruption to the economic process. These plans will include new technologies to improve the tank car’s integrity, as well as safe and rapid transport of hazardous materials.

Last updated: Wednesday, December 1, 2021


Major chemical accidents may threaten the lives and health of people in the surrounding areas. Large-scale regional evacuation is a key measure for protecting the public from these accidents. In such unconventional emergency situations, the diffusion of evacuation warnings has a significant impact on the public’s decision on whether to take evacuation actions. Through an investigation and analysis of evacuation cases, this paper discusses the diffusion characteristics of evacuation warning and evacuation efficiency of the public in major chemical accident cases. The results indicate that different diffusion methods of evacuation warnings affect public evacuation decisions. In addition, based on curve fitting and regression analysis, we propose a mathematical model of evacuation warning diffusion for responsive evacuation and an evaluation model of the relationship between the diffusion of evacuation warning and the evacuation rate. The results indicate that in the responsive evacuation process, the diffusion efficiency of the evacuation warning corresponds to Weibull distribution. As the diffusion of the evacuation warning continues, the evacuation rate of the people who receive evacuation warnings first decreases and then increases, when more than 50% of the people in the evacuation area receive the evacuation warning. The evacuation rate of the people who do not receive evacuation warnings increases first and then decreases. The results of the fitting analysis indicate that when ∼73% of the people in the evacuation area receive an evacuation warning, the area’s overall evacuation rate is the highest. This can provide a basis and reference for regional evacuation analysis and emergency planning in unconventional emergency situations.


Toxic gas leakage accidents usually result in several casualties (Shen et al., 2012; Misra et al., 1987; Deng and Jiang, 2009; Leneveu, 2012). For accidents involving sudden toxic gas leakages, regional evacuation is a key element in protecting the public from the threat of leaked toxic gases (Southworth, 1991; Georgiadou et al., 2007; Gai et al., 2018a, 2018b). The decision of the public to take evacuation action is closely related to their perception of the disaster risk when they are faced with a sudden disaster (Slovic, 2000; Nirupama, 2012; Smalley, 2013; Burnside et al., 2007; Bateman and Edwards, 2002). On one hand, the public’s perception of disaster risk comes from the abnormal environmental cues after the accident, such as pungent smell, huge explosion sound, or presence of fire. On the other hand, it comes from the received evacuation warnings, such as an accident information received from friends or the evacuation order heard from the loudspeaker. However, the spread of environmental cues is usually limited by distance and time. It is difficult to transmit risk-related information to more people on time while only relying on the environmental cues generated by disasters. Therefore, ensuring that evacuation warnings are released and disseminated in a timely manner after the accident is significant for the public to obtain risk information and quickly take evacuation actions (Mileti and O’Brien, 1992).

In some emergency evacuation instances, inadequate diffusion of evacuation warnings is the main cause of casualties (Hayden et al., 2007). With the development of science and technology, wildfires, hurricanes, tsunamis and other disasters can predict the development trend and scope of disasters in advance, with a long evacuation warning time (Bird et al., 2009; Angus et al., 2018; Mccaffrey et al., 2018). For wildfires, hurricanes, and other disasters, an early warning system can issue an evacuation warning to the threatened public a few days before the disaster occurs, and the warning may include what actions the public needs to take to protect themselves and others (Sorensen, 2000; Lindell, 2008). The public may have enough time to receive evacuation warnings and begin evacuation preparations.

However, for industrial accidents, terrorist attacks, and other sudden disasters, the abovementioned cues are not usually enough. The characteristics of such hazards are complex, and can potentially result in other secondary hazards with serious damage. These accidents are defined as unconventional emergencies (Han et al., 2009). Unconventional emergencies usually issue evacuation warnings to the public after the accident (Nagarajan et al., 2012). Moreover, unconventional emergencies may lead to fire, explosion, stomping, and other derivative disasters due to their domino effect (Hosseinnia et al., 2018), which is more likely to cause panic and confusion (Perry, 2007). Therefore, in the large-scale regional evacuation caused by unconventional emergencies, it is more necessary to study the diffusion characteristics of evacuation warnings to ensure that the evacuation warning can diffuse quickly and effectively in the public after the accident.

For unconventional emergencies (such as the “8.12” explosion in Tianjin port, the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake, and the explosion accident of Jihua double benzene plant), evacuation warnings usually have both official and unofficial sources of information (Fang et al., 2017; Li et al., 2019; Dai et al., 2015). The official evacuation warnings are usually formalized and staged orders (Parker and Handmer, 1998). However, official information may not be transmitted to all residents (Linardi and Sera, 2016), and its effectiveness depends on the time and channel of issuance of the order. Not everyone owns the required medium through which an official warning can be received (e.g., TV or radio) (Stern and Sinuany-Stern, 1989; Parker and Handmer, 1998; Sorensen, 2000). Studies on public evacuation behavior show that the official evacuation warning is often lost to peer influence (Eisenman et al., 2007; Burnside et al., 2007; Nilsson et al., 2009; Bode et al., 2013). Therefore, the diffusion of evacuation warnings among the public should consider not only vertical diffusion (officially issued) but also horizontal diffusion (peer to peer) (Comfort et al., 2004; Comfort, 2007). Lindell et al. (2005) showed that the public had higher trust in their peers (relatives, friends, neighbors, etc.), followed by the local authorities and news reports. In the emergency evacuation system, peers are also an important source of public access to evacuation warnings (Leider et al., 2009; Parker and Handmer, 1998).

At the same time, the multi-notification channel of the emergency evacuation system ensures the diffusion efficiency of an evacuation warning (Durage et al., 2014). With the development of society, the communication channels of evacuation warnings have become more diversified and the application of networks has significantly improved the efficiency of information dissemination. However, in sudden disasters, electronic devices, such as mobile phones and computers, can be easily damaged by disasters. Studies have also shown that evacuation information disseminated on the Internet may be inaccurate (Thomson et al., 2012) or may intentionally contain misleading information (Castillo et al., 2011). In this case, the voices of outside speakers, roving information-disseminating vehicles, and loudspeakers play a very important role in the diffusion of evacuation warnings (Arai, 2013). Therefore, in a large-scale regional evacuation, the source of evacuation warning and diffusion channels will have an important impact on public access to evacuation information and whether to make evacuation decisions. According to the evacuation situation, choosing the appropriate release sources and diffusion channels of the evacuation warning will help shorten the broadcast time of evacuation warnings and expand the scope of contagion.

Note that after receiving the evacuation warning, the public will not necessarily trust the information and may be slow in taking evacuation actions. Some false alarms are also unavoidable as a result the evacuation warnings received using different methods (Durage et al., 2014). This can affect the public’s trust in real evacuation information and may even lead to them ignoring an evacuation warning (Haque et al., 2012; Paul and Dutt, 2010; Paul, 2012). For those who have not received evacuation notification, they usually decide to evacuate as a result of environmental cues and peer behavior influence (Gai and Deng, 2019). Therefore, for large-scale regional evacuation, when the rate of evacuation warning received is high, it does not necessarily result in higher public evacuation rates. False information in evacuation warnings may hinder the public from making evacuation decisions and the people who have not received the evacuation warning may also take evacuation action because of the herd mentality. Therefore, for a rational allocation of emergency resources and improvement in evacuation efficiency, it is important to study the relationship between the rate of evacuation warning received and the actual public evacuation rate. This also helps in obtaining the optimal value of evacuation warning diffusion.

Based on the above information, this paper mainly explores the diffusion properties of evacuation warning and its impact on public evacuation in large-scale regional evacuation caused by major chemical accidents. Through case investigation, the diffusion methods and characteristics of evacuation warning in major chemical accidents are analyzed. Based on regression analysis, a diffusion model of evacuation warning in the responsive evacuation method is developed. By extracting and fitting evacuation data in typical cases, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the relationship between the diffusion of evacuation warnings and the public evacuation rate. The findings from this research provide a basis for the establishment of an emergency communication system in unconventional emergency situations, which is significant for improving the evacuation efficiency and reducing loss that resulted in accidents.

The rest of this paper is structured as follows. Section 2 introduces a typical regional evacuation caused by a poisonous gas leakage accident and studies the process of evacuation warning diffusion in this evacuation by gathering data using questionnaires. The sources and transmission routes of evacuation warnings are analyzed in Section 3, and the effects of different diffusion methods on public evacuation are studied. In Section 4, we select two other large-scale regional evacuation cases to analyze the efficiency of evacuation warning diffusion in chemical accidents. In addition, we attempt to clarify the relationship between the diffusion of evacuation warnings and the public evacuation rate based on three large-scale regional evacuation cases. Section 5 concludes the paper.

Value of Statistical Life (VSL) $9,200,000 per fatality ($2013) Guidance on Treatment of the Economic Value of a Statistical Life in U.S. … Accident data (particularly those provided through law enforcement records) are typically reported as a single number (e.g. “X number of

May 19, 2021


The hazardous nature of the chemical materials is of significant concern in the economic viability of rail transportation globally. The potential risks of these materials to cause severe health impairments and catastrophic accidents have been widely studied and reported. Moreover, several models have been employed for assessing the risks associated with transporting hazardous materials by rail. However, a more holistic, quantitative, and robust model should incorporate more potential risk-triggered criteria, especially those causing severe health loss and devastating consequences like vapor cloud explosion. This study develops a risk assessment model by incorporating potential health risk factors and the obstacle circumstances. The potential risk factors are population density, route distance from residential areas, and the availability of sensitive third parties for health consequences. The proposed model utilizes Bayesian networks for causality modeling of the material release scenarios and fuzzy set theory for estimating the health effects and severity impact coefficient. Finally, individual risk curves and safe distances from the railway are developed. A real rail system for gasoline transportation in Tehran is investigated to evaluate the model’s effectiveness. The study provides panoramic leverages for risk-managed decision-making for safely transporting hazardous material by rail.


Norfolk Southern’s Profits and Accident Rates Rose Before Ohio Derailment

Last month, as Norfolk Southern, one of the largest railroads in North America, reported record operating profits, Alan H. Shaw, its chief executive, told shareholders that the company’s service was “at the best it’s been in more than two years.”About a week later, one of the company’s freight trains derailed in East Palestine, Ohio, forcing a controlled burn of toxic chemicals and the evacuation of hundreds of residents. Another Norfolk Southern train came off the rails near Detroit on Thursday.The accidents were a stark reminder that, even as freight railroad companies have become much more profitable in recent years, accidents, some serious, still regularly occur on the 140,000 miles of track that make up their networks. The rate of accidents on Norfolk Southern’s railway increased in each of the last four years, according to a recent company presentation. The record has worse …

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Feb 15, 2023

Trains are becoming less safe. Why the Ohio derailment disaster could happen more often

Tami Abdollah

  • Norfolk Southern, the company behind the Ohio chemical spill, fought against a new U.S. Department of Transportation safety rule that may have helped limit the impact of this month’s derailment.
  • As railroad operators have faced more competition with long-haul truckers, the major companies have worked to decrease costs, including by cutting the workforce.
  • Overall train length and weight have both grown over the last decade partly in an effort  by companies to be more efficient. But, when an emergency occurs, stopping quickly with heavier, longer trains is far more difficult.

In 2013,train derailment and subsequent fire in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec, killed 47 people and required all but three downtown buildings to be demolished for safety reasons. The following year, derailment in Casselton, North Dakota, spilled nearly 500,000 gallons of crude oil and caused $13.5 million in damage, prompting the Obama administration to push for a new safety rule to govern the transportation of hazardous materials, avoid environmental disasters and save lives.

The effort to create a new safety rule was fought by industry lobbyists, including Norfolk Southern Corp., the Atlanta-based company whose train derailed Feb. 3 in eastern Ohio and spilled chemicals, leaving residents in East Palestine worried about their air, soil and water quality.

The safety rule, issued in 2015, required electronically controlled brakes – which apply braking simultaneously across a train rather than railcar by railcar over a span of secondsto be installed by 2023. However, the rule was narrowly crafted and only applied to certain “high-hazard flammable trains” carrying at least 20 consecutive loaded cars filled with liquids such as crude oil.

The Trump administration repealed the brakes requirement three years later, stating that its cost exceeded its benefits.

A train fire is seen from Melissa Smith's farm in East Palestine, Ohio earlier this month. A train derailment and resulting large fire prompted an evacuation order in the Ohio village near the Pennsylvania state line.Efforts to reduce costs, including lobbying against costly regulation, increasing train lengths, reducing inspection times and making major cuts to the railroad workforce have made trains less safe, labor representatives and industry experts told USA TODAY. That has increased the potential for accidents like the one in Ohio to become more common.

Still, in general, major derailments leading to public evacuations, chemical spills or loss of life are relatively rare compared with the vast amounts of hazmat cargo railroads transit.

We crunched the numbers: How often do train wrecks spill hazardous chemicals into neighborhoods?

Had industry lobbying interests not prevailed on the 2015 rule, the Norfolk Southern Railway train involved in the Feb. 3 derailment may have been equipped with the better braking system, shown in studies to reduce the size of a derailment pile up when emergency braking is applied.

“ECP brakes would have avoided that monster pile up behind the derailed car,” said Steven Ditmeyer, a former senior official at the Federal Railroad Administration. “In fact, depending on when the crew got the (error) notice from the wayside detector, applying the ECP brakes would have stopped everything very quickly.

Norfolk Southern referred questions regarding lobbying against ECP brakes to the industry group the Association of American Railroads for comment.

Association of American Railroads spokeswoman Jessica Kahanek said in an emailed statement that several railroad operators have tested ECP brakes and found them to have a “significant” failure rate and lengthy repair time that makes them impractical.

When such electronically controlled brakes fail, she said, trains become immovable and it can cause major disruptions. So railroads instead space locomotives throughout a train, which can more quickly distribute a brake signal among cars than a single locomotive can, Kahanek said.

What is precision scheduled railroading?

The rule-making saga and its ultimate repeal are emblematic of the politically and financially difficult task of making improvements to the nation’s railroad system, which has left the industry mostly stuck with post-Civil War-era technology in its braking systems, even as other new technologies meant to streamline operations, are adopted.

Railroad operators have seen increasing competition from long-haul truck drivers for transporting goods to such a degree that over the last decades its executives have instituted a business philosophy known as precision scheduled railroading, which focuses on maximizing the use of trains by the individual carload, that has led to longer, heavier trains crisscrossing the nation’s railroad tracks in the name of efficiency and better shareholder returns.

But heavier and longer trains also mean that when something goes awry, the consequences can be far more catastrophic.

The same factors affect the Trucking Industry.  They are making drivers pull two and three trailers at a time and the trailers are getting taller as well.  This makes the risk of accidents on our roadways greatly increased.  It is all about efficiency measured according to the greed of the STAKEHOLDERS!!!

“If you have a very small error of some sort, most often a mechanical failure, you can all of a sudden have a very expensive derailment,” said Karl Ziebarth, a longtime transportation consultant who has contracted for the Federal Railroad Administration.

All of these things (industry trends) together show the pursuit of lower operating ratio (or costs) may spin off in other directions and cause catastrophic failures,” Ziebarth added.

The Ohio National Guard's 52nd Civil Support Team members prepare to enter an incident area to assess remaining hazards with a lightweight inflatable decontamination system in East Palestine, Ohio earlier this month.

The Norfolk Southern train that derailed in East Palestine was carrying flammable liquids, benzene and butyl acrylates, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The tank car carrying butyl acrylates was breached and the entire load was lost in the spill and subsequent fire, according to EPA documentation.

The train also had five derailed tank cars of vinyl chloride, a flammable gas not captured by the Obama-era rule despite efforts by the National Transportation Safety Board at the time to have the agency adopt a broader definition for high-hazard flammable trains that would include those carrying flammable gasses.

The derailed Norfolk Southern train in Ohio resulted in large plumes of black smoke over the rural 5,000-person community, as crews did a “controlled release” of the hazardous materials on board to avoid an explosion. Residents were forced to leave their homes for days, and upon returning, complained about the smell in the air, burning in their eyes, and sick animals. Environmental authorities continue to monitor the air quality, and residents and business owners have banded together in a federal class-action lawsuit accusing Norfolk Southern of negligence.

In a Norfolk Southern 2015 lobbying disclosure, the company noted that it lobbied both Congress and the executive agencies working on the Department of Transportation rule, and “opposed additional speed limitations and requiring ECP brakes.”

Norfolk Southern’s vice president of government relations, Rudy Husband, told Pennsylvania lawmakers in June 2015 that while the rail industry would comply with the new rule, it has “serious concerns about the ECP brake requirements and the potential adverse impacts on the fluidity of the national freight network.”

‘Very long trains’ emerge amid efforts to increase profits

In the company’s 2021 annual report, Norfolk Southern Corp. told investors it had concluded its three-year plan to transform into a more “innovative and efficient railroad,”reaching record levels of productivityacross its operations, including increasing average train weight by 21% and train length by 20%.

The Atlanta-based company’s railway subsidiary operates across 22 states and Washington, D.C., but it’s not the only company with trains that have grown in length.

Average train lengths in 2017 were between 1.2 and 1.4 miles, according to data provided by two major railroads to the U.S. Government Accountability Office, an increase of 25% since 2008. And the Association of American Railroads found that most trains have grown by roughly 2,700 feet, or 26 additional cars per train, over the past decade.

A black plume rises over East Palestine, Ohio, as a result of a controlled detonation of a portion of the derailed Norfolk Southern train.

Norfolk Southern’s train in Ohio, at roughly 150 cars long, stretched nearly 1.9 miles,the company said. Preliminary indications are that a wheel bearing in the final stage of overheat failure occurred moments before the derailment and may have caused the crash, the NTSB said Tuesday. The train’s crew received an alarm from a wayside defect detector – a sensor often integrated into railroad tracks to detect problems along the way – shortly before the derailment indicating a mechanical issue and then an emergency brake application was initiated, according to the NTSB.

The labor union, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen, has noted that very long trains can lead to interruptions in radio communications with crew members or wayside defect detectors. There are no regulatory standards for wayside detectors. The labor union also noted in a presentation last month that very long trains can impact braking performance, decrease time for thorough inspections and increase the likelihood of catastrophic derailments.

The Federal Railroad Administration does not place limits on freight train length, but the agency states in documents that “existing safety issues may be exacerbated as train length continues,” including insufficient time for human inspection of rail cars, losing communication with equipment and people, and wearing out equipment more quickly.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine is now studying the impacts of trains longer than 7,500 feet, with federal officials looking to see if new regulations are necessary. That study is expected to be completed in November, according to the Federal Railroad Administration.

Freight train cars sit in a Norfolk Southern rail yard in 2022 in Alanta. President Joe Biden said then that a tentative railway labor agreement has been reached, averting a strike that could have been devastating to the economy before pivotal midterm elections.

Having fewer and longer trains means data about overall railroad accidents can make it appear as if there have been fewer accidents over the past decade. But a USA TODAY analysis of federal safety data by rate of train accidents per million train miles shows that the rate of accidents has been ticking up for Norfolk Southern progressively over the past decade. So too have the numbers around hazmat cars damaged or derailed, with 14 damaged or derailed in 2012, a peak of 117 in 2020 and 85 in 2021.


Norfolk Southern’s  Thoroughbred/Mustang reminds me of the Denver Airport’s BLUE DEMON named BLUECIFER!

Blucifer, The Demon Horse Of DIA  – Luis Jimenez’s “Mustang” sculpture at DIA on Sept. 25, 2019.



mustang | Etymology, origin and meaning of mustang by etymonline
Said to be influenced by the Spanish word mostrenco “straying, wild,” which is probably from mostrar, from Latin monstrare “to show.” Though now feral, the animals are descended from tame horses brought to the Americas by the Spaniards. The brand of automobile was introduced by Ford in 1962. Entries linking to Mustang *meik-

Mustangs | Spirit of the Shrinking West, National Geographic magazine
Mustangs are a mythic symbol of freedom, heroism, romance, limitless possibilities, and the vanishing West. Along with that fantasy, wild horses also embody some of the intractable complexities and contradictions of modern American life. It is believed that two million wild horses roamed the largely unfenced American West in the early 1900s.


Norfolk Southern Railway  is a Class I freight railroad in the United States formed in 1982 with the merger of Norfolk and Western Railway and Southern Railway. With headquarters in Atlanta, the company operates 19,420 route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, and had rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway.Wikipedia

NSC | Norfolk Southern Corp. Company Profile & Executives – WSJ

The company’s services include property leases and sales, wire line or pipeline and fiber optics projects, access prope

Norfolk Southern Railway Company and Consolidated Subsidiaries | Page 6 Issued: October 30, 2019 Effective: November 1, 2020 18.


Norfolk Southern is the namesake and leading subsidiary of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, based in Atlanta, Georgia; it was headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, until 2021Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated in Virginia on July 23, 1980 and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC.


Jan 17, 2023 A maritime county of eastern England bordered by Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, Suffolk and the North Sea.· A language of Norfolk Island. Synonym: Norfuk· An independent city in Virginia, or the naval base (the world’s largest) situated there. A county in Massachusetts; see Norfolk County. An English dukedom. A surname.·A Norfolk jacket. A Norfolk spaniel.
The name ” Norfolk ” derives from terms which meant “the northern people”. It is first mentioned in Anglo-Saxon wills dating from 1043 to 1045 and later as Norðfolc in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (the entry for 1075) and as Nordfolc in the Dome
Company HistoryNorfolk Southern Corporation (NS) is a holding company that owns and operates one of the nation’s biggest railroad systems, the Norfolk Southern Railway Company. Its lines run through 22 states, mostly in the South and East, and extend into Ontario, Canada, covering approximately 21,600 miles of rail.
NS was created in 1982 from the merger of N&W and SOU, both profitable companies. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line, acquired by SOU in 1974, that served primarily North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Norfolk, Virginia.
Sep 9, 2022 Norfolk Southern Company History Timeline 306 Jobs 1980 The company was founded on July 23, 1980 and is headquartered in Norfolk, VA.” 1981 In 1981, Conrail had the first profitable year in its history. 1982 The year before the consummation of the NW-Southern merger in 1982, NW acquired the Illinois Terminal Railroad.spacer
The order requires Norfolk Southern to identify and clean contaminated soil and water resources. (CNN, POOL, FIRESTAR DRONE PHOTOGRAPHY, ERIC WHITING, TMX)
Published: Feb. 21, 2023 at 12:07 PM CST|Updated: Feb. 21, 2023 at 7:01 PM CST
EAST PALESTINE, Ohio (AP) — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ordered Norfolk Southern on Tuesday to pay for the cleanup of the East Palestine, Ohio, train wreck and chemical release as federal regulators took charge of long-term recovery efforts and promised worried residents they won’t be forgotten.

Speaking to reporters near the derailment site, Norfolk Southern’s CEO promised to undertake necessary steps to ensure the long-term health of the community and become a “safer railroad.”

EPA used its authority under the federal Superfund law to order Norfolk Southern to take all available measures to clean up contaminated air and water. It also said the company would be required to reimburse the federal government for a new program to provide cleaning services for impacted residents and businesses.

“Norfolk Southern will pay for cleaning up the mess that they created and the trauma that they inflicted on this community,” EPA Administrator Michael Regan vowed at a news conference in East Palestine. “I know this order cannot undue the nightmare that families in this town have been living with, but it will begin to deliver much-needed justice for the pain that Norfolk Southern has caused

Norfolk Southern CEO Alan Shaw reiterated promises to restore the site and invest in the community.

Jeff Zalick, who lives with his 100-year-old mother just blocks from the derailment site, said he’s waiting for the home to be cleaned before moving back. He said there’s still a chemical smell inside, though not nearly as bad as a week ago.

The walls need scrubbing, and he wants air purifiers installed before allowing his mother back.

“I just want to make sure she’s safe,” he said. “She’s ready to come home. She cries every day.”

“We’ll continue to hold rail companies accountable when they fail to put safety first. But first, we’ve got Norfolk Southern’s mess to clean,” he said. “I want affected residents to know that we’ve got your back.”

Officials are opening a health clinic in East Palestine, Ohio. (CNN, PHOTOGRAPHY MATTERS, FCR SUSPENSION, WKRC, WFMJ, WEWS, AYLA SUE ANTONIAZZI, NTSB)

Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine assured residents they will not be left to handle the aftermath on their own once public attention turns elsewhere.

“We understand that it’s not just about today, it’s not just about two weeks from now,” he said. “People have long-term concerns, and we’re going to do everything we can to stay at this.”

Already, 4,600 yards of contaminated soil and 1.1 million gallons of contaminated water have been removed, DeWine said. But he said Norfolk Southern failed to address the contaminated soil underneath its tracks before repairing them and running freight again. He said the company would have to take the tracks back up and remove the soil.

Pennsylvania Gov. Josh Shapiro blasted Norfolk Southern over what he called its “failed management of this crisis,saying the company chose not to take part in a unified incident command, and provided inaccurate information and conflicting modeling data.

The combination of Norfolk Southern’s corporate greed, incompetence, and lack of concern for our residents is absolutely unacceptable,” said Shapiro, speaking at the news conference with Regan, DeWine and other officials.

Some residents of East Palestine, Ohio, are skeptical about how safe the area is following the toxic train derailment. (Credit: WFMJ, TMX, NTSBGOV, CNN)

Shapiro said his administration had made a criminal referral of Norfolk Southern to the Pennsylvania attorney general’s office. DeWine said Ohio’s attorney general had launched an investigation.

EPA said it has tested indoor air quality at 550 homes so far, with outside air being monitored via aircraft, mobile vans and stationary instruments.

Still, Regan said he is not sure if EPA is testing for dioxin, a carcinogen, as some lawmakers and advocates requested.

Under the so-called Superfund law, EPA has authority to direct those responsible for contamination or hazardous waste to clean it up. EPA can fine the railway up to $70,000 a day if the work is not completed. EPA can also do the work itself if necessary and bill Norfolk Southern triple its costs.

Separately, Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg announced a package of reforms Tuesday and called on railroad operators to take immediate steps to improve safety, such as accelerating the planned upgrade of tank cars.

Norfolk Southern establishes $1 million fund to support East Palestine …


SECOND $1 million is NOTHING in relation to the expenses to the victims!  $1 million used to be a lot of money, but these days…not so much.  When these people sue the company they will be looking at BILLIONS of dollars.

THIRDLY, how ridiculous to call this “Charity” (which is another word for love) on Valentine’s Day, a worldwide celebration of love.  

Feb 14, 2023
Norfolk Southern establishes $1 million fund to support East Palestine community

ATLANTAFeb. 14, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — Norfolk Southern Corporation (NYSE: NSC) today announced it is creating a $1 million charitable fund to be available immediately as one component of its planned support for the community of East Palestine, Ohio. The company will work with state and local leaders to identify where the donations can do the most good.

“We are committed to East Palestine today and in the future,” said Norfolk Southern President and CEO Alan Shaw. “We will be judged by our actions. We are cleaning up the site in an environmentally responsible way, reimbursing residents affected by the derailment, and working with members of the community to identify what is needed to help East Palestine recover and thrive.”

Shaw continued, “This fund allows Norfolk Southern to move quickly to meet their immediate needs. We anticipate making further charitable contributions in East Palestine as conversations continue with local leaders and members of the community.”

The contribution will supplement other efforts to support residents, businesses, and first responders, which include:

  • Distributing more than $1.2 million in financial assistance to nearly 900 families and a number of businesses to cover costs related to the evacuation. Those include reimbursements and cash advancements for lodging, travel, food, clothes, and other related items.
  • Reimbursed the East Palestine Fire Department $220,000 to replace Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) air packs, which allow firefighters to breathe compressed air when responding to fires.
  • Providing more than 100 air purifiers for residents to use in their homes. Air purifiers are also being purchased for the East Palestine municipal building in coordination with the City Manager.
  • Coordinating and funded cleaning and air monitoring services for the East Palestine Elementary and High Schools.
  • Completing more than 400 in-home air tests in conjunction with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In-home air monitoring has not detected substances related to the incident and does not indicate a health risk.

About Norfolk Southern
Since 1827, Norfolk Southern Corporation (NYSE: NSC) and its predecessor companies have moved the goods and materials that drive the U.S. economy. Today, it operates a customer-centric and operations-driven freight transportation network. Committed to furthering sustainability, Norfolk Southern helps its customers avoid 15 million tons of yearly carbon emissions by shipping via rail. Its dedicated team members deliver more than 7 million carloads annually, from agriculture to consumer goods, and is the largest rail shipper of auto products and metals in North America. Norfolk Southern also has the most extensive intermodal network in the eastern U.S., serving a majority of the country’s population and manufacturing base, with connections to every major container port on the Atlantic coast as well as the Gulf of Mexico and Great Lakes. Learn more by visiting www.NorfolkSouthern.com.

SOURCE Norfolk Southern Corporation

For further information: Media Inquiries: Media Relations, 404-420-4444; Investor Inquiries: Luke Nichols, 470-867-4807

52 Wk Range203.65 – 291.55

Watch EPA leader’s message to East Palestine community
EPA Administrator Michael Regan promised to support East Palestine, Ohio, throughout the cleanup after a toxic train derailment.
02:00 – Source: CNN

Editor’s Note: Watch East Palestine, Ohio, residents pose questions to Norfolk Southern CEO Alan Shaw, Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine and EPA Administrator Michael Regan. “A CNN Town Hall: Toxic Train Disaster, Ohio Residents Speak Out” airs tonight at 9 p.m. ET on CNN.

The head of the Environmental Protection Agency threatened expensive consequences if Norfolk Southern fails to fully clean up its toxic train wreck and pay for the fallout in East Palestine, Ohio.

The EPA’s new, legally binding order  set to take effect Thursday“will ensure that Norfolk Southern pays for the mess that they’ve created,” EPA Administrator Michael Regan told CNN on Wednesday.

For weeks, residents have reported a variety of health problems since the Norfolk Southern train carrying toxic chemicals derailed, spewing black clouds of smoke over the community of about 5,000 people.

To help prevent a deadly explosion of vinyl chloride, crews released the toxic chemical into a trench and burned it off.

The EPA cited its authority under CERCLA – the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

On Wednesday, Regan summarized the EPA’s demands to Norfolk Southern:

Number one: They will clean up every single piece of debris, all of the contamination, to EPA specifications and satisfaction,” Regan told CNN.

Number two: They will pay for it – fully pay for it. At any moment, if we have to step in because they refuse to do anything, we will do the cleaning up ourselves. We can fine them up to $70,000 a day,” the EPA chief said.

“And when we recoup our total costs, we can charge them three times of the amount of the cost of the federal government. That is what the law provides.”

While a potential $70,000-a-day fine might sound steep, Norfolk Southern reported a record $4.8 billion operating profit last year.

The company said it’s already been working with the EPA and local crews on the ground since the derailment on February 3.

From day one, I’ve made the commitment that Norfolk Southern is going to remediate the site,” Norfolk Southern President and CEO Alan Shaw told CNN on Tuesday.

to remove or reduce (pollutants, harmful chemicals, etc.):Water damage restoration experts mop up and dry out homes, remediate mold, decontaminate items, and repair damaged structures.
to clean (air, soil, water, etc.) by removing or reducing pollutants, harmful chemicals, etc.:It could cost up to $10 billion to remediate the remaining 6.2 million acres of land and waters damaged by the abandoned mines.
to lessen the effect of; ameliorate:The university’s agreement to remediate harm shall be considered an act of compassion and empathy, not an admission of guilt.

We’re going to do it through continuous long-term air and water monitoring. We’re going to help the residents of this community recover. And we’re going to invest in the long-term health of this community. And we’re going to make Norfolk Southern a safer railroad.”

Norfolk Southern has committed millions of dollars’ worth of financial assistance to East Palestine, including $3.4 million in direct financial assistance to families and a $1 million community assistance fund, the company has said.

The ongoing cleanup efforts include removing contaminated soil and water from under the railroad tracks at the derailment site. The tracks will be lifted to remove that soil, Ohio officials said.

Drone footage shows wreckage from the derailment on February 6.

Gov. Mike DeWine said 4,588 cubic yards of soil and 1.1 million gallons of contaminated water have been removed so far from East Palestine.

The contaminated soil became a point of contention last week after a public document sent to the EPA on February 10 did not list soil removal among completed cleanup activities. It is not yet known what significance or impact the soil that was not removed before the railroad reopened on February 8 will have had on the surrounding areas.

There’s been a concern by citizens, very understandably, that the railroad started, got the tracks back on and started running and the soil under the tracks had not been dealt with,” DeWine said. “That soil will be removed. So the tracks will have to be taken up and that soil will have to be removed.”

And that soil full of contaminants raised up as dust every time a train ran through town.  People could see the cloud of dust.  Now, understand, that dust full of toxins was also carried along with the train spreading the effects of the accident across the country side.  At the same time, as the dust rose up in the air in Palestine, the residents were breathing in the toxins all over again and the dust was falling afresh on their clothing, furnishings, automobiles and homes.  

Ron Fodo with Ohio EPA Emergency Response checks for chemicals that might have settled at the bottom of Leslie Run Creek on Monday.

Preliminary investigative report expected Thursday

The agency has said investigators probing the wreck are reviewing multiple videos. Among them, a clip that shows “what appears to be a wheel bearing in the final stage of overheat failure moments before the derailment,” the NTSB said.

After the first signs of potential wheel bearing overheat appeared on video – and roughly 21 miles before it derailed – the train slowed down dramatically, a new CNN analysis of surveillance video and Department of Transportation documents found.

The train had been traveling at an average speed of 49 miles per hour between Alliance, Ohio, and Salem, Ohio but then slowed down to nearly half that speed between Salem and East Palestine. (CNN calculated the train’s average speed by using surveillance video time stamps that showed the train’s positions at specific points on the track.)

The slowdown was well below the “typical speed range” for a train traveling along that stretch of track, according to documents filed in 2020 with the Federal Railroad Authority.

It’s unclear what prompted that slowdown.

CNN reached out to Norfolk Southern but did not immediately receive a response. NTSB spokesperson Jennifer Gabris told CNN “this information will be part” of Thursday’s preliminary report.

Pennsylvania’s governor announces a criminal referral

The derailment in East Palestine – near the Ohio border with Pennsylvania – led to evacuations in both states.

Now, Pennsylvania Gov. Josh Shapiro claims Norfolk Southern gave officials “inaccurate information” in the days after the toxic wreck.

In sum, Norfolk Southern injected unnecessary risk into this crisis,” Shapiro said Tuesday, and added Pennsylvania environmental officials have made a “criminal referral” against the company.

The Pennsylvania Attorney General’s Office said it has received the referral and “will act quickly to investigate this incident,” gather facts and “make a determination under Pennsylvania law.”

On the Ohio side of the border, the state attorney general is reviewing all actions the law “allows him to take,” Gov. DeWine said.

After the accusations, Norfolk Southern issued a statement to CNN:

Pennsylvania’s governor also said Wednesday he was working to ensure Norfolk Southern “reimburses any fire department that responded to the derailment and needs to replace their equipment.”

‘There is something fundamentally wrong’

The toxic derailment also prompted calls for better rail safety and fueled questions about current laws about the movement of toxic substances.

Ohio’s governor said it’s “absurd” there is no legal requirement that requires Norfolk Southern to notify officials that a train with hazardous materials will travel through the state.

There is something fundamentally wrong when a train like this could come into a state and the current law does not require, despite what they were hauling, does not require them to notify the state or local officials,” DeWine said.

CNN’s Paul P. Murphy, Celina Tebor, Pete Muntean, Kevin Liptak, Artemis Moshtaghian, Chris Isidore, Kristina Sgueglia, Sara Sidner, and Yon Pomrenze contributed to this report.

The Environmental Protection Agency will not test for dioxins as part of their work monitoring an eastern Ohio town after a train carrying hazardous chemicals derailed and cast a large chemical plume into the air, WKBN reported.

A Norfolk Southern train carrying chemicals, including vinyl chloride, derailed on Feb. 3 in East Palestine, Ohio, and a controlled burn was conducted on Feb. 6 to prevent an explosion, which released the chemicals into the air and water. EPA Region 5 administrator Debra Shore said Monday that the agency would not test for dioxins, which are groups of toxic chemical compounds, at the current time, according to WKBN.

Dioxins take a long time to break down and could cause serious health concerns including“cancer, reproductive and developmental problems, damage to the immune system”and can be formed through combustion or burning fuels, according to the EPA’s website.

Dioxins are ubiquitous in the environment. They were here before the accident; they will be here after, and we don’t have baseline information in this area to do a proper test. But, we are talking to our toxicologist and looking into it,” Shore said, WKBN reported.

The EPA has since conducted air and water tests and maintains that the levels are safe; however, residents reported health concerns, such as rashes and headaches, after the derailment. Stephen Lester, science director at the Center for Health, Environment, and Justice, told East Palestine residents at a town hall on Feb. 23 that ignoring dioxins has been “one major mistake” in EPA testing.

Ghislaine Maxwell Reportedly Thrown Into Solitary Confinement After Saying Epstein Was Murdered

The level of dioxin that gets into a body, a person, an animal, a cow, that could lead to health problems is extraordinarily low. It does not take very much,” Lester said, according to WKBN. “I’d be very concerned if I had a farm, especially if I was aware, as some people described in that meeting, that the black cloud from the burning had settle onto their property.”

He alleged the EPA is not testing for dioxins because they would “be put in a place where they have to address it,” but Shore said that the EPA is not currently testing for the compounds because they “don’t have any baseline information about the levels of dioxins which are produced also by wildfires, by backyard grilling, by a host of other things.”“I’ve never heard anybody, any researcher talk about cookouts. Because that’s an infinitesimal concentration, if at all. Because dioxins form not just cause there’s burning, you need a chlorine source,” Lester said.

Ohio Republican Sen. J.D. Vance and Ohio Democratic Sen. Sherrod Brown sent a letter to the EPA on Feb. 18 requesting dioxin testing in East Palestine.

We are concerned that … the burning of large volumes of vinyl chloride may have resulted in the formation of dioxins that may have been dispersed throughout the East Palestine community and potentially a much large[r] area,” the letter said.

Shore confirmed to WKBN the EPA received the letter.

The EPA, Lester, Vance and Brown did not immediately respond to the Daily Caller News Foundation’s request for comment.




Did dioxins spread after the Ohio train derailment?

A look at dioxins, their potential harms and whether they may have been created by burning the vinyl chloride that was on the Norfolk Southern train:


Dioxins refer to a group of toxic chemical compounds that can persist in the environment for long periods, according to the World Health Organization.

They are created through combustion and attach to dust particles, which is how they begin to circulate through an ecosystem.

Residents near the burn could have been exposed to dioxins in the air that landed on their skin or were breathed into their lungs, said Frederick Guengerich, a toxicologist at Vanderbilt University.

Skin exposure to high concentrations can cause what’s known as chloracne — an intense skin inflammation, Guengerich said.  (which many of the residents have experienced.  Young and old.)

But the main pathway that dioxin gets into human bodies is not directly through something burning. It’s through consumption of meat, dairy, fish and shellfish that have become contaminated. That contamination takes time.

That’s why it’s important for the authorities to investigate this site now,” said Ted Schettler, a physician with a public health degree who directs the Science and Environmental Health Network, a coalition of environmental organizations. “Because it’s important to determine the extent to which dioxins are present in the soil and the surrounding area.”


Linda Birnbaum, a leading dioxins researcher, toxicologist and former director of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, said that burning vinyl chloride does create dioxins. Other experts agreed the accident could have created them.

The “tremendous black plume” seen at East Palestine suggests the combustion process left lots of complex carbon compounds behind, said Murray McBride, a Cornell University soil and crop scientist.

McBride said it will be hard to say for sure whether these compounds were released until testing is done where the train cars derailed.

Which is likely why residents, politicians, environmentalists and public health professionals are all calling for state and federal environmental agencies to conduct testing at the derailment site.


Some level of dioxins are already in the environment they can be created by certain industrial processes, or even by people burning trash in their backyards, McBride said.

Once released, dioxins can stick around in soil for decades. They can contaminate plants, including crops. They accumulate up the food chain in oils and other fats.

In East Palestine, it’s possible that soot particles from the plume carried dioxins onto nearby farms, where they could stick to the soil, McBride said.

If you have grazing animals out there in the field, they will pick up some of the dioxins from soil particles,” he said. “And so some of that gets into their bodies, and then that accumulates in fat tissue.”

Eventually, those dioxins could make their way up the food chain to human consumers. Bioaccumulation means that more dioxin can get into humans than what’s found in the environment after the crash.

Animals “don’t metabolize and get rid of dioxins like we do other chemicals,” Schettler said, and dioxin is stored in the fat of animals that humans eat, like fish, and builds up over time, making the health effects worse.


Birnbaum and Schettler agreed that residents have reason for concern about dioxins from this derailment.

Even though they are present in small amounts from other sources, the large amount of vinyl chloride burned off from the train cars could create more than usual, McBride said.

That’s my concern, that there could be an unusual concentration,” he said. “But again, I’m waiting to see if these soils are analyzed.”

It takes between seven and 11 years for dioxins to start to break down in the body of a person or animal. And dioxins have been linked with cancer, developmental problems in children and reproductive issues and infertility in adults, according to the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences.

Still, Guengerich thought that other potential health risks from the derailment — such as concerns that exposure to the vinyl chloride itself could cause cancer — may be more pressing than the possible dioxins: “I wouldn’t put it at the highest level on my list,” he said.

Dr. Maureen Lichtveld, dean of the University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, agreed that vinyl chloride should be of more concern than dioxins for the public and said that even the mental health of a community rocked by the catastrophic derailment should be a higher public health priority than dioxin exposure.

As with many environmental exposures, it would be hard to prove any dioxin present came from the derailment.I think that it would be virtually impossible …. to attribute any presence of dioxin to this particular burn,” she said.   HOGWASH – if there are extremely high levels o dioxins in the area it is totally reasonable to ASSUME it cam from the incident.

But most experts thought it was important to test the soils for dioxins even though that process can be difficult and costly.

The conditions are absolutely right for dioxins to have been formed,” Schettler said. “It’s going to be terribly important to determine that from a public health perspective, and to reassure the community.”


They are Killing Us 02/28/2023

From killing our cattle to setting fire to food processing plants, what comes next will shock you. Lab grown meat backed by Bill Gates contains Cancer Cells and Giant Eagle removes bottled water produced by company using spring in same country as East Palestine train derailment.

00:00 – Kill Every Buffalo and Shooting Cows
04:08 – Massive Fires
06:42 – Chemical Acid Spill
10:28 – Bacteria Testing for Miami Bottled Water
13:25 – Corn Imports
14:30 – Meat has Cancer cells
18:13 – U.S. Pandemic Policies
20:39 – Smart Cities

Visit us online at:


East Palestine train derailment: Contaminated waste shipments resume

Crews aerate water from Leslie Creek (left) and Sulphur Run where they come together in East Palestine City Park. Water expert Robert W. Bowcock said it appears crews are “airstriping” the water to get the vinyl chloride out of the water because the town has five drinking water wells located in the park. Bowman spoke at a Feb. 24 event sponsored by several attorneys explaining how the legal system works in these environmental disaster cases. A Feb. 3 train derailment has had toxic ramifications for the Columbiana County community.
Doral Chenoweth/The Columbus Dispatch
East Palestine residents fill the East Palestine High School auditorium as Erin Brockovich and others held a Justice for East Palestine event Friday, Feb. 24, 2023. More than 2,500 people attended. A Feb. 3 train derailment has had toxic ramifications ever since. Attorneys Tom Bevan, Mikal Watts and Alicia O’Neill also attended.

Most East Palestine students in class:  Parents are concerned about effects on kids

Water quality in East Palestine:  Ohio officials say water is safe. But where’s the full data?

EPA-certified facilities able to accept some of the waste had been identified, which meant shipments could restart Monday, Region 5 administrator Debra Shore, of the Environmental Protection Agency, said Sunday.

East Palestine cleanup ‘can continue at a rapid pace’

“All of this is great news for the people of East Palestine and the surrounding community, because it means cleanup can continue at a rapid pace,” she said.

The Ohio governor’s office said Saturday night that five of the 20 truckloads (approximately 280 tons) of hazardous solid waste had been returned to East Palestine after 15 truckloads were disposed of at a Michigan hazardous waste treatment and disposal facility. Shore said material shipped out to sites in other states, but later returned to East Palestine, would now be shipped to the two Ohio sites.

All of the rail cars except for the 11 cars held by the National Transportation Safety Board have been removed from the site, which will allow excavation of additional contaminated soil and installation of monitoring wells to check for groundwater contamination, said Anne Vogel, director of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency.

Federal and state officials have repeatedly said it’s safe for evacuated residents to return to the area and that air testing in the town and inside hundreds of homes hasn’t detected any concerning levels of contaminants. The state says the local municipal drinking water system is safe, and bottled water is available for those with private wells. Despite those assurances, many residents have expressed a sense of mistrust or have lingering questions about what they have been exposed to and how it will impact the future of their families and communities.



Image: East Palestine residents are seething over authorities downplaying extent of train derailment chemical release; “don’t tell me it’s safe”

(Natural News)
The residents of the small town of East Palestine, Ohio, which is unquestionably Trump Country, are increasingly complaining of worsening health issues following a massive chemical spill and burn-off after a train derailed there on Feb. 3.

As a result of the Norfolk South train derailment and toxic explosion, Wade Lovett has been experiencing difficulty breathing. In fact, his voice now resembles that of someone who has inhaled helium, the New York Post reports.

Doctors say I definitely have the chemicals in me but there’s no one in town who can run the toxicological tests to find out which ones they are,” Lovett, 40, an auto detailer, told The Post in a very high-pitched voice. “My voice sounds like Mickey Mouse. My normal voice is low. It’s hard to breathe, especially at night. My chest hurts so much at night I feel like I’m drowning. I cough up phlegm a lot. I lost my job because the doctor won’t release me to go to work.”

Despite struggling with health issues, Wade Lovett and his fiancée, Tawnya Irwin, aged 45, spent last Thursday distributing bottled water to residents affected by the train derailment, The Post reported. They collected fresh supplies of water from a residence on East Clark Street, which has become the center of East Palestine’s grassroots campaign to combat the upheaval caused by the disaster, affecting approximately 4,700 individuals and their pets, the outlet said.

At the forefront of the fight for their community is 46-year-old Jami Cozza, a lifelong resident of East Palestine who has 47 close relatives living in the area. Many of them are grappling with health problems resulting from the chemical fire, as well as the emotional burden of their town being dubbed the new “Love Canal” by a scientist who visited the area on Thursday. The Love Canal was a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, that gained notoriety in 1978 because individuals were falling sick due to residing above a contaminated waste site, the outlet’s report continued, adding:

Her eyes fill with tears when she talks about how her 91-year-old widowed grandmother tried to clean the chemicals off the furniture in the house she’s lived in for 56 years — before giving up and moving to a hotel room where she can’t sleep at night.

Evacuation orders were lifted on February 8, but many locals say they got unexplained rashes and sore throats when they returned home. The creeks that dot the town still ripple with the telltale rainbow color of contamination if you throw a rock in them. 

Meanwhile, The Wall Street Journal reports that there are increasing concerns about food production in the area being tainted for years to come.

In recent days, social media has become a platform for people to voice their concerns regarding the broader chemical impacts of the disaster. Several individuals took to Facebook to inquire about the safety of drinking Giant Eagle water bottled in the southern region of East Palestine.

Some claimed to have contacted the company directly to voice their concerns. In response, the grocery chain announced on Tuesday that it would remove water items bottled in Salineville, Ohio, located roughly 25 miles from East Palestine, from their store shelves, the outlet noted.

According to an independent assessment of Environmental Protection Agency data carried out by Texas A&M University, nine air pollutants have been identified at levels that may lead to long-term health concerns in and around East Palestine. The findings, released on Friday, appear to contradict previous assertions made by state and federal regulators regarding the air’s safety in the area.

“Not only am I fighting for my family’s life, but I feel like I’m fighting for the whole town’s life. When I’m walking around hearing these stories, they’re not from people. They’re from my family. They’re from my friends that I have grown up with,” Cozza told The Post. “People are desperate right now. We’re dying slowly. They’re poisoning us slowly.

Sources include:





I am convinced that they fully intended to create an experiment/case study in East Palestine in order to collect data to feed to AI for the purpose of re-evaluating the VSL for determining future laws and regulations as well as policies and procedures for their holding companies for the structure of their global economy.  They plan to monitor these folks an the surrounding area on-going. 

I also believe that they meant to devastate the agricultural area surrounding East Palestine, killing livestock, marine creatures and poisoning the plant life.  They are destroying our food sources both to depopulate and to gain control via starvation. 

The “THEY” referenced are the GLOBALISTS.  Which includes the rich elite as well as those who join them in their plot to take control of the WORLD.